Strategies for Peacekeeping

Multicultural Law Enforcement: Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse Society (5th ed.)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All rights reserved
Community Policing and
Multicultural Response Strategies
for Gangs, the Homeless, and the
Mentally Ill
Chapter 14
Shusta, Levine, Wong, Olson, & Harris –Multicultural Law Enforcement:
Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse Society (5th ed.)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All rights reserved
Community Policing
The police must meet with the community on a regular
basis–not when there is a crisis but before there is a
crisis. It is important that the police and community are
honest and accountable to each other to build a
relationship of trust. The police and community must
share a common goal of respect, cooperation and justice
for all if community policing is to work in a free and
multicultural society.
–A.L. “Skipper” Osborne, Founder/CEO of Truth and Justice for All
and former Chapter President of NAACP (2009)

Shusta, Levine, Wong, Olson, & Harris –Multicultural Law Enforcement:
Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse Society (5th ed.)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All rights reserved
Community Policing
A partnership between the police and the local
community that identifies strategies to reduce
crime, increase traffic safety, and deal with all
other public safety problems
Central to any discussion on multicultural groups
and immigrant populations
Community-oriented policing services (COPS)
became law under Clinton Administration, which
led to creation of COPS Office

Shusta, Levine, Wong, Olson, & Harris –Multicultural Law Enforcement:
Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse Society (5th ed.)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All rights reserved
Major Goals of COPS Office
1. Award grants to tribal, state, and local law enforcement
agencies to hire and train law enforcement officers.
2. Award grants to tribal and local law enforcement agencies
to purchase and use crime reduction technologies.
3. Award grants to tribal and local law enforcement agencies
to develop and test innovative policing strategies.
4. Provide training and technical assistance to advance
community policing to all levels of law enforcement.
5. Provide training and state and local government leaders
and citizens to foster police officers’ interaction with
communities.

Shusta, Levine, Wong, Olson, & Harris –Multicultural Law Enforcement:
Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse Society (5th ed.)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All rights reserved
Benefits of Community Policing
Enables police officers to work with citizens outside
the conventional channels
Allows community members to understand the
“culture” of law enforcement
Encourages new strategies and creative ways of
dealing with crime and peace-keeping

Shusta, Levine, Wong, Olson, & Harris –Multicultural Law Enforcement:
Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse Society (5th ed.)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All rights reserved
Successful Community
Policing in Chicago
Chicago Alternative Policing Strategy (CAPS)
implemented in 1993
Collaboration of police, residents, and other
city agencies to reduce crime
Ongoing meetings and activities with citizens
1998-2007– 34.4 % decline in violent crimes
Shusta, Levine, Wong, Olson, & Harris –Multicultural Law Enforcement:
Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse Society (5th ed.)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All rights reserved
Temporary Offices
Where police officers conduct routine
business
3 types:
Storefront Offices: in business office or
shopping center
Schoolfront Offices: in a school
Neighborhood Offices: in a neighborhood
(apartment complex or business office)

Shusta, Levine, Wong, Olson, & Harris –Multicultural Law Enforcement:
Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse Society (5th ed.)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All rights reserved
Commonalities Among
Community-Policing Programs
Citizenship participation
Police partnership outreach
Police problem solving
Police organizational change
Shusta, Levine, Wong, Olson, & Harris –Multicultural Law Enforcement:
Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse Society (5th ed.)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All rights reserved
Gang Criminal Activities and
Threats
1. Local street gangs largest in number nationwide; most
use violence while committing crimes
2. Gang members moving from urban to suburban/rural
communities
3. Crimes include: alien smuggling, armed robbery, assault,
vehicle theft, drug trafficking, fraud, and murder
4. Gang members are primary distributors of illicit drugs
(some at regional and national levels)

Shusta, Levine, Wong, Olson, & Harris –Multicultural Law Enforcement:
Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse Society (5th ed.)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All rights reserved
Gang Criminal Activities and
Threats
5. Gang members illegally cross U.S.-Mexico border for
smuggling drugs and illegal aliens
6. Many gangs use Internet to recruit new members and
communicate with other members
7. Street gangs and outlaw motorcycle gangs pose a
threat to law enforcement along U.S. borders of
Canada and Mexico

Shusta, Levine, Wong, Olson, & Harris –Multicultural Law Enforcement:
Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse Society (5th ed.)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All rights reserved
Mexican Drug Cartels
Results in flow of drugs across U.S.-Mexico
border
Recent increased violence from drug cartel gang
wars has spread to U.S. and Canada (home
invasions, kidnapping, shootings and other
violent crimes)

Shusta, Levine, Wong, Olson, & Harris –Multicultural Law Enforcement:
Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse Society (5th ed.)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All rights reserved
Types of Gangs
National and Regional Gangs
Gangs in the Military
Street Gangs*
Gangs in Indian Country
Prison gangs*
Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs*
*Most common types of gangs
Shusta, Levine, Wong, Olson, & Harris –Multicultural Law Enforcement:
Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse Society (5th ed.)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All rights reserved
Youth Gangs
Self-formed associations of peers, having 4 features:
3 or more members, generally ages 12 to 24
A name and sense of identity, indicated by style of
clothing, graffiti, tattoos, and hand signs
Some degree of permanence and organization
An elevated level of involvement in delinquent or
criminal activity

Shusta, Levine, Wong, Olson, & Harris –Multicultural Law Enforcement:
Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse Society (5th ed.)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All rights reserved
Risk Factors for Gang Membership
Prior delinquency in violence and alcohol/drug use
Poor family management and problematic parent–child
relations
Low school attachment and academic achievement
Association with peers who engage in delinquency
Neighborhoods where youth are in trouble and where drugs
and firearms are readily available

Shusta, Levine, Wong, Olson, & Harris –Multicultural Law Enforcement:
Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse Society (5th ed.)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All rights reserved
Law Enforcement Strategies to
Reduce Gang Problems
FBI’s National Gang Strategy
FBI’s Safe Streets and Gang Unit
U.S. Department of Justice Office of
Community Oriented Policing (COPS)

Shusta, Levine, Wong, Olson, & Harris –Multicultural Law Enforcement:
Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse Society (5th ed.)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All rights reserved
Largest Gang Arrest in U.S. History
Referred to as “Operation Knock Out”
May 2009, southeast of Los Angeles
1,4000 law enforcement officers arrested 88
Latino gang members
Gang connected to murder of Jerry Ortiz (L.A.
county’s sheriff’s deputy), racially motivated
attacks, and illicit drug trafficking

Shusta, Levine, Wong, Olson, & Harris –Multicultural Law Enforcement:
Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse Society (5th ed.)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All rights reserved
Resources for Law Enforcement
Boys & Girls Clubs of America Gang
Prevention/Intervention Target Outreach
Gang Awareness Training Education (G.A.T.E.)
Gang Resistance Education and Training
(G.R.E.A.T.)
Police Athletic League (PAL)
Shusta, Levine, Wong, Olson, & Harris –Multicultural Law Enforcement:
Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse Society (5th ed.)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All rights reserved
The U.S. Homeless Population
In a 2007 report, the National Law Center
on Homelessness and Poverty (NLCHP)
estimated 3.5 million people, including 1.35
million children, had experienced
homelessness.

Shusta, Levine, Wong, Olson, & Harris –Multicultural Law Enforcement:
Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse Society (5th ed.)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All rights reserved
Race and Family Status
of the Homeless
Family Status
51% single men
30% families with children
17% single women
2% unaccompanied youth
Race
42% African American
39% White
13% Hispanic
4% Native American
2% Asian
Shusta, Levine, Wong, Olson, & Harris –Multicultural Law Enforcement:
Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse Society (5th ed.)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All rights reserved
Quality of Life Concerns
1. Shelter 5. Veterans
2. Homelessness 6. Substance Abuse
3. Poverty 7. Mental Health Issues
4. Working Class 8. Life Span

Shusta, Levine, Wong, Olson, & Harris –Multicultural Law Enforcement:
Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse Society (5th ed.)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All rights reserved
Federal Law Definitions of
Homelessness
Homeless Adult Person: (1) a person who
lacks a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime
residence; (2) a person who resides in a public
or private temporary shelter/transitional housing
Homeless Children and Youths: Have similar
residency and shelter/transitional housing as a
homeless adult, but includes sharing the housing
of other persons due to loss of housing; living in
motels, hotels, trailer parks, or camping
grounds; or abandoned in hospitals

Shusta, Levine, Wong, Olson, & Harris –Multicultural Law Enforcement:
Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse Society (5th ed.)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All rights reserved
Critics of Federal Law Definitions
of Homelessness Say…
Definitions are too narrow in scope and do not
accurately track the homeless number
Most studies are limited to counting people in
shelters or easily located on streets and do not
count those who are turned away from shelters
because of lack of space/availability
Number of homeless people is underestimated
Shusta, Levine, Wong, Olson, & Harris –Multicultural Law Enforcement:
Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse Society (5th ed.)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All rights reserved
Causes for Homelessness
Many interrelated causes, including poor
economy, high unemployment, drug abuse,
and lack of family/government support
Top 3 causes for individuals: Substance abuse,
lack of housing, mental illness
Domestic violence immediate cause for women
Shusta, Levine, Wong, Olson, & Harris –Multicultural Law Enforcement:
Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse Society (5th ed.)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All rights reserved
Crime Victimization
Homeless people are extremely vulnerable to crimes
From 1999 to 2007, 774 acts of violence against
homeless people throughout the U.S. and Puerto Rico
Crimes committed against homeless people not
coded or classified by most law enforcement
agencies, and homeless status not protected by
federal hate/bias crime laws
In 2009, House of Representatives introduced bill to
protect homeless citizens

Shusta, Levine, Wong, Olson, & Harris –Multicultural Law Enforcement:
Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse Society (5th ed.)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All rights reserved
Mental Illness
A mental-health disorder characterized by
alterations in thinking, mood, or behavior
associated with distress and/or impaired
functioning.
–U.S. Surgeon General’s Report, 1999
Shusta, Levine, Wong, Olson, & Harris –Multicultural Law Enforcement:
Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse Society (5th ed.)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All rights reserved
5 Most Frequent Types of Scenarios
with People with Mental Illness
1. A family member, friend, or concerned person calls
police for help during psychiatric emergency
2. A person with mental illness feels suicidal and calls
police as a cry for help
3. Police officers encounter a person with mental
illness behaving inappropriately in public
4. Citizens call police because they feel threatened by
behavior/presence of a person with mental illness
5. A person with mental illness calls police for help on
account of imagined threats

Shusta, Levine, Wong, Olson, & Harris –Multicultural Law Enforcement:
Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse Society (5th ed.)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All rights reserved
Police Protocol in Encounters
with People with Mental Illness
Arrest
Hospitalization
Informal Disposition
Shusta, Levine, Wong, Olson, & Harris –Multicultural Law Enforcement:
Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse Society (5th ed.)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All rights reserved
Use of Force and Vulnerability of
the Mentally Ill
Police interactions with people with mental illness have
potential of being dangerous, but are usually not
People with mental illness are more vulnerable to
excessive force by police officers than are other citizens
Police need sufficient training/education on mental illness
issues and how to interact with people with mental illness
The case of Chasse
Shusta, Levine, Wong, Olson, & Harris –Multicultural Law Enforcement:
Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse Society (5th ed.)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
All rights reserved
Response Strategies
1. Partnerships with multicultural community leaders, faith-based
organizations, and community-based agencies to provide a
network of support for people with mental health problems
2. Assistance to local ethnic business organizations that wish to
work with mental health issues in the community
3. Creation of specific police training programs and continuing
education for encounters with people with mental illness
4. Development and updating of policies, procedures, and
practices within law enforcement agency for dealing with
mental health problems