The Role of Emotion and Culture

Emotional Intelligence,
Cultural Intelligence and
Workshop Week 2
The Role of Emotion and Culture
for Sustainable Change

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Last Week’s Recap
• We learnt that the many forces of globalisation have
accelerated the pace of change.
• It is creating a new identity of people known as
who, in embracing a global mindset, are concerned
with important issues pertaining to human wellbeing and the
sustainability of the planet.
• With
deep learning we can enhance our collective
awareness to raise consciousness about the transformations
taking place.
Emotional and cultural intelligence are important skills to
reflect on the possibilities and dangers in this age of

Many Perspectives on Global
“The world is my country, all mankind are my brethren, and to do
good is my religion.”
Thomas Paine, American Revolutionary, (AD1776)
“I am not a citizen of the world. I think the entire concept is
intellectual nonsense and stunningly dangerous!”
Newt Gingrich, American Politician (AD2009)
“We will no longer surrender this country or its people to the
false song of globalism.”
Donald Trump, President of the United States (AD2016)
“We are obliged to know we are global citizens. Disasters
remind us we are world citizens, whether we like it or not.”
Maya Angelou, American Poet and Civil Rights Activist
“I am a citizen of the
Diogenes, Greek Philosopher (412 BC)
Workshop Objectives
• What is self-awareness?
• How can you become more self-aware?
• Understanding:
– Positive and negative affect
– Emotional labour
– Intrinsic motivation
• Strengths and weaknesses
• The Johari Window

• The ancient dictum “Know thyself” has
been attributed to great Western thinkers –
Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato etc.

Eastern Wisdom…
“The purpose of life is …to
know oneself. We cannot do so
unless we learn to identify
ourselves with all that lives.”
Mohandas K Gandhi
• Self-awareness is one of the key attributes that
distinguishes human beings from animals.
• Being self-aware is about having a clear understanding of
“how others perceive you, evaluating yourself and your
actions according to collective beliefs and values, and
caring about how others evaluate you.”
(Baumeister 2005)
• It therefore comprises two components: (Taylor 2010)
– How you see yourself
– The accuracy with which you detect how others see you

• Write down three words that you would use to describe yourself.
Use positive words only.
• Now form groups of three, four or five people.
• On a sheet of paper, write down one word that you feel best
describes each person in your group. Use positive words only.
• Share the words that you wrote down about each other.
• Were the words that your colleagues wrote about you similar to the
words you wrote about yourself?
• If so, that’s one sign of self-awareness.

• Self-awareness “reflects the importance of
recognising one’s own
feelings and how they
affect one’s performance.”
• It is key to “realising one’s own
and weaknesses
• We will now explore each of those
components in more detail.
Cherniss and Goleman, 2001
Your own Feelings
• That sounds like a wishy-washy, touchy-feely concept, doesn’t it?
• Well, it isn’t. Research has proven that being aware of your own
feelings often results in significant work-related outcomes (Brief and
Weiss 2002), such as:
– Stronger performance
– Better judgements
– Creative problem solving
– Successful negotiations
• The question, though, is how?
Activity: Each group will be allocated one of the outcomes noted
above. In your group, identify at least five ways that self-awareness
of your feelings could generate those results at work.

More on Feelings
• There are several feelings-related
concepts of which you need to be aware.
These include:
– Positive affect and negative affect
– Emotional labour
– Intrinsic motivation
• We will now explore each of these in turn.
Positive Affect
• Does success lead to happiness? Or does happiness lead to
• Many scholars suggest the answer is the latter via a psychological
trait known as ‘positive affect’.
• Hold on, was that a typo? Should it be ‘effect’ rather than ‘affect’?
• No! Positive affect – with an a – is the term used to describe
ongoing enjoyment, contentment, interest and satisfaction.
• It reflects “the extent to which a person feels enthusiastic, active,
and alert. High PA is a state of high energy, full concentration, and
pleasurable engagement”.
Watson, Clark and Tellegen, 1988
Negative Affect
• In contrast, negative affect is “a general dimension of
subjective distress and unpleasurable engagement.”
• This includes “a variety of aversive mood states,
including anger, contempt, disgust, guilt, fear, and
• With such stark differences between positive affect
and negative affect, you can probably see why
voluminous amounts of research have discovered that
positive affect results in numerous work-related
advantages, such as those listed on an earlier slide.
Watson, Clark and Tellegen, 1988
Affect: an Activity
• So, let’s explore this further.
• Are you more inclined towards positive affect? Or
do you lean more towards negative affect?
• The most widely used measure of PA and NA is
known as The PANAS.
• Follow the instructions on the next slide to see
which of the two characterises you the most.
Watson, Clark and Tellegen, 1988
Watson, Clark and Tellegen, 1988
For each of the following characteristics, rate yourself accordingly based on how you feel
overall when you’re at work.
This is completely confidential. No one will see your

Positive and Negative Affect
• So, does this mean that positive affect is always good and negative
affect is always bad?
• No, sometimes there are downsides to positive affect and upsides to
negative effect. For example, research has shown (Forgas 2011) that
negative affect can result in:
More articulate communication
Fewer errors
Better decision-making
Less gullibility
Clearer thinking
Activity: Why is that? In groups discuss how it’s possible for negative
affect to occasionally be positive.

Positive and Negative Affect
• The lesson to take away from this is simply to be self-aware.
• If you’re aware that you’re a
positive affect type of person, just be
conscious that there’s a risk you may be prone to over-optimism,
otherwise known as a rose-tinted view of life, which means you may
overlook critical signs of trouble on the horizon.
• Likewise, if you’re aware you’re a
negative affect type of person, just
know there’ll be times when you’ll have to force yourself into positivity
for the sake of your colleagues, employees, managers and customers.
• The more self-aware you are, the more easily you’ll
adapt to the
myriad situations that the modern workplace generates.

Emotional Labour
• Emotional labour is the term used to describe the management of your
emotions for the purposes of work.
• For example, you might be feeling lethargic and sad. Emotional labour
is when, despite your own emotions, you nonetheless try to instill a
sense of happiness or calmness in other stakeholders. These
stakeholders will most often be customers or employees.
• As a result, you’re likely to engage in something known as
There are two types of emotional acting:
Surface acting
Deep acting
Hochschild, 1983
Surface Acting
Grandey, 2003
• Surface acting is when you mask your emotions.
• It involves modifying your external displays of
communication (such as facial expressions and body
language) without also modifying your inner feelings.
• “Doing this entails experiencing emotional dissonance,
or the tension felt when expressions and feelings
• Research has shown this can result in emotional
exhaustion, burnout, depression, negative reactions
from others, and perceptions of inauthenticity.

Deep Acting
Grandey, 2003
• Deep acting is when you modify your internal
feelings to match your external disposition.
• This results in greater levels of authenticity.
• Deep acting has “the power to convince an
audience” (i.e. your customers, employees and
other stakeholders).
• Even though it takes effort to engage in deep
acting, it does not lead to emotional exhaustion or
emotional dissonance.

Activity: Deep Acting
• In this subject, and many others, you will be required
to complete group assignments.
• This will involve
emotional labour, which means you’ll
have a choice to either engage in surface acting or
deep acting.
• To prepare you for this inevitability, in your groups
answer the following questions:
– What emotional labour are you likely to encounter?
– When are you most likely to experience it?
– And most importantly: How will you use
deep acting to
deal with these emotional demands?

Self-Determination Theory
• “Perhaps no single phenomenon reflects the positive
potential of human nature as much as intrinsic
• That quotation is by Professors Richard Ryan and
Edward Deci (2000), the pioneers of self-determination
theory (SDT).
• SDT comprises intrinsic motivation and extrinsic
motivation. But what’s the difference?
Activity: In your groups, come up with a list of intrinsic
motivators and extrinsic motivators.

Intrinsic Motivation
• For the purpose of this workshop, we will
focus briefly only on intrinsic motivation.
• Why is that? Because it can be difficult for
you to control extrinsic motivation, since
those are tangible rewards often gifted to
you by an employer.
• Intrinsic motivation, though, can be far
more heavily influenced by you.

The Seven Intrinsic Motivators
Malone and Lepper, 1987
Control Competition

Intrinsic Motivation: an Activity
• The seven intrinsic motivators on the earlier slide were
developed specifically to make learning and development
more stimulating.
• However, they can easily apply to daily intrinsic motivation on
the job.
• Of those seven, identify the one that you feel motivates you
the most.
• Then form groups based on the motivator that unites you.
Answer this question: When you’re feeling unmotivated at
work, how could you use your preferred motivator to lift your
levels of motivation – and positive affect – once again?

Strengths and Weaknesses
• “Our world seems naturally predisposed to tell us in which areas we
are weak.”
• That is why the strengths movement has become a revolution over
the past decade-and-a-half.
• More and more research is discovering that people are happier and
more successful when they try to amplify their strengths than when
they try to improve their weaknesses.
• Adopting the strengths-based approach involves three stages:
1. Identification: What precisely are you good at?
2. Integration: What are you now thinking about and reflecting on?
3. Changed Behaviour: How are you now using your identified skills,
and incorporating your talents, for greater success?
Clifton and Harter, 2003
• Does this mean you should ignore your weaknesses?
• No. It’s important to be aware of them. (There’s that word –
awareness – again.)
• By being aware of your weaknesses, you’re able to improve
them if you have the capacity to do so, so long as you don’t
do it at the expense of your strengths.
• Some weaknesses, though, may never be rectified.
Therefore, by being aware of what they are, you’ll know when
to at least just keep them in check.
• This is precisely where the Johari Window can help.

The Johari Window
• The Johari Window is an information
processing tool.
• It “represents information – feelings,
experience, views, knowledge, attitudes,
skills, intentions, motivation, etc. within or
about a person – in relation to their group,
from four perspectives.”
Luft and Ingham, 1961
The Johari Window
Luft and Ingham, 1961
Your Task for Next Week
• Complete the Johari Window on yourself
by asking people you know for their
• Your aim should be to identify one strength
and one weakness for each quadrant.
• We’ll debrief at the beginning of our next