Strategic Leadership Practice

Unit Number: S1114V1 Strategic Leadership Practice
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Assessment Submission Cover Sheet

Student name Tahir Mohammed
Student CMI registration number P04508603
Unit code S1114V1
Tutor Rosemary Alford
Date submitted 18/08/2017

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Printed Tahir Mohammed Date_18_/_08_/_2017_

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1. What is the Relationship between Strategic Management and
Leadership? ……………………………………………………………………………..3
Exploring the concept of an effective leader and an effective
Can Leaders be effective managers? ……………………………………..5
2. What are the Leadership Principles That Support Organisational
Role of a leader in creating an organisation’s mission, vision
and values
Effective communication of organisation’s mission, vision and
Personal energy, self-belief, commitment and their impact on
selected leadership styles
3. What is the Leadership strategies and the impact on organisational
direction? ……………………………………………………………………………….10
Transformational Leadership ……………………………………………….10
What is the Impact of Transformational Leadership on
Organisational strategy?
Transactional Leadership…………………………………………………….12
What is the Impact of Transactional Leadership on
Organisational Strategy?
Situational Leadership…………………………………………………………13
References …………………………………………………………………………….16

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Strategic Leadership Practice
This essay is in report form and uses questions as headings in order to explore strategic
leadership practice. The aim of task 1 is to understand the relationship between strategic
management and leadership, task 2 is to understand leadership principles that support
organisational values and task 3 is to understand leadership strategies and the impact on
organisational direction.
1. What is the Relationship between Strategic Management and Leadership?
In task 1, I will discuss what an effective leader is and what an effective manager is and
analyse the difference between them. I will start by giving a definition of leadership and
management and an example of how both effective management and leadership is applied
in my workplace, the Scottish Qualification Authority. Richard Branson (Virgin), Steve Jobs
(Apple), Bill Gates (Microsoft) and Elon Musk (TESLA) are some of the individuals in
business today who have shown effective leadership and effective management, in how they
have grown their brand, both personal and professional, and their organisations.
Exploring the concept of an effective leader and an effective manager
There is an assumption that all managers are leaders, as some managers do not exercise
leadership, and some people lead without being in a management role. Effective leaders and
effective managers have a unique set of activities or functions, where there are some
similarities. Managers maintain an efficient functioning workplace, whereas leaders
encourage new functions and maybe looking for long-term objectives (Yukl, 1989), however
Kotterman (2006) states that organisations need both effective leadership and effective
management for optimal success.
Norhouse (2007) has defined leadership as a behaviour; a style; a skill; a process; a
responsibility; an experience; a function of management; a position of authority; an
influencing relationship; a characteristic; and an ability. Kotter (1990) states that
“Leadership is the capacity for collective action to vitalise”.
The majority of definitions focused on two parts which are: the process of influencing a group
of individuals to obtain a common goal; and to develop a vision. The following table
encapsulates the characteristics of effective leaders and effective managers.

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Table 1: Comparison between Leader and Manager Characteristics (adapted from Algahtani,
A. (2014) Journal of Management Policies and Practices September 2014, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp.

Effective Leader Characteristics Effective Manager Characteristics
Zaleznik, 1977
Focus on people
Has followers
Informal influence
Takes risks
Facilitates decisions
Doing the right things
Large range perspective
Sets strategies and vision
Focus on system and structure
Has subordinates
Formal authority
Minimise risk
Makes decisions
Doing things right
Short range perspective
Plans and budgets
Bennis, 1989
Innovate, Creative
An original
Focuses on people
Inspires trust
Long-range perspective
Asks what and why
Eye on the horizon
Challenges the status quo
Own person
Does the right thing
A copy
Focuses on systems and structure
Relies on control
Short-range view
Asks how and when
Eye on the bottom line
Accepts the status quo
Classic good soldier
Does things right
Bennis and Goldsmith, 1997
An original
Investigates reality
Focuses on people
Inspires trust
Has a long-range perspective
Asks what and why
Has his or her eye on the horizon
Challenges the status quo
His or her own person
Counselling, empowerment
A copy
Accepts reality
Focuses on systems
Relies on control
Has a short-range view
Asks how and when
Has his or her eye on the bottom line
Accepts the status quo
The classic good soldier
Mechanistic approach
Buchanan and Hucynski, 2004 (based on Kotter, 1990)
Establishing direction; vision for the future
Aligning people
Communicating vision
Motivating and inspiring
Energises people
Positive and dramatic
Plans and budgets: Decide action plans
Organising and staffing
Decide structure
Controlling, problem solving
Monitors people
Produces order, consistency and predictable

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Being an effective leader is multi-directional, while management is a unidirectional authority
relationship (Katz, 1955). Leaders promote change, new approaches, and work to
understand people’s beliefs to gain their commitment, whereas managers promote stability,
exercise authority, and work to get things accomplished.
I highlight 6 key factors where I see managers being more effective by learning and
implementing leadership traits through personal and professional development to be more
effective in the workplace.
Research – It is important to keep abreast of innovative research in their industry
and aware of opportunities that might arise in line with organisation’s mission, values
and vision, and to keep looking ahead.
Public speaking – Are able to promote themselves and the organisation effectively
to both internal and external stakeholders, by being accessible and using different
formats and different strategies to get organisation’s message to potential customers.
Awareness – Self-awareness involving self-reflective practice and Continuous
Professional Development. Being aware of the PEST factors.
Mentoring and shadowing a leader – Being mentored by their role model enables a
manager to adopt a similar leadership style which helps improve self-confidence and
it gives them different world view of the organisation as a leader.
Inspiring a team – Since he is aware of his vision now and will be able to
communicate more effectively.
Active listening – Listening to internal and external stakeholders actively which
helps build stronger relationships based on mutual respect and how to continue
moving forward towards the organisation’s vision.
Natural born leaders will master their skills by envisioning the organisational goal and putting
into practice a process to ‘get there’. A leader will master their existing skills and future
potential through training and development, whereas a manager will develop their skills
using some of the key factors above which illustrate that leadership skills can be inherited
and learned. For example, Great Man theory and trait theories believe that people inherit
certain qualities and traits that makes them better leaders.
Can Leaders be effective managers?
It is said that leaders can be effective managers to a point, but may feel constrained by the
actual process of carrying out the vision for the organisation, rather than concentrating on
further research and development and the unknown, where management is more about
looking at the bottom line and using resources effectively to get results.
Finding a balance between management and leadership can come down to healthy
relationships, inspiring staff and a productive environment that fosters growth and

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Is Balance needed between the demands of strategic management and strategic
Kotter (1990) describes the distinction between management and leadership. He states that
both management and leadership, using different techniques, need to:
1. Create an agenda,
2. Develop a human network to accomplish the agenda and
3. Properly execute and complete of the agenda.
But the desired outcome of management is dramatically different from the desired outcome
of leadership. Management’s objective is to produce and perpetuate a system that will create
predictable and orderly outcomes on issues that are important to the business. Such
outcomes include: on-time delivery and good quality, as well as being on budget.
Predictability is the key. The role of leadership is to produce change, often large, dramatic
change. Good leadership takes the organisation into and through many unknown areas that
are necessary for the business to survive and prosper.
What our businesses need are managers who lead, inspire and motivate employees to
achieve business-wide goals. Relying too heavily on one or the other can be detrimental to a
2. What are the Leadership Principles That Support Organisational Values?
Task 2 introduces terms such as vision, mission and values and evaluating the role of the
strategic leader in creating this organisational direction. I discuss the characteristics of good
vision. I will share example of my organisation, Scottish Qualifications Authority, their vision,
and how in an economic and competitive context, we stay ahead of our competition. This is
mostly due to our strategic leader’s role in creating a vision which will motivate the workforce
to focus on the way forward.
Mission and vision relate to an organisation’s purpose and are encapsulated in a written
statement, and play a critical role to communicate the purpose of the organisation to its
stakeholders; to inform strategy development and to the quantifiable goals and objectives by
which to measure the success of the organisation’s strategy. Organisations with clear
values, well communicated, well understood, and a shared mission and vision have been
evidenced to perform better than those without written statements (Bart et al, 2001).

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Harris (1984) suggests that ‘Successful companies guide and shape their company’s culture
to fit their strategy. On tools used to accomplish this shaping is the reinforcing of certain
ideas, values and behaviour discouraging others by means of human resource management
Role of a leader in creating an organisation’s mission, vision and values
The role of a leader to move the organisation forward in achieving its mission and vision, is
to ensure that the majority of the employees understand and identify with the mission and
vision, as it will be them that will help increase efficiency, as they will be making the
decisions which are fully aligned to the organisation’s goals. An example of this is the
Scottish Qualifications Authority who state their vision, mission and values below.
‘Our purpose is to provide products and services in skills, training and education
which positively impact on individuals, organisations and society.
We work nationally and internationally in two distinct areas – awards
and accreditation.
Our commitment to you
SQA has high standards for ourselves and for our customers. We strive to ensure
that our qualifications are inclusive and accessible to all, that they recognise the
achievements of learners, and that they provide clear pathways to further learning or
SQA Values
SQA will be known for being:
Our Vision
We will digitally transform our organisation to offer customers better service by
delivering efficient, scalable and new enabling approaches.’
Effective communication of organisation’s mission, vision and values
The mission, vision and value statements are key parts of the planning process, as well as in
organising, leading and controlling functions of management. In planning, mission and vision
statements help to generate specific goals and objectives and to develop the strategy for
achieving them. Mission and vision statements guide choices about organising from

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structure to organisational culture. Mission and vision statements make the most impact
when they permeate the leadership of the whole organisation, rather than just senior
Gardner (2004) suggests using the 7 lever model to ensure effective communication takes
Reason: The leader presents all relevant considerations of an idea, including its pros and
Research: The leader provides numerical and other information about their idea’s
ramifications, or data relevant to their idea.
Resonance: The leader and their ideas are convincing to their listener because of their
track record, effective presentation, and sense of your audience.
Representational redescriptions: The leader delivers their message in a variety of
formats, including stories, statistics, and graphics.
Resources and rewards: The leader draws on resources to demonstrate the value of
their idea and provide incentives to adopt their idea.
Real-world events: The leader monitors events in the world on a daily basis and,
whenever possible, draws on them to support their idea.
Resistances: The leader devotes considerable energy to identifying the principal
resistances to their ideas (both conscious and unconscious resistances) and try to defuse
them directly and implicitly.
Personal energy, self-belief, commitment and their impact on selected leadership
Covey (2006) and Goffee and Jones (2006) outline that leaders need to build and maintain
trust and adopt authentic leadership traits to inspire followers.

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Goffee & Jones (2006) define leadership as situational, non-hierarchical and relational. As
the traditional sources of structure have weakened and modern technocratic society
alienates people, there is a need for authentic leadership.
“People want to be led by a person, not by a corporate apparatchik.”
1) Know and show yourself enough, also framed as ‘skilful self-disclosure’.
2) Take personal risks. Make it personal. Be present as a person.
3) Read and rewrite the context. Leadership starts with observing and understanding
and then passes to adapting to the situation and change it.
4) Remain authentic while conforming enough. “Authentic leaders tease their
organisational culture.”
5) Manage social distance: use bandwidth to shift from distance to closeness as
6) Communicate with care.
Ethical leadership and its potential impacts.
The definition for ethical leadership is embedded within definitions of transformational
leaders. Burns (1978) described the process of transformational leadership as raising both
leaders and followers to “higher levels of motivation and morality”. There has been increased
interest in the ethics of leadership (especially in the wake of scandals such as Phillip Green
(Topshop pensions) and the banking crisis), which has seen the development of constructs
such as ethical leadership (Brown & Trevino, 2006) and authentic leadership (Walumbwa,
Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing & Peterson, 2008).
Brown and Trevino (2006) argue that ethical leadership is defined in terms of: the moral
character of the leader (moral person); and, leader behaviour aimed at encouraging the

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ethical behaviour of followers (moral manager), as ethical leaders emphasise ethical
standards and moral management. This latter feature is one of the key differences between
transformational leadership and ethical leadership as this is directive and so more
characteristic of transactional leadership.
3. What is the Leadership strategies and the impact on organisational
In task 3, I will discuss transformational leadership, transactional and situational leadership,
different characteristics and its impact on organisational strategy.
Transformational Leadership
In 1985, Bass introduced the term “transformational” in place of “transforming.” He added to
the initial concepts of Burns (1978) to help explain how transformational leadership could be
measured, as well as how it impacts follower motivation and performance.
According to Bass, a transformational leader is:
a model of integrity and fairness.
Sets clear goals.
Has high expectations.
Encourages others.
Provides support and recognition.
Stirs the emotions of people.
Gets people to look beyond their self-interest.
Inspires people to reach for the improbable.
Characteristics of Transformational leaders

Self-belief Believes in himself/herself and isn’t afraid to
ask for help when required
Visionary Leads organisation with a realistic and
achievable vision
Self-management Manages himself/herself and doesn’t need
direction from others
Make difficult decisions Ability to make tough decisions with a clear
focus on the organisation mission, vision
and values.
Inspirational Inspires and motivate others and treat each
employee as a valued individual
Open to new ideas Always open to new ideas from all the team
members, always looking for a new
challenge and had ability to take right risks
Adaptable Able to adapt in constantly changing
environment and move forward

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According to bass there are three different ways in which leaders transform followers:

a) Raising awareness of the importance of particular goals and how to attain them
b) Introducing people to override self-interest for the good of the organisation
c) Stimulating and satisfying their higher order needs
Bass suggested four basic components of transformational leadership as follows:
• Idealised influence: includes having vision, a sense of mission and inspiring followers’ trust.
• Individually considerate: includes delegating to followers, and encouraging their personal
• Intellectually stimulating: includes fostering creativity, the rethinking of old methods and use
of intuition.
• Inspirational: includes conveying visions of realisable future, and encouraging
Source Transformational Leadership
What is the Impact of Transformational Leadership on Organisational
Transformational leaders seek to change those they lead. In doing so, they can represent
sustainable, self-replicating leadership. Not content to simply use force of personality
(charismatic) or bargaining (transactional) to persuade followers, transformational leaders
use knowledge, expertise and vision to change those around them in a way that makes them
followers with deeply embedded buy-in that remains even when the leader that created it is

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no longer on the scene. Transformational leaders represent the most valuable form of
leadership since followers are given the chance to change, transform and, in the process,
develop themselves as contributors. Organisationally this achieves the best leadership
outcome since transformational leaders develop people. Transformational leadership is
strongly desired since it has no artificial constraints in terms of buy-in and instead is focused
on getting followers on board based upon their own evolving thought process and changing
responses to leadership challenges. It is particularly suited for fast-paced, change-laden
environments that demand creative problem solving and customer commitment.
Transactional Leadership
The transactional leadership style developed by Bass is based on the hypothesis that
followers are motivated through a system of rewards and punishment. The transactional
leader’s view of their relationship with others is best described as one of quid pro quo – or
this for that. If the follower does something good, they will be rewarded. If the follower does
something wrong, they will be punished.
Characteristics of Transactional Leadership

Practical Approaches problems with rationale and
they take all realistic constraints and
opportunities into account.
Resistant to change Wants everything to remain as it is, they do
not believe in improving things.
Rewards performance Rewards employees on good performance
Directive Makes all the decisions and expects
employees to follow the decisions made
Passive Reacts when things happen, does not take
proactive approach to prevent problems
Emphasis on corporate structure Places a lot of importance on hierarchy,
corporate structure and culture.

What is the Impact of Transactional Leadership on Organisational Strategy?
Transactional leaders are always willing to give you something in return for following them. It
can be any number of things including a good performance review, a raise, a promotion, new
responsibilities or a desired change in duties. The problem with transactional leaders is
expectations. If the only motivation to follow is in order to get something, what happens
during lean times when resources are stretched thin and there is nothing left with which to
make a deal? That said, transactional leaders sometimes display the traits or behaviours of
charismatic leaders and can be quite effective in many circumstances while creating
motivated players. They are adept at making deals that motivate and this can prove
beneficial to an organisation. The issue then is simply one of sustainability.

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Situational Leadership
Goleman (2006) defines leadership as
“Influencing people to take action. In the workplace, leadership is the art of getting
work done through other people. Leadership can be widely distributed within an
organisation – most everyone leads at some time or other, if not all the time. And it’s
highly situational: anyone might step forward to lead, given the right circumstances.”
Situational leadership model encourages the leaders to analyse a particular
problem/situation in depth and then come up with a suitable for that situation. It allows the
manager to change their leadership style depending on the situation.
Goleman (2006) goes onto define six styles within situational leadership which are:
A Coaching leader – works on an individual’s personal development as well as job-related
skills, i.e. they will define tasks for their followers but encourage suggestions and input.
Although there is 2 way communication but decisions are made by the leader. This style
works best with people who know their limitations and are open to change.
A Pacesetting leader – sets very high work standards for themselves and the followers.
This style works best with those who are highly motivated. The leader leads by example.
This style is used carefully since it can lead to follower burnout.
A Democratic leader – gives followers a vote in almost all decisions; this is a time
consuming style and it is not good if deadlines are approaching fast.
An Affiliative leader – puts employees first. It promotes harmony and helps to solve
problems; works best when morale is low and teambuilding is needed.
The leader uses
praise and helpfulness to build up the team’s confidence.
An Authoritative leader – is very good at analysing problems and identifying challenges.
This leader will allow his or her followers to help figure out how to solve a problem. This style
works best when the workgroup is without clear direction.
A Coercive leader – tells their employees what to do and has a very clear vision of the goal
and how to achieve it. This style works best when a fast company turnaround is needed.
Characteristics of Situational Leadership

Visionary Leads organisation with a realistic and achievable vision
Flexible Changes according to the requirements of the team or
Directing Provides specific instructions and closely monitors
Coaching Defines roles/tasks and focus on two-way communication
Participating Allows team to become more independent allowing them
to make routine decisions.
Courageous Looks for new challenges and has ability to take right risks

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Situational leadership theory suggests that the best leaders constantly adapt by
adopting different styles for different situations or outcomes. This theory reflects a
relatively sophisticated view of leadership in practice and can be a valuable frame of
reference for experienced, seasoned leaders who are aware of organisational needs
and individual motivation. Most importantly, it allows experienced leaders the
freedom to choose from a variety of leadership styles and can represent a useful
framework for leaders to test and develop different styles for various situations with
an eye towards fine-tuning leadership results. Situational leadership, however, is
most effective when leaders choose more effective styles like charismatic,
transactional, and transformational.
In November 2016, the Scottish Government Cabinet Secretary for Education, John
Swinney gave directive to the Scottish Qualifications Authority CEO Janet Brown to
revise national qualifications and to reduce practitioners such as teachers and
lecturers workloads. The units were to be removed from the qualification and
replaced with more coursework and an extended examination at the end of the
taught qualification. This involved a lot of discussion between both the Scottish
Government Education team and the SQA team until agreement was reached on
both sides on a working model and how to apply the changes to the qualification and
the resources which would be required to make the changes. These changes were
communicated at all staff briefings and the staff were asked to take active roles to
move the changes along, without losing sight of the organisation’s, vision, mission
and values. Janet identified additional support for the staff, and brought in additional
support staff to help make the changes. She presented what the Scottish
Government had directed SQA to do, and decimated the information through the
organisation’s digital bulletin board, formal and informal meetings to ensure the
message was being clearly communicated to the staff.
The external stakeholders such as the teaching and local government staff, this
required investment from the SQA to develop Continuous Professional Development
training, and clarification of standards for new qualifications, for secondary school
teachers, further education lecturers and local authority officials. However due to the
lack of capacity, SQA was only able to offer one place per institution to go for training
which raised many issues, from the lack of opportunity to progress with professional
development, clarification of standards for the prospective delegate.

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Despite the investment in ensuring information was being taken back into
institutions, through the feedback and monitoring process, the delegates and
teaching staff said they wanted more training and the opportunity for training to be
more accessible. To address this gap, and ensure the external stakeholders were
involved in every stage of the process, and therefore ‘onside’, the SQA actively
listened to what was working and what required more work to be viable. In order to
reach more teachers, lecturers and officials and deliver information to a wider
education audience, SQA is investigating and investing in the viability of innovative
training models.

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