social media in learning English. The impact of social media for

Students Perception on the Use of Social Media to Learn English within Secondary Education in Developing Countries C.M. Bermudez1, P.W.C. Prasad1, Abeer Alsadoon1, L. Hourany1, A. Elchouemi2 1School of Computing and Mathematics, Charles Sturt University, Sydney, Australia 2Hewlett Packard Enterprise Abstract—This paper aims to demonstrate students’ perception about the use of social media in learning English. The impact of social media for learning English is determined by an online survey, which was conducted from students with random division of male and female. Results of this survey shows that most of the female student respondents from both private and public sector schools consider social media as essential part of their learning process. The most popular social media forums used by students includes Edmodo, Google Plus, Google docs and YouTube. These platforms help student in better understanding of English in their secondary education. It plays a vital role as all the students doesn’t have same fluency level and grip over every day English. Other than English, social media platforms also help them a lot in general learning. Keywords— Social media, Learning English, Impact of social media in learning, developing countries I. INTRODUCTION Social media was introduced in early 2000 and it enabled users to communicate with each other easily. Today social media has become one of the most powerful media to express one’s feelings. Most popular social media platforms today are Facebook, twitter, Instagram and YouTube. Students of developed countries communicate with each other frequently, which boost individual knowledge, coordination, cooperation and their self-confidence. This enables them to learn new things particularly in English subject and its different areas such as grammar, writing and presentation. A number of studies have been carried out to identify the impact of Social media (SM) in learning. These studies widely include the impacts of SM on student’s education. However very little research has been carried out to identify impact of SM in learning particularly in English subject and its different area such as grammar, writing and presentation. As the survey was conducted in a developing country, this study will mainly focus on the impact of SM in learning English for secondary education students. The effect of SM in learning for students is still unexplored and that is why this study focuses on encouraging students to utilize SM for their personal wellbeing. Students today acknowledge social media’s utilization as a powerful medium in their academic growth. It helps them in delivery, assessment and feedback. Interacting with hundreds of people online improves their English in one way or another. Writing as well as verbal skills along with presentation are enhanced up to a large extent. Students learn about different things including English in a simpler way. Teachers also encourage their students to interact with others so that they understand English better. Parents must also encourage their children to utilize this powerful medium in a positive way without any hesitation. While intervention strategies can be established by applying different restriction on negative use of social media. The ultimate goal of this study is to propose an online portal system where parents are also involved in their child’s academic progress and identify role of SM in their learning and mental growth. The result of this study will help to raise awareness among students in a developing country to utilize SM productively in their individual development and learning. The report will use SPSS to analyze the data. Finally, the paper will show the analysis results. The paper is organized as follows: The section 2 discusses the literature review of SM for education, followed with the explanation on the methodology used in this research in section 3. The results of analysis and discussions are given in section 4 and 5 respectively. The paper concludes in the section 6 with possible future work. II. LITERATURE REVIEW A. Impacts of social media on education in general Significant research has highlighted the positive and negative outcomes of SM on education. For instance, a study based on interviews claimed that the use of social media helps students to learn together and collaborate [1]. Another study examined the effectiveness of social media through investigative method, suggesting positive behavior from students [2]. Another study focuses on the relationship between student’s success in their studies and role of using social media in their college. The result based on survey revealed that SM played a significant role for the first generation of students to succeed in their studies as they can find and access the information from a broad network of people through social media [3]. In contrary to this, there are also the negative effects of SM on education. For instance, It was further highlighted the technical and administrative barriers which could affect learning and that it requires training of staff to promote the use of IT in class. Another study using multiple regressions shows that SM depicted a negative relationship between Social Networking Sites (SNSs) and Grade Point Average (GPA). [4]. Based on a group discussion conducted by Lin, P.-C., Hou, H.-T., Wang, S.-M., & Chang, K.-E. [5]. It highlights the negative consequences of SM on education. The results of this study proved that during online discussions, female and older learners are more likely to be involved in off-topic discussions rather than on a productive work. B. Impact of Social media on mental health There are number of studies conducted previously to identify the impact of Social media on mental health. One of these studies was conducted by Malisuwan, Nasongkhlab, & Sujivac in 2015 [6]. Their study mainly focused on the behavioural aspect and established an estimate then when do people actually feel good about themselves. The research mainly focused on what impact SM has on a person’s behaviour, self-esteem and confidence level. The social media is a very powerful medium of communication and learning, Other than that the research conducted by Kao and Craige [7] in 2014 aims to measure the effect of social media on the five major personality traits and their achievement in learning English as a foreign language. C. Impact of Social Media for academic collaboration Related studies have concluded that social media has played a very vital role in improving student’s academic performance. Assessing the association and impact of these handy communication methods offered by Social media, it was evaluated that these complex features can help the student to improve learning through engagement with other people online [8]. Research done by Khan, Wohn, & Ellison [9] used the quantitative methodology to analyse the informal aspect of social media in improving students’ academic performance. Henderson, Synder and Beale [10]discussed that by employing the original survey methodology regarding the implementation of social media that it could be helpful in the classrooms as new perspectives are offered through social media use. Moreover, it also creates new strategies that assist the students in their learning though it was not successful in stopping the students from its negative use. D. Impact of Social media for English learning Various studies have found the impact of social media on English language learning [11]. It was discovered that many new opportunities have for learning of English language have been created through Facebook even though that conventional media is the primary tool of learning. When the grammatical knowledge was checked with relation to social media it was found that it could enhance the speech, vocabulary and punctuation abilities of the students [12]. Moreover, many of the students took advantage of many web-based programs for enhancing their language skills especially reading, speaking and listening skills [13]. Additionally, it was also f
ound by Shukor [14] that the academic performance of the students was also improved through the use of SM. Social media has direct implications on various areas including the impacts on academic collaboration, English learning, and mental health. The collaboration of social media for education was very helpful for students and as well as for teachers. It delivers a positive impact on academic learning, improved personal development and assist students to achieve educational goal successfully. It also acts as a medium of expression among different language speakers all over the globe and help in forming a translational network, social ties and enhanced academic performance in language learning and sociolinguistics. E. Framework Fig 1. Demonstrate the constraints involved in learning English as a subject. The subject has three main subcomponents presentation, writing and language learning. Social media helps students learn English in a more exciting and interactive way that in return helps them to learn all the three mentioned subcomponents. Presentation, writing and language learning skills are enhanced primarily. Learning management system from which students get their academic resources consist of interacting with each other. These LMS systems should be introduced in every secondary school to improve academic performance of students. Fig. 1. Current Framework III. METHODOLOGY In this paper, we did a survey based on questionnaire from students and then use business intelligence tools such as SPSS to analyze the impact of social media in learning English within secondary education. The research studies conducted previously have used different methods to evaluate impact of social media on learning. These methods include either quantitative method or qualitative method. Quantitative method uses an investigative approach and group discussion analysis approach [5]. While, qualitative method uses pre-test and post-test interview [12], Most of the referenced studies have used either quantitative method or qualitative method. Some of them have used mixed methodologies that combine a qualitative with quantitative approach. Mixed methodology can provide specific tools, which highlight challenging aspects to identify role of social media. A non-mixed methodology like survey could lead to an independent weak conclusion and provide results covering just one aspect. Due to these reasons conducting a study using mixed methodology creates efficient and clear results. A. Participants The study is based upon an online survey, which is conducted in the developing countries for example the Philippines from 164 respondents. A total of 164 students took part in the online survey, which composes of 55 males and 109 females. The data were collected anonymously from secondary school students from both private and public. B. Questionnaire design and Measurement Scale A structured anonymous questionnaire was developed and deployed using Survey monkey software in order to get the information. Initially previous related research studies were analyzed and evaluated to collect data. This evaluation was done mainly on literature review of these studies. Data collected was then examined to create a realistic, detailed questionnaire for students. A detailed questionnaire helps to draw a clear result from survey. A clear result of a survey enables to create a better framework and enhance learning techniques through social media, which will improve students’ academic performance. This survey consists of social demographic and Likert scale questions. The questionnaire includes questions about demographic information, general information about social media, Perspectives about the use of social media. Likert scale mainly measure the like agree, disagree and strongly disagree. The questionnaire mainly revolves around questions that relate social media with English subject and determine the impact of social media for learning. Using social media benefits these students in their academic performance. The survey contained structured questions focuses on the use of Social Media for assessment, delivery and feedbacks. Students are the most important elements and recipients of education. Their perception on the use of Social Media in education is very significant this will help to identify the impacts of Social Media towards students’ academic performances. A pilot study was employed in this research such as pre-interview to formulate a relevant and authentic type of survey questionnaires. C. Data Analysis All data analysis was done using the IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) [15]. It could be used for various data analysis. However, we were interested in determining the connection between two variables. The quantitative methodology was used to collect data from random students respondents. The data collected was evaluated using the SPSS software. It supports statistical analysis of a small or large amount of data and was used to provide an accurate proof to support the arguments. The software helps to evaluate the gathered data based on descriptive frequencies (divided on the basis of gender and age). The variance was evaluated using ANOVA. This helps to correlate the variance level between two subjects. The students initially answered social demographic questions and later Likert scale question, which measured the relation of social media on their learning and academic performance. Along with the role of Social media helps students for assessment, delivery and feedback. IV. RESULT OF ANALYSIS A. Cross tabulation Based on the survey results, it shows the cross tabulation for students using social media by age and gender as shown in Table 1. The table is divided in frequency of the respondents based on the gender, age and the user of social media for education. A total number of 164 students took part on the online survey. 55 male participate in the survey and 109 female participants. A total of 47 participants from 15 years old and below, 67 respondents are between the age of 16-18 and 50 respondents are from 19 above age bracket. These demonstrate most male students from 16-18 age brackets used SM for their education. Table 1. Cross Tabulation for student using social media by age and gender. Social Media * AGE * GENDER Cross tabulation GENDER AGE Total 15 & below 16-18 19 & above Male Using Social Media Yes 12 23 14 49 No 3 3 0 6 Total 15 26 14 55 Female Using Social Media Yes 22 29 33 84 No 10 12 3 25 Total 32 41 36 109 Total Using Social Media Yes 34 52 47 133 No 13 15 3 31 Total 47 67 50 164 In female students section 84 female students use social media out of 109. Mostly female from16-18 years old division of respondents claims that they were using social media for education purposes. Table 2 evaluated from survey results depicts the cross tabulation between age, gender and English subcomponents. English subcomponent includes four main aspects that are writing, language, grammar and presentation. This is to analyze that where social media is commonly used for English curriculum. The study includes same 164 students, 55 male and 109 female respondents. Most female students answered that they are using social media for writing purpose. This enhances their writing skills. While male students stated that they use social media mainly for presentation. Table 2. Cross tabulation between Age, Gender and English subcomponent. In which English subcomponent do you use Social Media * AGE * GENDER GENDER AGE Total 15 & Below 16-18 19 & Above Male English subcomponent where SM is use Writing 5 10 6 21 Language 2 1 4 7 Grammar 0 3 0 3 Presentation 8 12 4 24 Total 15 26 14 55 Female English subcomponent where SM is use Writing 8 18 17 43 Language 9 12 7 28 Grammar 6 3 3 12 Presentation 9 8 9 26 Total 32 41 36 109 Total English subcomponent where SM is use Writing 13 28 23 64 Language 11 13 11 35 Grammar 6 6 3 15 Presentation 17 20 13 50 Total 47 67 50 164 An accumulative score of both male and female students show that a total of 64 students from all age groups and gender use social media for writing. 35 students out of 164 use social medi
a for language. 15 students out of 164 use social media to learn and improve their grammar. Lastly 50 students out of 164 stated that they learn presentation skills by using social media. An overall trend of learning English writing through social media is more than other subcomponents of English Table 3 shows that the respondents claim Social Media were used for Writing. Based on results analysis from survey the table is evaluated to make a histogram by division of number of students to English subcomponents. The percentage evaluated in the respective table is calculated by simple percentage evaluation formula which is, Number of respondents of one subcomponent / total number of respondents * 100. For writing percentage is evaluated as 64/164 * 100 = 39%. The cumulative percentage is based on simple addition of percentage to accumulate a final 100%. By adding the cumulative percent of writing to the valid percentage of Language is the result to the cumulative percent of Language and so on as for Grammar and Presentation respectively. The histogram shows n Fig.2 is the number of students divided with respect to English subcomponent for which social media is used. Writing being the number one and top learning skill ranges to 64 students as shown in histogram as well as tabulated in table 3. Table 3. Cross tabulation of English subcomponent In which English subcomponent do you use SM Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Va l i d Writing 64 39.0 39.0 39.02 Language 35 21.3 21.3 60.4 Grammar 15 9.1 9.1 69.5 Presentation 50 30.5 30.5 100.0 Total 164 100.0 100.0 Fig. 2. Histogram depicting the use of SM in English subcomponent. B. Correlations Table 4 Illustrates the correlation based on Delivery, Assessment and Feedback, this demonstrate the dependency of variable to each other. The double ** represents the strong correlation of the variable. The correlations were measured for the Students’ perception (N=164) of social media on Student Delivery (SD), Student Assessment (SA) and Student Feedback (SF) by age and gender. Based on the results of the study, Social Media usage of Student Delivery (SD) is strongly correlated (Pearson correlation) to Student Assessment (SA) r = 0.582 and Student Feedback (SF) r =0.573 where p < .01. There is a negative correlation of SD on gender. The negative correlation between SD and gender shows that the two variables were not dependent to each other. Correlation for SA is significant for SD r =0.582 and SF r =0.971 where p < .01 whereas there is a positive correlation for gender. The Pearson correlation for SF is significant for SD r = 0.573 and SA r =0.971 whereas there is positive correlation for gender. Student delivery and assessment has a strong correlation as well as delivery and feedback. This represent that collaboration of Social media helps students on their assessment and received a excellent result from their teachers. While negative correlation between gender and delivery does not show any dependency with each other. Table 4. Correlation based on SM for students’ delivery, assessment and feedbacks by Age and Gender Students perceptions SD SA SF GENDER SD Pearson Correlation 1 .582** .573** -.013 Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .869 N 164 164 164 164 SA Pearson Correlation .582** 1 .971** .076 Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .331 N 164 164 164 164 SF Pearson Correlation .573** .971** 1 .080 Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .311 N 164 164 164 164 GENDER Pearson Correlation -.013 .076 .080 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .869 .331 .311 N 164 164 164 164 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). C. Common used for Social media for Writing According to students responds it shows that most common Social media used for writing by is Edmodo, which has a 23.17% of respondents as illustrated in Fig. 3. This is because the peaceful feeling and educational atmosphere if you are using the social media site. The least Social media used for writing is said to be Facebook with 6.10% of respondents due to social acquaintance and interaction environment. Followed by Google Plus. 17.07% students along with Quia used by 14.02% use twitter. Google plus is used by 3.05%; Academia.edu is used by 18.2%, Google docs by 18.29%. Fig. 3. Common social media for writing D. Commonly Used social media for Language Learning According to survey result, most students agree that the common SM used for Language learning is Edmodo and Google Plus with 34.15% respondents respectively. This is because a pure social media site for education. Followed by Google docs were used by 9.15%; Twitter is used by 3.66%, Facebook by 6.10%, Academia.edu by 6.71% students and Quia by 6.10. Result shown in Fig 4. Fig. 4. Common social media for language E. Common used for Social media for Presentation The most common social media used by students for presentation is YouTube (34.76%) as shown in Fig 5. As well as know that YouTube is really popular for streaming video for learning. Followed by Google Plus (20.12%), Vimeo (13.41%) and Google doc (12.20%). The least commonly used for presentation is Facebook (3.66%) because this SM is usually used for social interaction. Fig. 5. Common social media for presentation. V. DISCUSSION Social media today engages everyone into a virtual interaction and one of them is for collaboration in education. Students now use social media in their daily routine, they interact with other people and this I return enhances their ability to learn in a more interactive and exciting way. However, there are negative impacts of social media on student’s academics as well. Learning Management System (LMS) helps students to share, download and discuss their problems regarding study. This interaction is fruitful as students learn by mutual interaction. Every school must give access and permission to use social media as a part of education in secondary level so that students can improve their overall skills especially English subject. This also helps them to grow mentally as students learn about new information. Teaching students to be more responsible on the use of SM for education will minimize it’s negative effects on their studies and but rather, it will become more useful for them. Those way teachers can also play their role in development of student’s personality. In the result, it is demonstrated that through the collaboration of the Social Media for English subjects helps them deliver their subject very well regardless on the technical issues they might encounter. This technology assists them to share content and academic resources in very reliable and interactive manners. Fig 6. Concludes that social media plays very vital role in learning English which aim to improves students’ academic performance. Students should be given full access to LMS with the collaboration of social media for education which helps to improve learning Englsih. Likewise teachers should be given full access to social media to be able to share resources and content for better learning system. Parents still monitors their children performance by the use of paper-based report. Fig. 6. Proposed Framework VI. CONCLUSION The main aim of this study was to identify the impact of social media on learning English for secondary school students. The study was done on a small number of students limited to small-targeted population within a developing country. Students from both private and public sector were considered and the results from survey proved that social media plays a vital role in learning English for students. In conclusion, Social media needs to be introduced in secondary school systems like most of developed countries do. This will help students learn in a better and more efficient way. Students learn from their mutual interaction more than they learn from teachers. LMS system must employ in different schools at the same time able to access the social media platform like Google plus, Edmodo and YouTube that is for education. Teachers can teach students how to use this platform in a more constructive and productive manner and also highlight its negative aspects, so that students can use it for their we
llbeing. Students use social media to enhance their learning techniques and improve their academic performance. Results from survey have justified that using Social Media can be very fruitful and students enjoy learning from Social Media. REFERENCES [1] D. Raths, Schools are using a variety of social media tools to help students connect and work together T H E Journal, 40 (1), 26-30, 2013. [2] J. Mao, “Social media for learning: A mixed methods study on high school students technology affordances and perspectives,” Computers in Human Behavior, 33, 213-223, 2014. [3] D. Y. Wohn, N. B. Ellison, M. L. Khan, R. Fewins-Bliss, and R. Gray, “The role of social media in shaping first-generation high school students’ college aspirations: A social capital lens,” Computers & Education, 63, 424-436, 2013. [4] A. C. Karpinski, P.A. Kirschner, I. Ozer, J. A. Mellott, and P. Ochwo, “An exploration of social networking site use, multitasking, and academic performance among United States and European university students,” Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 1182-1192, 2013 [5] P. -C. Lin, H.-T. Hou, S.-M. Wang, and K.-E. Chang, “Analyzing knowledge dimensions and cognitive process of a project-based online discussion instructional activity using Facebook in an adult and continuing education course,” Computers & Education, 60, 110-121, 2013. [6] P. Malisuwana, J. Nasongkhlab, and S. Sujivac, “Self-reflection with critical friends and multisource feedback via online social media for students’ oral presentation and self-esteem,” Social and Behavioral Sciences, 174, 1021-1025, 2015. [7] P. -C. Kao, and P. Craige, “Effects of English Usage on Facebook and Personality Traits on Achievements of Students Learning English as a Foreign Language,” Social Behavior and Personality, 42 (1), 17-24, 2014. [8] G. Casey, “Social Media in the Classroom: A Simple yet Complex Hybrid Environment for Students,” Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 22 (1), 5-24, 2013. [9] M. L. Khan, D. Y. Wohn, and N. B. Ellison, “Actual friends matter: An Internet skills perspective on teens’ informal academic collaboration on Facebook,” Computers & Education, 79, 198-147, 2014. [10] M. Henderson, I. Snyder, and D. Beale, “Social media for collaborative learning: A review of school literature,” Australian Educational Computing, 28 (2), 51-68, 2013. [11] O. Eren “Students’ Attitudes towards Using Social Networking in Foreign Language Classes: A Facebook Example,” International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3 (20), 2012. [12] T. Suthiwartnarueput, “Effects of Using Facebook as a Medium for Discussions of English Grammar and Writing of Low-Intermediate EFL Students,” Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 9 (2), 194-214, 2012. [13] R. Faizi, A.E. Afia, and R. Chiheb, “Social Media: An Optimal Virtual Environment for Learning Foreign Languages,” International Journal of Engineering Technologies in Learning, 9 (5), 64-66. 2014. [14] S.S. Shukor, “Effects of Facebook Collaborative Writing Groups on ESL Undergraduates’ Writing Performance,” International Journal of English Language Education, 2 (2), 89-99, 2014. [15] http://www-01.ibm.com/software/au/analytics/spss/

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