Cultural Intelligence and
Workshop Week 3
The Different Kinds of
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• Appreciate the historical evolution of
• Understand the Theory of Multiple
• Contrast different learning styles
• Evaluate the importance of MI and
different learning styles for work in a global
• In modern society, few traits are more valued
– It’s linked to job performance
– It’s associated with social advantage including:
• Economic self-sufficiency
• Educational achievement
• Leadership qualities
• Lawful behaviour etc.
What is Intelligence?
• Although intelligence is an age-old concept,
it is highly debated still.
• For example: is intelligence inherited or is it
environmental (nature vs. nurture)?
Activity: In groups, write just one sentence
that you feel best represents what intelligence
means to you. Share your definition with the
rest of the class.
The Theories of Intelligence
• In 1905, Alfred Binet, a French psychologist, developed
measures of intelligences to predict school achievement.
• These became famously known as the Intelligence Quotient
• The IQ tests included a series of tasks such as defining
words, repeating strings of digits and reasoning problems,
and producing designs and patterns.
• These tests, however, had limitations and prejudices. For
example, if a child’s IQ was low, it was commonly believed the
child would remain unintelligent for the rest of his or her life.
• Then, early in the 20th century, psychologist
Charles Spearman developed the ‘g’ factor –
• He was a proponent of the idea that
intelligence was a single measurable entity.
• The ‘g’ factor was a reflection of an
individual’s capacity to engage in complex
• In early 1911, an American psychologist, H.H. Goddard, believed
that intelligence was completely determined through heredity, that it
was fixed and un-changeable.
• He wanted to use IQ tests to segregate the intelligent from the
• Goddard believed people with low IQ had high immorality and
undesirable behaviours and thought criminals were of low
• By 1928 Goddard changed his viewpoint and agreed with Binet that
morons could be trained to be “useful” although he still believed low
intelligence was hereditary.
• Thus he used the IQ test to identify limits, to segregate and prevent
“feeble minded” people and “morons” from breeding and threatening
the American stock from immigration in a climate of fear and racism.
How IQ Tests Were Used
• In World War I, IQ tests were used to assign military
personnel to assign 1.75 million recruits to their
• In 1916, Terman, a professor at Stanford University
revised Binet’s 54 tasks up to 90 tasks and used it for
mass mental testing since he found the IQ test to be
“immediately useful for classifying children”.
• By 1937, after the Great Depression, Terman altered
his theory completely and started to entertain the idea
that intelligence is not hereditary and that
environmental factors actually affect intelligence.
• Have you ever applied for a job for which you were
asked to complete an IQ test?
• It might not have been called an IQ Test but it might
have included components such as logic, problemsolving, language, and numeracy.
• In groups, discuss your experience with these
recruitment tools as either a candidate or as a
recruiter. In particular:
– Do you think they’re effective?
– Did you perform well?
– What are some of the potential downsides?
Early Ideas of Multiple
• 1938, Louis Thurstone developed the Primary
Mental Abilities test, which questioned the
dominant ‘g’ factor.
• Thurstone argued that some children were better
at some activities than others and that both
environment and biology played a part in
• His work gave rise to the theory of multiple
intelligences, later supported by the work of J.P.
Guildford and Howard Gardner.
Activity: In which of these three forms of intelligence do you feel you’re
strongest? Form three groups – one for each intelligence – and join the one that
pertains to you. In your group, come up with five words you feel most accurately
describe your type of intelligence. (You can’t use any of the words on this model.)
Multiple Intelligence Theory
• This theory was made popular by Howard Gardner, a
neuropsychologist in 1983.
• His research discovered that school systems often focus
on a narrow range of intelligence that involves primarily
verbal/linguistic and logical/mathematical skills.
• He suggested that there are at least six other kinds of
intelligence that are important to fuller human
development and that almost everyone has available to
• These include, visual/spatial, bodily/kinaesthetic,
musical, interpersonal, naturalist and intrapersonal
Video: Multiple Intelligences
• Watch this video that explains Gardner’s
• Then, in groups, share with each other which
one you feel best represents you personally.
• What have you now learned about one
another? Will this alter how you work together
in your group assignment?
3 Components of Human
• According to Gardner, human intelligence
comprises three components:
1. A set of skills that enables an individual to resolve
genuine problems encountered in their life.
2. The ability to create effective products or offer a
service that is of value in one’s culture.
3. The potential for finding or creating problems that
enables an individual to acquire new knowledge.
Implications of MI Theory
• Thus intelligence must be viewed in light of
the situation in which the person is occupied
i.e. how people develop skills important to
• Gardner argued that culture and environment
play a key role in determining success in
• He also argues that one’s intelligence can
change and grow over time.
Use the link below to obtain your personal
Multiple Intelligence score:
• My Multiple Intelligence Test
• Form 8 groups based on your most dominant type
• As a group decide on a famous person who you
think best encapsulates the same intelligence style
that you and your group members share.
• Then, a guessing game will begin. Your
classmates will try and guess your intelligence
style based on the famous person you’ve selected.
Learning Styles Theory
• Humans require divergent pathways to reach their
• One such pathway can include teaching/learning
strategies that work well with MI theory.
• VARK is an acronym for visual, aural, read/write,
and kinesthetic learning modalities.
• It is a tool that is easy to use and can give you
information on how to maximise your learning.
• What’s your learning style?
• Complete this test to find out; http://vark-learn.com/the-varkquestionnaire/the-vark-questionnaire-for-younger-people/
… then …
• Form groups with others who share your learning style.
• As a group, teach the rest of the class something – anything –
in a 5-minute power training session.
• But here’s the trick: you can only use the other learning styles
as part of your training delivery.
Why is MI and Learning Styles
Relevant to Business Students?
• As global citizens in a global village, business
students need to gain attitudes and skills that
will enhance their success in the global
business environment such as:
– flexibility and adaptability
– intercultural communication
– collaboration skills
– a sense of urgency
– an ability to compete against, and collaborate
with, a global workforce
Intelligence in Global Business
• Global workers will need to become “versatilists”
rather than specialists according to Gartner Group
(one of the world’s leading consultancies).
• Versatilists are those who possess technological
and technical skills but can also handle many
types of assignments and work with people of
• For example, people in the future won’t just need
technological and technical prowess, they will also
potentially need artistic and creative skills.
Intelligence and Leadership
• Traditional intelligence is also recognised as an important
characteristic of leaders.
• Schmidt and Hunter (1998) reported that intelligence is one of
the best predictors of general job performance.
• The intelligence–performance relationship is stronger for
complex jobs as typically leaders are responsible for complex
tasks such as developing strategies, solving problems,
motivating employees and monitoring the environment.
• But emotional intelligence is just as important – if not more
important – than traditional IQ. And that’s what you’ll learn
more about in next week’s workshop.
• Appreciate the historical evolution of research on
• Understand the eight different intelligences.
• Understand the various learning styles.
• Reflect on the relevance of MI and learning styles for
globalised work environments.
• Next week, we shall explore Emotional Intelligence.