to keep track of swimmers and.

Lifeguard Assistance An ApplicationforSwimmers, Surfers &Lifeguards 1.0 Description (group) The goal of the Lifeguard Assistance Application is to make everyone’s stay at the beach much safer. The application helps the lifeguards to keep track of swimmers and surfers better and therefore to react faster and in a more structured way when their help is needed. Even if people are pretty far outside – where a person usually wouldn’t see them with just its eyes – they can be rescued in an emergency, since their position is known to the lifeguards. For surfers and swimmers, this means, that they can enjoy the water much more and can feel safe at every time. They can also quickly call a lifeguard in an emergency, which wouldn’t be otherwise always possible. The application consists of two main parts: A wearable tracker for the swimmers and surfers and an application for monitoring them, which is used by the lifeguards – on their mobile phones as well as on a screen at the lifeguard station. The architecture of the mobile application consists of three stages. Data Gathering/Deployment, Data Transmission and Data Presentation. The first Stage will gather information from a GPS sensor and an SOS button on the wearable, the first one will track the current position of the swimmers/surfers and the second one could be used in case of an emergency as a special SOS call to notify the lifeguards immediately and to launch the rescue. Bi-directional communication will allow the lifeguard sends a warning signal to the wearable, which will vibrate in case of the swimmers and surfers needs to leave the water, due to a sighted shark, a thunder storm or something similar. In this case, it is important that the swimmers and surfers keep calm, but move out of the water as fast as possible. The Data Transmission Stage will consist of a ZigBee Mesh Network deployed on the surface of the ocean. Transceivers placed on buoys will route the traffic to the corresponding Server Station on the current shore, which will act as a gateway to route the gathered data from the beach to the Cloud. On Stage three a Web and Mobile App will be built to display valuable information to the lifeguards and swimmers/surfers as well as allow the interaction between them in case they need it. The application for the lifeguards’ monitors and keeps track of the swimmers and surfers via their transmitted GPS positions. The lifeguards can quickly recognize if someone’s close to a dangerous area (e. g., a RIP current, coral reef or some big rocks under the water). If that’s the case, the lifeguards can send someone near that position as a precaution – or at least keep that person under close observation. Moreover, the application allows the lifeguards to broadcast a vibrating signal to all nearby wearables, to indicate that the water isn’t safe anymore – as mentioned earlier because of sighted sharks or inclement weather conditions. Additionally, if someone presses the SOS button, the lifeguards will get a push notification on their phones and the monitor, showing the current position of the one in need (e. g., by a blinking and bigger dot compared to the other ones). As an extended feature, the position of each person could be colored differently according to their level of experience (e.g., beginner, professionals). The different skill levels would also help the lifeguards, for example, to check if someone with bad swimming abilities is too far in the water. Each lifeguard station can be readily equipped with a monitor, and each surfer will have access through a mobile phone, installing the application on them. Regarding the wearables, two different approaches can be realized: Either the wearables can be rent at the lifeguard station just for the short stay at the beach, or they can be bought by everyone for their usage. The second solution would be cheaper and much safer in the long run: The people could use the wearable for every beach they visit and can easily connect to the current lifeguard station. In the future, this application could be a safety standard on all beaches around the world. 2.0 Analysis (12883385) As stated in last year’s National Drowning Report (2016) by Royal Life Saving, 280 people drowned. Compared to the years before, the number of drowned people has increased a little bit but is, in general, lower than the average of the last decade. From the 280 people who drowned, 83 percent were male. Moreover, 26 percent drowned while swimming and recreating. The largest number of drowning deaths occurred among people aged 25 to 34, and the location with the greatest number of drowning deaths were beaches (National Drowning Report 2016). The exact reasons for all the drownings are unknown; however one of the highest causes of drowning deaths are due to rip currents (Stephens 2017). Many organizations have been trying to fight against the increasing number of drowning deaths by developing apps, which shouldmake people more aware of rip currents and help to understand the most important beach safety rules. However, all these apps lack interactivity and excitement, since they are just like a book. Although they include vital pieces of information, they aren’t able to catch the peoples interest in the long term. Some examples are PocketPatrol (Samsung 2017), Beachsafe (Surf Life Saving Australia 2015) and Beach Safety (mysurfworld.com 2013). PocketPatrol helps to locate rip currents and other hazards by using augmented reality. However, it is only available for Android and a trial version on some selected Sunshine Coast beaches (Samsung 2017). Beachsafe provides information about different beaches, for example, their hazards, conditions and patrol service information (Surf Life Saving Australia 2015). Furthermore, Beach Safety is an education application only for iPhones and provides general information about rip currents, stingers, and sharks (mysurfworld.com 2013). Surf Life Saving has also developed some applications, which are only intendedfor patrolling members, to identify hazards, to give thememberssome safety recommendations and to assist in the risk management process (Surf Life Saving Australia 2013). However, none of the mentioned applications combines the work of the lifeguards with the visitors of the beach: The swimmers and surfers. Our goal is to use advanced technology to further promote beach safety by combating the weaknesses of the current applications and combining the work of the lifeguards with the swimmers and surfers. Our application is the only one that connects the people in the water with the lifeguards outside. The application will help both swimmers and lifeguards: The swimmers in case of an emergency since even if they black out or ifthey are under water, their exact location will be known. The lifeguards to keep track of all the swimmers, even if they were distracted for a short moment, they wouldn’t miss an emergency due to the notification feature. 3.0 Technologies 3.1 Review (99180212) Overtime wireless technologies have been positioning over wired networks due to its mobility features. Nowadays we can find wireless sensors and transceivers in plenty of wearables and IoT devices that are part of our daily living. To build the Lifeguard Assistance Application three wireless technologies has been choosing to gather the location data and transmit it to the server station. In the first stage of our project, GPS technology will provide the user with the device location. In in the second stage, two solutions will be studied to be deployed on the beaches. GSM data transmission on beaches where the coverage network is enough and a full deployment of a ZigBee Mesh Network where there is no GSM Network coverage. As a main source of data, we choose to gather user location using the Global Positioning System GPS. GPS devices are one of the most famous wireless technologies already deployed on every smart phone, and it is an important component in the upcoming smart wearable devices (TheNewDaily 2017). It allows to track user’s location and build a broad range of app
lications to improve daily activities like recording morning jogs, locate cars or as simple as finding an address. A GPS device gets its location anywhere on the earth as long as the device has line of sight to three or more GPS satellites, which suits perfectly for this project. Usually, GPS receivers have been combined with GSM Networks to transmit the device location to remote servers. This solution can be implemented in this project if the beach or at least a big portion of the swimming area is contained inside the coverage of a Base Station.According to the 3gpp (2017), 2.5G Data Service (known as GPRS – General Packet Radio Service) can reach 40kbps in the uplink and 14kbps in the downlink.Since the major purpose of this project is the transmission of the location of the swimmer and short basic pre-arranged signals (indicating warning alarms),GPRS should be enough to track the swimmers. Advance technologies like HSPA+ or LTE will be needed in the beach to allow lifeguards the deployment of the mobile App on their smartphones as well as the download of online Maps. Due to the uncertainty of the coverage area of the swimming areas on some beaches and the costs of the data plans to the private telecommunicationcompanies, this project proposes an alternative implementation to transmit the data and allow interaction between the swimmers and the lifeguards.A ZigBee Mesh Network could be deployed as a backup. It will take advantage of the low power consumption capabilities, scalability and mobility of ZigBee Technology. This IEEE 802.15.4 Standard has been used to build home automation and industrial control applications as well as medical assistance services due to its suitability to construct WPAN Networks (Wang et al. 2007). ZigBee technology easily can increase the coverage range of a network. Each node can act as a router or as an end device. In this case, more swimmers on the beach mean more network coverage and more network stability.ZigBee can reach 250kbps making suitable to transmit the location, and the warning signalsof the swimmer. The coverage range of a single node is 100 meters, and the network size could be up to 65000 nodes; enough values to allow the swimmers to interact with the lifeguards in case they are needed it(Pocket-lint 2017). These previous technologies have their advantages and disadvantages compare with other technologies, and they will be studied in the next section to pick the most efficient ones in a real scenario to deploy the Lifeguard Assistance App an Application for Swimmers, Surfers & Lifeguards   3.2 Discussion (12761666) The development of the lifeguard app would be a turning stone in the safety protocols that have implemented in the water bodies. The swimming would be much more secure, and the expansion of the technology would allow the people to take up swimming even in the areas outside the regular swimming pools and closed boundary water bodies. It may allow the real-time swimming experience in the large water bodies, and the technology that has been proposed to implement in the project would enable the communication between the swimmer and the life guard possible in all circumstances. It opposes that the GPRS technology is used in the device, So that the current location can be transmitted to the life guard using the wearable device attached to the swimmer. (Gennarelli, 2017) The data of the collation is to collect with the help of a portal and small GPS device, which would determine the latitude and longitude coordinated of the swimmer in the real time. (Hamrick, 2017) A constant data stream can establish between the life guard app and the device that is attached to the swimmer. The current location would be available at all times to the life guard, and as soon as the SOS asks for, the necessary steps are aware for the safety of a swimmer. In this device, a use of backup technology for the communication, which would be possible in the locations where a mobile network is not available, is also proposed. The use of the ZigBee Mesh Technology would allow for the communication between the app and the device even when the mobile network for GPRS is not present in the location. It Would ensure the safety of the swimmer even in remote areas. As a simple ZigBee device has a small coverage area (about 100m) as compared to the size of the water body was targeted for this project. Hence, a mesh of the device has been proposed to use, which would allow for the coverage of the entire area. It Means that the area would be covered with multiple ZigBee devices, connected to each other as nodes. (Kim, 2017) The data stream from the wearable device attached to swimmer will read from the ZigBee node nearest to the swimmer, and the route will be followed to transmit the same to the app that is held by the life guard. The guard will be able to determine the location of the swimmer using the GSP, and they could take the necessary action. The approximate cost analysis of the devices based on the price of the individual components in the tool are listed below: 1. GPS GPS can be bought online for a particular gadget. The approximate cost of a GPS for an embedded system would be $95. 2. GPRS Module The GPRS module can be purchased based on the network configuration. The approximate cost would be $50. 3. ZigBee Device To create ZigBee Mesh, ZigBee Devices can be purchased individually at the cost of $32 per device.  5.0 References National Drowning Report 2016, Royal Life Saving, Australia, September 2016, viewed 2 September 2017, . Stephens, K. 2017, ‘Two in threepeoplecan’tidentify a rip, Surf Life SavingAustraliasays, after horrorsummerofdrownings’,news.com.au, 12 January, viewed 2 September 2017, . Samsung 2017, Launching People #PocketPatrol, viewed 4 September 2017, . mysurfworld.com 2013, Beach Safety App, viewed 4 September 2017, . Surf Life SavingAustralia 2015, Beachsafe App – SLS Beachsafe, viewed 4 September 2017, . Surf Life SavingAustralia 2013, Surf Life SavingAustrlia a Frontrunner in Smartphone App Development, viewed 4 September 2017, . 3gpp 2017, GPRS & EDGE, viewed 6 September 2017, . Pocket-lint 2017, ZigBee and others explained – Pocket-lint, viewed 6 September 2017, . TheNewDaily 2017, Smart devices: The future of wearables, viewed 6 September 2017, . Wang, C.C., Huang, J.M., Lee, L.H., Wang, S.H. & Li, C.P. 2007, ‘A Low-Power 2.45 GHz ZigBee Transceiver for Wearable Personal Medical Devices in WPAN’, 2007 Digest of Technical Papers International Conference on Consumer Electronics, pp. 1-2. My references (12761666) Hamrick, M. R., &Ingman, R. M. (2017). U.S. Patent No. 9,734,698. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Gennarelli, G., Catapano, I., &Soldovieri, F. (2017). Reconstruction Capabilities of Down-Looking Airborne GPRs: the Single Frequency Case. IEEE Transactions on Computational Imaging. Kim, S. H., Chong, P. K., & Kim, T. (2017). Performance Study of Routing Protocols in ZigBee Wireless Mesh Networks. Wireless Personal Communications, 95(2), 1829-1853.

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