SIGNIFICANCE OF COLOUR

THESIS SUBMISSION
AR7046
NAME: -AMBIKA KATTA
STUDENT ID: – 2101901
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF COLOUR IN INTERIOR AND ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE
Contents
Abstract………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1
Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………2
Types of colors ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..2
Role of colors in interiors………………………………………………………………………………………………………….5
Color effect in interiors of Old Muslim emperors ………………………………………………………………………..8
Different colors and their effects …………………………………………………………………………………………..9
Case studies
– Golconda -The Qutb Shahi Dynasty
– Goharshad Mosque, Iran
Colors In Islamic Architecture………………………………………………………………………………………………….17
Light effect on colors in Islamic architecture …………………………………………………………………………….22
Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….23
References ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………24
TOPIC
The Significance of colour in interior and Islamic architecture
Abstract
Indirect language of the semantics is used in the world in order to transfer the different thoughts,
beliefs and the ideologies. The architecture of the Iranians as gained considerable importance in the
lives of the humans. The spirit of Islam and the truth is indicated by the architecture of Islam. Light
and the color are the two most important aspects of the architectural works of Islam. The scenes of
the space are intervened by colors. Environment psychology can be influenced by the use of the light
and the color in the space. The document gives the information about the different colors which are
used in the architecture of the space. The color effect which is produced by the different colors in the
space is discussed in the essay. The essay provides the information about the color effect produced
by different colors in the interiors of the space. The influence of the light on the color effect produced
by the color in the space is also discussed in the document. Turquoise was the most distinctive color
of the Islamic architecture. The color effect produced by the Turquoise color in Islamic architecture is
discussed in the essay.

Introduction
Colors are the important part of the interiors of the space. The play a crucial role in interior design of
a space. Mainly seven colors are produced by the Rainbow. Some of the colors have the simulating
effect and some other colors have the peaceful effect. Different colors produce the different
psychological effect on the users of the space. The colors also influence the health outcomes of the
human beings. Each of the colors has the different physiological and the psychological effect
associated with it.
Different colors were used in the architecture of the Muslims. Color and the light were two most
important elements of the Islamic architecture. Turquoise and the blue color were most used colors
in the Mosque of the Islams. Different effect was associated with different colors in the architecture
of the Muslims. Different colors such as the Blue, white, Yellow, and Turquoise colors were used in
the different buildings of the Muslims. The colors can be put in the two categories as per the effect
produced by them including the Warm colors and the cool colors. The basic and the secondary colors
formed the separate category of the colors. The color wheel can be used to see the color formed by
the combination of the different colors. Each of the categories of the colors produces a different effect
on the space in which they are used. Some of the colors which are formed by the usage of other colors
are described in this paragraph. Warm colors pose an energetic effect on the environment and the
individuals of the space where they are used. Islamic emperors used Gold, Blue, and turquoise as the
Warm colors. The most stimulating effect is produced by the red color. The feelings of aggression are
produced by the warm colors. The effect imposed by the cool colors is opposite to warm Colors. The
nervous system of human beings is also influenced by the Cool colors.
This document will provide the description of the different types of the colors which are used for the
interior design of the space. The colors which are most used in the Islamic architecture will be
summarized in the document. The role of the colors in the interior design of the space will be discussed
in this document. The document will provide the description of the color effect of the different colors
in the interiors of the old Muslim emperors. Different colors and the effects produced by different
colors in the interiors of the space are discussed in the document. The color effect is also discussed
with regard to Muslim empire in the document. The influence of the light on the effect produced by
the colors also described in the document.
Types of colors
The different sensations which are formed in the eye as a result of the way the light is reflected or
emitted by the object are called color (
Behbahani et al, 2011). A number of the scientists have proved
that all the colors are contained in the Rainbow
(Ćurĉić, Aleksandra & Kekovic, Aleksandar &
Ranđelović, Dušan & Momcilovic-Petronijevic and Ana, 2019). Newton has proved this statement by
letting the light pass through the small hole in dark room and placing Prism in front of that light. All
the seven colors were reflected by light on white background. The seven colors included the violet,
indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange and the red color
(Ćurĉić, Aleksandra & Kekovic, Aleksandar &
Ranđelović, Dušan & Momcilovic-Petronijevic and Ana, 2019)
. The combination of the color can be
obtained by using the Color wheel
(Ćurĉić, Aleksandra & Kekovic, Aleksandar & Ranđelović, Dušan &
Momcilovic-Petronijevic and Ana, 2019)
. Any desired color can be formed by the combination of the
RGB colors. Different tools can be used by the interior designer to see which color is formed by
combination of the other two or more colors.
Figure 1 shows different types of colors in Color wheel (
Behbahani et al, 2011)
A number of the colors were used by the Islamic emperors. The colors used by Islams were blue, white,
Turquoise, yellow and many more. Each color used by the Islamic emperors can be categorized one of
the categories. The colors can be classified into two categories which include the primary colors and
the secondary colors
(Ćurĉić, Aleksandra & Kekovic, Aleksandar & Ranđelović, Dušan & MomcilovicPetronijevic and Ana, 2019). The primary category of the colors includes the colors red color, blue
color, and yellow colors. The colors are formed by different combinations of these colors
(Ćurĉić,
Aleksandra & Kekovic, Aleksandar & Ranđelović, Dušan & Momcilovic-Petronijevic and Ana, 2019)
.
The combination of the blue color and the yellow color results in the formation of the green color. The
combination of the red and the yellow color results in the formation of the orange color
(Ćurĉić,
Aleksandra & Kekovic, Aleksandar & Ranđelović, Dušan & Momcilovic-Petronijevic and Ana, 2019)
.
The combination of the red and the blue color results in the formation of the purple color
(Ćurĉić,
Aleksandra & Kekovic, Aleksandar & Ranđelović, Dušan & Momcilovic-Petronijevic and Ana, 2019)
.
The color formed by the combination of different colors can be seen with the movement of the color

wheel. The colors which are adjacent to each other are called harmonious colors. Harmony between
the different colors can be seen by moving the color wheel which is demonstrated in figure 1. The
opposite colors which face each other are called complementary colors. The colors in the color wheel
can be divided into two categories which include warm colors and cool colors
(Ćurĉić, Aleksandra &
Kekovic, Aleksandar & Ranđelović, Dušan & Momcilovic-Petronijevic and Ana, 2019)
. Different colors
are included in the category of the Warm and cool colors. Each of the categories of the colors produces
a different effect on the space in which they are used. Some of the colors which are formed by the
usage of other colors are described in this paragraph.
Different colors are included in the category of the warm colors. The seven colors can be assigned the
category warm color or cool colors. Out of the seven hues of the Colors, the warm colors include red,
some shades of green, orange color, and yellow color
(Ćurĉić, Aleksandra & Kekovic, Aleksandar &
Ranđelović, Dušan & Momcilovic-Petronijevic and Ana, 2019)
. The energetic and the bold colors are
defined as Warm colors
(Ćurĉić, Aleksandra & Kekovic, Aleksandar & Ranđelović, Dušan & MomcilovicPetronijevic and Ana, 2019). Warm colors pose an energetic effect on the environment and the
individuals of the space where they are used. Islamic emperors used Gold, Blue, and turquoise as the
Warm colors. These three colors are also mentioned in The Holy book of the Muslims that is Quran
mentions these three colors for the production of the Glow effect in the interiors of the space. Yellow
color symbolized the peace and happiness in the Muslim Culture (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi
Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). Things can be accentuated with the use of the Warm
colors. Exciting and stimulating scenes can be produced by use of the warm colors in the space. Warm
colors can pose positive effects as well the negative effects on the environment as well as the
individual
(Ćurĉić, Aleksandra & Kekovic, Aleksandar & Ranđelović, Dušan & Momcilovic-Petronijevic
and Ana, 2019)
. The interior space of a place can become congested with the excessive use of Warm
colors and accentuated effects can be produced by the use of the Warm colors in the interiors. The
nervous system of human beings is stimulated by Warm Colors
(Ćurĉić, Aleksandra & Kekovic,
Aleksandar & Ranđelović, Dušan & Momcilovic-Petronijevic and Ana, 2019)
. The rhythm of the heart
and the blood pressure of the human being may get increased with the use of Warm colors in the
interiors. The breathing rate of the human beings can also get increased with the use of the Warm
colors in the interiors of the place
(Ćurĉić, Aleksandra & Kekovic, Aleksandar & Ranđelović, Dušan &
Momcilovic-Petronijevic and Ana, 2019)
.
The other category of the colors is the cool colors. Cool colors are also used in the Muslim architecture
to produce the different effects. Some of the colors are considered as the cool colors in the seven hues
of the colors. Out of the seven hues of the Colors, the cool colors include green, indigo color, blue
color, and violet color
(Ćurĉić, Aleksandra & Kekovic, Aleksandar & Ranđelović, Dušan & Momcilovic
Petronijevic and Ana, 2019). The effect imposed by the cool colors is opposite to warm Colors. The
nervous system of the human beings is also influenced by the Cool colors
(Ćurĉić, Aleksandra &
Kekovic, Aleksandar & Ranđelović, Dušan & Momcilovic-Petronijevic and Ana, 2019)
. The rhythm of
the heart and the blood pressure of the human being may get decreased with the use of Cool colors
in the interiors. The breathing rate of the human beings can also get decreased with the use of the
cool colors in the interiors of the place
(Ćurĉić, Aleksandra & Kekovic, Aleksandar & Ranđelović, Dušan
& Momcilovic-Petronijevic and Ana, 2019)
. Soothing effect is produced with the use of the Blue colors
in the interiors of the space
(Ćurĉić, Aleksandra & Kekovic, Aleksandar & Ranđelović, Dušan &
Momcilovic-Petronijevic and Ana, 2019)
. Cool colors produce the effect of happiness. The space can
be shown as spacious with the use of the Cool colors. The calmer and the peaceful effects can be
produced in space with the use of Cool colors. Emotions of the human beings can be associated with
colors in any space. Different feelings and emotions are induced by different colors. The wavelength
of the color tells about its color hue or the gradation. Cool colors have the short wavelength and the
other hand, Warm colors are of a longer wavelength (YILDIRIM, Kemal & Hidayetoğlu, Mehmet Lutfi
& Ozkan and Aysen, 2011). The blue and the green colors produce the relaxing effect while the red
and the orange color produce the stimulating effect. The cool colors produce a relaxing effect which
in turn makes the place peaceful to breathe in.
The buildings of the Islam also used the neutral colors. There is another category of the colors also
which is called the neutral colors. White, Grey, and black colors fall in the category of neutral colors
(Ćurĉić, Aleksandra & Kekovic, Aleksandar & Ranđelović, Dušan & Momcilovic-Petronijevic and Ana,
2019).
The favorite color of the great prophet of Muslims was white. The manifestations can be
produced by the colors by using the light element in it. Some of the manifestations which are produced
in the colors by light elements are contradictory to each other (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi
Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). The color effect produced by the different colors is
affected by light. Some of the colors are considered to pose more glow than the other colors in the
Muslim architecture.
Neutral colors produce a neutral effect on the space in which they are used. They
do not produce the stimulating effects like the Warm colors and neither they produce the peaceful
effects in the space like cool colors.
Role of colors in interiors
There are a number of steps involved in the interior design from the development of the concept to
the realization of the design (Akram et al, 2013). The interior architecture of the space is affected by
a number of factors. The quality of the interior design of the space is affected by one of the most basic
factors called color (Akram et al, 2013). Color was considered as the most crucial factor while designing

the interiors of the Islamic buildings. Different psychology was associated with different colors in the
Islamic word. Yellow color was considered as the color of the peace and the happiness. Purity was
associated with the White color in the Islamic world. Many authors have made studies on the complex
nature of the colors. The choice of color has an impact on art, psychology, religion, and culture of
Islam
(Ćurĉić, Aleksandra & Kekovic, Aleksandar & Ranđelović, Dušan & Momcilovic-Petronijevic and
Ana, 2019)
. The fundamental quality of our visual perception is color. The esthetics effort which is
developed by the colors can be explained by a number of theories and assumptions. Colors affect the
human psyche
(Ćurĉić, Aleksandra & Kekovic, Aleksandar & Ranđelović, Dušan & MomcilovicPetronijevic and Ana, 2019).
The psychological well being of the occupants must be sustained by the interior design of the space
which can be built by the architecture of that space
(Ćurĉić, Aleksandra & Kekovic, Aleksandar &
Ranđelović, Dušan & Momcilovic-Petronijevic and Ana, 2019)
. This is the most crucial role of
architecture as in modern days, most of the time of the individuals is spent the indoors
(Ćurĉić,
Aleksandra & Kekovic, Aleksandar & Ranđelović, Dušan & Momcilovic-Petronijevic and Ana, 2019)
.
The Islams spent there most of the time in the church. The users of the space are represented in terms
of the functional, psychological, and esthetic terms by the interior design of the space
(Ćurĉić,
Aleksandra & Kekovic, Aleksandar & Ranđelović, Dušan & Momcilovic-Petronijevic and Ana, 2019)
.
Colors were an important part of the Islamic world and they put a great impact on the perceptions of
humans. They are the most crucial element for the interior design of the space
(Ćurĉić, Aleksandra &
Kekovic, Aleksandar & Ranđelović, Dušan & Momcilovic-Petronijevic and Ana, 2019).
. Color is the key
factor that is considered while designing the space for the living of the individuals and the working of
the organizations
(Ćurĉić, Aleksandra & Kekovic, Aleksandar & Ranđelović, Dušan & MomcilovicPetronijevic and Ana, 2019). Colors put a physiological and psychological impact on humans therefore,
it is important to assess the importance of the colors and their effect on the users of the space
(Ćurĉić,
Aleksandra & Kekovic, Aleksandar & Ranđelović, Dušan & Momcilovic-Petronijevic and Ana, 2019)
.
The emotions and the cognitive processes of humans are affected by the color of their interior design
(Ćurĉić, Aleksandra & Kekovic, Aleksandar & Ranđelović, Dušan & Momcilovic-Petronijevic and Ana,
2019)
. The same color can put a different impact on the different individuals (ÇİÇEK, N.G. and
GÖKÇAKAN, 2016.
). Color perception is influenced by experience, cultural differences, and memories
(Ćurĉić, Aleksandra & Kekovic, Aleksandar & Ranđelović, Dušan & Momcilovic-Petronijevic and Ana,
2019)
.
Experience with the colors is required while designing the interior space of any place. The appropriate
combination of the colors must be selected by the interior designer in order to get the right impact of

colors on the psychology and perceptions of the people (Ćurĉić, Aleksandra & Kekovic, Aleksandar &
Ranđelović, Dušan & Momcilovic-Petronijevic and Ana, 2019). The interior designer at the time of the
different Islamic emperors took care of the use of color in the particular space with regard to the
psychology of the Muslims.
The combination of the colors and their impact on the viewer can be
negative or positive depending on which combination of the colors is used
(Ćurĉić, Aleksandra &
Kekovic, Aleksandar & Ranđelović, Dušan & Momcilovic-Petronijevic and Ana, 2019)
. Some of the
colors can induce the feeling of the comfort and serenity while some colors at the same time cause
discomfort and aggression in the individuals. Colors act as a powerful tool in order to create illusions
in a particular space
(Ćurĉić, Aleksandra & Kekovic, Aleksandar & Ranđelović, Dušan & MomcilovicPetronijevic and Ana, 2019). The lack of color is represented by black in light while the white in the
light represents the presence of all the colors (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad,
Jamal-E-Din, 2016). Different spiritual and material values were associated with the different colors in
the Islamic culture and civilization A small room can appear to be larger with the right choice of color
while the larger room can appear to be smaller with the wrong choice of color. The flexibility and the
changes can be made in the architecture with the right choice of the colors
(Ćurĉić, Aleksandra &
Kekovic, Aleksandar & Ranđelović, Dušan & Momcilovic-Petronijevic and Ana, 2019).
Colors and light are the two important elements that were taken care of in the architecture of the old
Islamic emperors (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). The effect
of the color is changed with the combination of the light element in it. Diverse colors were used in
the architecture of the Islamic emperors. The colors were given great importance in the residential
buildings of the Muslim emperors (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din,
2016). The interiors of the different residential buildings of the Islam were designed with the different
colors. The Natural beauty was illustrated by the Artists by using diverse colors. The art of the Muslims
was intertwined with life. The architecture of the Muslim was practical (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi
Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). The mystical soul of Mosques was boosted by the design
of the color used in the interiors. The past architects applied the color and the light elements in a
skillful way in the architecture of the Muslims (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad,
Jamal-E-Din, 2016).
The most aesthetic elements in the architecture of Muslims are color, light, and water (Zarghami,
Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). The most distinct aspect of the Iranian
architecture is the light which represents the divine wisdom. The color element of the architecture
represents the refraction of light (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din,
2016). The nature of the Muslims was reflected by the Water element. Values associated with each
color were considered by the Architect while designing the interiors of the buildings of the Islams.

The reflection of the nature is represented by the water element of the Islamic architecture. The color
is defined in the Islamic architecture with the diversity of light (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi
Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). The preservation of the values is the first duty of the
architect (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016).
The values were given great importance in Islamic architecture. The architecture was designed in such
a way that the values do not get destroyed with the design of the architecture (Zarghami, Esmeail &
Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). Different colors were assigned the different
meanings in the Islamic architecture (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-EDin, 2016).
Color effect in interiors of Old Muslim emperors
Different effects were associated with the different colors in the interiors of the buildings of the
Muslim Emperors. White color symbolizes God and absolute well-being in the Muslim culture
(Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). Ka’aba is associated with
the black color in the Muslim culture. The metaphysical balance of the Ka’aba is also rendered to black
color in the Muslim culture (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016).
Glow and effect were associated with some of the colors in Islamic architecture. Three colors were
considered in order to render more glow and effect to Islamic Muslim paintings (Zarghami, Esmeail &
Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). These three colors included Gold, Blue, and
turquoise. These three colors were The Holy book of the Muslims that is Quran mentions these three
colors for producing the Glow effect in the interiors of the space. Peace and happiness are symbolized
by the Yellow color in Muslim Culture (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-EDin, 2016). The great prophet of Muslims had the favorite color as white. The manifestations can be
produced by the colors by using the light element in it. Some of the manifestations which are produced
in the colors by light elements are contradictory to each other (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi
Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). The color effect produced by the different colors is
affected by light. Some of the colors are considered to pose more glow than the other colors in the
Muslim architecture.
White and the black colors were used in some of the buildings of the Islams in order to render different
effects in the interiors of the buildings. These colors were used in combination with the other different
colors. Different effects are produced by the White and black colors in the interiors of the space. The
lack of color is represented by black in light while the white in the light represents the presence of all
the colors (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). Different spiritual

and material values were associated with the different colors in the Islamic culture and civilization
(Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). Spiritual and material values
were demonstrated by the Muslim culture with the use of colors in the interiors. Different colors were
used in the worship places and living spaces. Light and color are the two important elements of the
Islamic architecture. These two elements are interconnected with each other. Diverse coloring was
used in the residential buildings of the Islam. Mystical soul of the mosques was boosted with the use
of the diverse colors.
Each of the colors had different characteristics in the Islamic culture. Different features were
presented by the different primary colors and the secondary colors (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi
Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). Green, Orange, Yellow and Red colors were considered in
the category of the Primary colors in the Muslim culture while Purple, brown, and black colors were
considered in the category of the secondary colors in the Muslim Culture (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi
Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). The aesthetic elements of the Islamic architecture were
the colors, water and light. Yong was the Scientist who used the different colors in order to find which
colors form white color. He found that blue, red and the green colors can be combined to form the
white color. In the Islamic architecture, different colors were considered to produce different
psychological effects on the psychology of humans.
Different colors and their effects
Different color effects are associated with the primary colors and the secondary colors. The
characteristics which were associated with primary colors in the Islamic culture will be discussed in
this paragraph. Blue color was considered to be associated with perfect peace. Blue color symbolized
long lasting traditions and the values in the Islamic culture (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad,

Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). It was a sign of trust and truth as well as Loyalty. Soothing and peaceful
effects are produced by blue color. Work, Stable faith, effort and self awareness are represented by
the green color. Mental dilemmas can be relieved with the use of green color in the space. Green color
is considered to be the comforting and calming color (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali &
Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). Force of life and all forms of desire and passion are represented by the red
color (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). Achievement of the
desired results and success is represented by the red color (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad,
Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). Stimulating and accentuating effect is produced by red color in space.
Fleeting happiness, easy mind, and expansion are associated with the yellow color (Zarghami, Esmeail
& Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). Abnormal effects can be produced by yellow
color on the mind of the individual in long run. This color can produce the mental disorder and the
mental confusion in individuals (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din,
2016). These effects can be influenced if it is used in combination with other colors. This color should
be combined with its complementary color which is purple color.
Secondary colors also have different significance associated with them. The dominating nature of the
red and the peaceful surrender of the blue color can be together seen in the purple color. It produces
effects of both the red and the blue color. Assimilation and indecision are represented by the purple
color (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). Inner reflection and
mediation are increased by the purple color. This color also produces more good effects when it is
used in combination with its complementary color which is yellow (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi
Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). The other secondary color is the brown color. This color
also has different influencing effects associated with it. The need for the physical comfort and the
pleasure is associated with the brown color. This color indicates the social security. If wide
environment is covered with this color then, this color can create heavy atmosphere and can produce
a feeling of the depression in the human beings (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad,
Jamal-E-Din, 2016). Negative emotions are associated more with the black color than the positive
emotions. Emptiness is represented by the black colour. This color indicates the withdrawal of interest
in Muslim culture. This color represents unwise behavior and hasty conduct. The static and negative
environment can be cast with black color (Z arghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, JamalE-Din, 2016). This color has negative effects associated with it. Black color has heavy energy and thick
energy (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). This paragraph
explains the different influencing effects which are produced by the secondary colors.

Case studies:
GOLCONDA
Golconda Fort was built by the Kakatiya dynasty’s monarchs. The fort is 11 kilometres from
Hyderabad, near the Golconda tehsil. Golconda was the capital of the Qutb Shahi dynasty from 1518
to 1687. The Golconda fort is located 11 kilometres from Hyderabad in Golconda.
The Qutb Shahi dynasty made the city their capital. From 1518 to 1687, they were in power. The
mines of Golconda yielded many diamonds, including the Kohinoor, Nassak Diamond, Hope
Diamond, and many others.
Design and architecture of the Golkonda Fort
These are photographs of more than ten-hundred-year-old Indian patterns. Carvings of architectural
and other types can be found at the Golkonda The remnants of bastions and cannons, gateways and
drawbridges, royal palaces, temples, and mosques may all be found inside the fort.

One of the fort’s ornate arches may be seen here. Two lions are carved on the top of the arched
gateway, and intricate decorations can be seen all around the arch. Carvings of two peacocks may be
found beneath the door, immediately above the entrance. Animal figures were frequently used in
ancient Indian Art.
{http://www.stockpicturesforeveryone.com/2012/05/golkonda-fort-design-and-architecture.html}
ARCHITECTURE
GOLCONDA, It is one of the greatest specimens of Qutub Shahi architecture, having been built by
Mir Musa Khan Mahaldar in 1671 AD under the reign of Sultan Abdullah Qutub Shah.
The architectural styles established during the Deccan Sultanate period are known as Deccani
Architecure. Their architecture was a regional variation of Indo-Islamic architecture, mainly
influenced by styles from the Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal architecture, but also from Persia and
Central Asia on occasion. The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) has included Golconda Fort in its
“List of Monuments” as an archaeological masterpiece in compliance with the Ancient Monuments
and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act.

The entrance has a pointed arch, and the perimeter is defined by multiple rows of scrollwork.
The roughly triangular spandrels on the gateway’s entry have been placed with yalis (a legendary
monster present in most South Indian temples) and are embellished with roundels. Peacocks have
been placed in the space available above the entryway.The yalis flanking a disc have been fashioned
into the granite slab below. Surprisingly, the peacocks and lions featured in this place are designed in
a classic Hindu architectural style.
These kings’ and rulers’ graves are built in an Islamic architectural style. The graves are about a
kilometre north of the Golconda Fort, and they are surrounded by a magnificent and lovely garden
as well as various sculpted stones. It’s also stated that there’s a secret tunnel leading from here to
the Charminar.
Goharshad Mosque
Ghavameddin Shirazi, a well-known Iranian architect, was commissioned by Empress Goharshad to
construct the mosque in 1418 CE. The Imam Reza mausoleum is located to the south of the
Goharshad mosque. This historic mosque is a fine example of Iranian art, with elements of Islamic
traditional architecture.
The Mongols raided Iran twice in the 13th and 14th centuries. Timur led an attack on Iran in the 14th
century, which resulted in widespread destruction and massacre. Following Timur’s death, his son
Shah Rukh ascended to the throne. He became interested in making art and began to build religious
structures. We might mention Goharshad Mosque, which was built on the orders of Shah Rukh’s
wife in the early 15th century, to the south of the Holy Shrine of ImamReza (Imam of Twelver Shi’a
Islam). The Goharshad Grand Mosque is a brick and plaster structure in the Eastern architectural
style.

The mosque now has seven entrance gates, including one which leads to the Holy Shrine. From the
mail navigational points and twp-storey porticos, a largecourtship has been located in the middle of
the mosque with approximate dimensions of 5055 metres and is restricted to four cloisters named
(Maqsureh) Southern, (Dar-Al-Syadeh) Northern, (Haji Hassan) Eastern, and (Aqua Cloister)Western.
The Maqsureh cloister, also known as the Qiblah cloister, is the largest in the mosque. The altar was
placed inside the dome, which was placed on top of it. The cloister is 37 metres long and has a gate
that is almost 13 metres wide. Simple Cloister, a shallow cloister with a path to Dar-Al-Syadeh, is
located here. The cloister’s ceiling is covered in white tiles with yellow Kufi lettering and Chinese
loops on the background. It has plant-drawn borders that lead to the entrance cloister, which is brick
and tile covered. The AquaCloister leads to Sheikh Baha-Al-Din Ameli, the IslamicRepublic courtship,
and the Dar-Al-Velayat portico of Imam Reza’s holyshrine. The background is an azure dark blue with
white calligraphy surrounded by climbing flowers, and the cloister’s surface is covered with
diaphoretic tiles with plant inscriptions. At the end of the cloister, there are bricks and tiling
depicting magnificent loops. Inside the cloister, there are closed vaults with brick and tile on both
sides, and turquoise is the dominant colour on the walls, creating a stunning display against the brick
background. Alabaster has been used to outfit the cloister’s floor, while black alabaster has been
used to cover the plinths. Tiles have been used to cover the entire ceiling, and an epigraph has been
placed around 21 octagon stars. Inside the cloister, there are white epigraphs on a dark azure
background. The Eastern Cloister is located in the heart of the city. HajiHassan is the name of the
cloister. The floor, like the others, is made of alabaster, and the plinths are made of dark alabaster.

The sleeping quarters. Bedchambers known as Nahavandi, Golpayegani or Milani, Najaf Abadi,
Sarabbi of warm bedchamber, and Sheikh Gholam Hossein may be found on three sides. White
plaster has been used to cover all of the bedchambers, and the visitor is soothed by its simplicity.
Colors In Islamic Architecture
Colors are written in the holy book of the Muslims several times. The Quran specifies the red, yellow,
green, blue, black and the white colors. The light is associated with the supreme creator while the
darkness is associated with ugliness and in justice. Black color represents the grief in Islams while the
bright colors represent playfulness. The interior designer of the space must use the colors as they are
appropriate for the space. He should have an understanding of the colors and the theories. The
aesthetic and the cultural values can be achieved by use of the different colors in the interiors of the
space. Physiological and the psychological dimension which is associated with the colors must be
considered while designing the interiors of the space.
Different colors and their effects will be discussed in this section in the context of the Islamic
architecture. Every culture renders different meanings with different colors. Islamic culture also used
the different colors in their architecture in order to induce different effects on the individual and the
environment of the place (Rezaei, Davood & Soltani and Ghazal, 2012). Each of the primary colors and
secondary colors will be discussed in this section with reference to Islamic architecture. The most
distinctive color in Islamic architecture is the Turquoise color.
Turquoise Blue
The eyesight was believed to increase with the use of the turquoise blue color in the interiors of the
place by the traditional people. Growth and eminence are symbolized by this color. Infertility and
sterility can be cured with this color as per the beliefs of the people (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi
Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). Dignity and health are brought by Turquoise blue color
when used in the interiors of the place (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, JamalE-Din, 2016). Iranians believed that turquoise blue color was the color of holiness and they used this
color in the architecture of their holy places such as the dome and minarets. The holiness was
associated with turquoise blue color in the Muslim culture. The most distinctive color in the Islamic
architecture is the turquoise blue color.

Figure 3 shows the use of Turquoise blue color on the dome of Goharshad Mosque, Iran
Source: (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016)
Yellow color
Yellow color was used in the educational environment and the training places in the Islamic culture
(Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). This color was considered
the brightest color in the Islamic architecture and characteristics of the yellow color are lost when it
is combined with some of the other colors including black, grey, and purple color (Zarghami, Esmeail
& Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). Yellow color is considered as the density of the
white in Islamic architecture and this color has the attributes of vitality, relaxation, happiness, and joy
(Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). Other life and the surprises
are symbolized by the yellow color. The warmth of the sun, joy, and rise of the prophets are
represented by the yellow color (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din,
2016). Hope and freedom emotions were associated with the yellow color in the Islamic culture
(Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). Good digestion is associated
with the yellow color in Islam and digestion is made easier with the use of the yellow color. It was
considered as the Symbol of the Wisdom and science in Islam (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi
Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). The color has the soothing power and it is considered as
the sign of the power and glory. The color was considered to be very effective in the treatment of the

diseases related to liver and dementia is stimulated by this color(Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi
Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). The mental power is boosted by the yellow color and the
room in yellow is considered to be good for the students and the researchers (Zarghami, Esmeail &
Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). If yellow color was used with red background in
Islamic architecture then, it produces the luxurious, noisy and cheerful effect (Zarghami, Esmeail &
Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). If yellow color was used with black background
in Islamic architecture then, it produces the ostentation, power and strength (Zarghami, Esmeail &
Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). Yellow has been considered a bright color in
Islam. The use of the yellow color in Islam symbolizes Eternity, sun, and immortality. The distrust and
the betrayal are represented if the yellow color is used in combination with the dark shadows. The
influencing effect of the yellow is modified if it is used in combination with the other colors. The true
significance of the color gets changed when it is used in combination with other colors.
Green color
Freedom, life, and liberty are represented by the green color. The sense of prosperity is evoked by the
green color (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). The green color
is introduced as the color of the health and safety due to the soothing effect produced by this color
(Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). The non dangerous physical
signs are represented by the green color. The green color is formed by the combination of the yellow
and the blue color. The green color is considered as the balanced color in the color spectrum
(Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). The color does not produce
the exciting effect and the passive static effect (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad,
Jamal-E-Din, 2016). The stability of the mind and the self knowledge is indicated by the green color
(Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). Spring and fertility are
evoked by bright green color. Peacefulness is represented by the green color but peace and thought
are represented by the green color (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-EDin, 2016). Green is regarded as the symbol of faith and wisdom in Islamic architecture. The holy book
of Muslims which is Quran mentions the green color as the most beautiful color (Zarghami, Esmeail &
Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). Green color is considered as the color of
perfection and excellence. Happiness and joyfulness is transferred by the green color as mentioned in
the Holy book Quran (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). . It is
considered as the symbol of the life, growth, and eternity as per the psychologists. Green color is taken
as the symbol of the sustainability, tolerance, and patience (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad,
Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). Vision is invigorated and stimulated by green color (
Nejad, J. M.,
Zarghami, E., & Abad and A. S. H, 2016
). This color relaxes the eyes of the individual when used in the
interiors. Green is considered as the color of increasing vision by the research scholars (Zarghami,
Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). The green color is stated as the color
of heaven in the Holy book Quran. It is considered as the color of the faith, heaven and perfection in
the Islamic architecture. The moderate effect is produced by green color which is neither too exciting
nor too soothing effect. Green color is regarded the sacred color for the Muslims. The color is related
to prophet Islam and the holy family of Islam.
Figure 2 shows the use of Green color in Islamic architecture
(Al Nabi Mosque, Medina, Suadi Arabia)
Source: (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016)
Blue color
Najam Al din Bemat stated the significance of the blue color in his writings. As per his writing, calmness
and the eternity are evoked with the use of the blue color (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad,
Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). As per Kandinsky, infinity is associated with the dark blue color, and
hunger for the supernatural in humans is raised by the use of the blue color in the architecture of the

Muslims (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). Zarghami states
that there is no nature of blue color on its own (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad,
Jamal-E-Din, 2016). The material manifest of it is obtained from the surface which is covered by blue
color (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). The reality becomes
the fantasy in blue color and blue color is never ending color. Stillness and balance are induced by blue
color when used in the architecture of a place (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad,
Jamal-E-Din, 2016). The color is considered as the Fresh and calm color. Sweetness and calmness are
attributed to the blue color. The blue color is sacred and the holy color in the culture of Islams
(Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). This is because blue is the
color of the sky and the souls and the angels are also considered to believed to be present. The feeling
of comfort and relief is posed by blue color when used in architecture of some place. Blue color was
used in the workplaces in the Islamic architecture. The color was also used in the design of the
mosques and the decoration of the mosques. The color was also used in the holy places apart from
mosques. Cleanliness and spirituality are symbolized by the blue color. Blue and the turquoise color
were used in abundance in the architecture of Muslims.
White color
Intangible and unperceived innocence is attributed to the white color in the Islamic culture (Zarghami,
Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). This color indicates the pureness,
sunlight, perfection, and non discrimination (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad,
Jamal-E-Din, 2016). Illumination and sacredness are associated with this color. It symbolizes happiness
(Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). Everything is repelled by
White which is inferior to it (
Batchelor, 2000). The emptiness is shown by white when used in the
interior even when everything is full (
Batchelor, 2000). The sense of the simplicity comes with the use
of the white in the interiors of the place (
Batchelor, 2000). White color is a symbol of faith and
happiness in the culture of Muslims (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-EDin, 2016). The happiness of the faithful is described with a white face in the Quran (Zarghami, Esmeail
& Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016) and the misfortune of the non faithfulness is
described with the black face as per the holy book of Muslims which is the Quran. The sense of the
wider space can be created in the interiors of the place by using the white color in the interiors of the
place. The room which is painted in the white color can be represented as the open and spacy but
white also represent cold and emptiness at the same time. The white color was used in the hospitals
and medical centers in the order to indicate cleanliness. The tiles of the Turquoise glazed black color
were used in the exterior parts of the buildings of Islam in the SelJuk Era

Light effect on colors in Islamic architecture
Light is considered as the symbol of the divine wisdom and element of God in the Islamic religion. The
main objective of the religion is the movement from the darkness towards light (Zarghami, Esmeail &
Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). As per the holy book of the Muslims which is
Quran, Light is considered as the representation and the presence of the god. There is great
importance of the effect of light and the colors in the architecture of Islams. The emanation is focused
with regard to light in the architecture of the Islams (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali &
Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). The difficulty and the frigidity are reduced with light and the material
becomes transparent with the use of the light (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad,
Jamal-E-Din, 2016). Color is non replaceable companion of the light in this tangible world. Light is one
of the elements of the perceptual space in Mosque. Life and mobility is given to the Islamic
ornamentations with the help of light. Human is directed to an imaginary world with the light and
decorations of the Mosque (Derek, 2004).
As per Hussein Nasr, there is a chemical aspect in the colors and when colors are combined with art
then, they form alchemy (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016).
There is a unique allegorical feature associated with each color. Each of the colors has some
relationship with the human and the soul of the humans. Geometric Iranian art illustrates the use of
the light (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). There is a Mosque
is Isfahan named as the Sheikh Lotfollah mosque which contains the abstract expression of the light
in the art of the Muslims. The ceiling of the Mosque contains this effect. The effect of the color and
light can be seen in the architecture of the Muslims (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali &
Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016).
The spiritual effects are associated with the color effect and the lightning effect in the Islamic
architecture (Babakhani and Reza, 2017). The decisions of the users are affected by the use of the
color and light combined effect in the space (Babakhani and Reza, 2017). Turquoise and the blue color
were used in the Mosques in the Islamic architecture. The inner barriers of the individual are broken
by the colors. The visual reactions of the individual are affected by the colors and the effect of the
light on the colors (Babakhani and Reza, 2017).
Relationship between the color and symbol issue that originated from the principles of the Islamic art.
There is significant meaning of the effect of the light and the color in the Islamic architecture. The
effect of the color and light cannot be denied in the interiors of the Islamic emperors. The light and
the color effect are used while designing the interiors of the mosques and the other holy places in the
Islamic architecture (Zarghami, Esmeail & Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016). The

color element and the light element are interconnected with each other and have an effect on the
spatial value. A specific existence is represented by all the colors. The features of the different colors
are coordination with the essence of the existence. Different colors reflect the different personalities.
Some of the colors produce mental peace and physical comfort while other colors (Zarghami, Esmeail
& Sadeghi Habibabad, Ali & Nejad, Jamal-E-Din, 2016).
Conclusion
Interiors of the space affect the psychology of the person. The seven colors included violet, indigo,
blue, green, yellow, orange and the red color. Each of the seven comes in one of the categories of the
primary or the secondary colors. Different secondary colors can be formed by different combinations
of the primary colors. The colors which are shown the color wheel can be divided in two categories.
One of the categories is warm colors and the other category is cool colors. The interior space of a place
can become congested with the excessive use of Warm colors and accentuated effects can be
produced by the use of Warm colors in the interiors. The nervous system of human beings is
stimulated by Warm Colors. The soothing effect is produced with the use of the blue colors in the
interiors of the space. Cool colors produce the effect of happiness. The space can be shown as spacious
with the use of Cool colors.
Both Warm and the cool colors were used in the Ambience of the space in the Islamic architecture.
Cool colors were used in the spiritual space of the Islamic architecture. Neutral colors were also used
in the Islamic architecture. The favorite color of the great prophet of Muslims was white. The room

which is painted in white color can be represented as the open and spacy but white also represent
cold and emptiness at the same time. The white color was used in the hospitals and medical centers
in the order to indicate cleanliness in the Muslim architecture. Green is regarded as the symbol of
faith and wisdom in Islamic architecture. The holy book of Muslims which is Quran mentions the green
color as the most beautiful color. Mental dilemmas can be relieved with the use of green color in the
space. Green color is considered to be the comforting and calming color The color used in the
background of the colors also influences the color effect produced by the color. If yellow color is used
with red background in Islamic architecture then, it produces the luxurious, noisy and cheerful eff, ct
and on the same time If yellow color is used with black background in Islamic architecture then, it
produces the ostentation, power, and strength. This thing goes with the other colors as well. Blue
color is considered as the sacred color in Islam therefore, it is used on the Mosques and other holy
places in the Islamic culture. Blue color is considered as the Fresh and calm color. Sweetness and
calmness are attributed to the blue color. The blue color is sacred and the holy color in the culture of
Islams. Iranians believed that turquoise blue color was the color of holiness and they used this color
in the architecture of their holy places such as the dome and minarets. The holiness was associated
with turquoise blue color in the Muslim culture. The most distinctive color in the Islamic architecture
is the turquoise blue color.
Light and the color were most important elements of the Islamic architecture. The color was
considered as the most important factor while designing the interior space of the Islamic buildings.
Different psychology was related with different colors in the Islamic world. The yellow color was
considered as the color of peace and the happiness in the Islamic architecture. Purity was associated
with the White color in the Islamic world. The choice of color has an impact on the art, psychology,
religion, and culture of Islam. Colors were an important part of the Islamic world and they put a great
impact on the perceptions of humans.
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