Cultural Intelligence and
Workshop Week 9
Promoting diversity and the value
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• Understand the link between diversity and
• Appreciate the value of inclusiveness in promoting
• Examine measures that promote diversity at work
• Explore the different ways that diversity can be
integrated in the workplace
Dimensions of diversity
A Rowe, Diverse
Teams at Work:
Capitalizing on the
Power of Diversity
1994), p. 33
• In groups, based on the previous slide, select:
– Any organisational dimension of your choice
– Any external dimension of your choice
– And any internal dimension of your choice
• Then articulate for the rest of the class the
relationship between the three dimensions you
have chosen. In particular:
– What diversity-related issues arise?
– How might they be managed?
Primary and secondary
• The primary and secondary dimensions of a
personality can be used as a source of
discrimination or advantage.
• For example, there can be an implicit bias
towards people who are more physically
attractive (visible primary dimension) or
towards those who are similar to the
dominant values of an organisation
(secondary dimensions such as social or
• An effective manager needs to pay attention to all these layers of
diversity with the goal of using both differences and similarities to align to
the larger goal or mission of the organisation.
• Being valued by the organisation is a key aspect of employee
satisfaction, yet employees may not necessarily want to be identified
based on their diversity factors.
– For example, a female employee may despise being identified by her gender
in a role where she can do the job as well as a male colleague.
• Another layer of complexity in identifying personalities based on diversity
is that people can also move in and out of their primary or secondary
– For instance, a married individual can become divorced or a person can
adopt different religions, upgrade qualifications, change gender, etc.
• From an organisational perspective,
workplace diversity is founded on the
premise that harnessing the visible and
non-visible diversity dimensions will create
a productive environment in which
everyone feels valued, where talents are
fully utilised and organisational goals are
(Kandola & Fullerton, 1998)
What is inclusion?
• Inclusion is a state in which all organisational
members feel welcome and valued for who
they are and what they “bring to the table”.
• All stakeholders share a high sense of
belonging and fulfilled mutual purpose.
• Inclusion is not an end, but rather a means to
manifest a broadly and deeply felt sense of
(Smith, J, & Lindsay, J 2014 )
• The world of diversity and inclusion is replete with
hundreds of nuances and definitions.
• In groups, visit the following dictionary:
• Select any three terms/definitions of your choice.
• Then, using your own words – and perhaps the use of
a diagram – teach the rest of the class what you’ve
Interpersonal vs intrapersonal
• Inclusion is experienced by and among all
stakeholders of the organisation: individual
contributors, managers, executives, and customers.
• Inclusion is also relevant within every individual. It
is an intrapersonal issue – as in the self-talk,
thoughts, reasoning, attributions, and decisionmaking processes that cause individuals to include
(or sometimes exclude) themselves in
• The willingness and ability to include oneself is an
indispensible element in experiencing inclusion.
Diversity and inclusiveness:
What’s the link?
• Watch the following collection of diversity
• What would you do in each situation?
Addressing diversity challenges
• Suspend bias and create a safe space:
– Create formal or informal space for social interactions
that are person-based rather than identity-group based
and where individual relationships can be developed,
assumptions can be surfaced, personal values can be
• Create a shared identity:
– Bringing the entire organisation together in internalising
a common goal to discourage an us-versus-them mindset from developing.
(Ernst and Yip, 2008)
Addressing diversity challenges
• Embed groups within a larger whole:
– Like Russian “matryoshka dolls”, smaller subgroups
with unique meaning and integrity can be nested within
larger groups that constitute the whole.
– For example, a number of organisations use
educational or cultural events to bring social identity
• Interlace social identities:
– Facilitate opportunities for increased cross-boundary
collaboration and creativity.
• Some of the key issues associated with gender diversity
– Targets and quotas
– Women in leadership
– Mentoring and sponsorship
– Engaging men
– Women in non-traditional occupations
– Gender pay equity
– Gender reporting
– Older women
– Childcare and other dependent care
Source: Diversity Council of Australia
• In groups, see if you can reach a
unanimous decision on which of the issues
from the previous slide is most pressing.
• There is no right or wrong answer. It’s just
a matter of opinion – so long as you’re
able to justify your position.
• Cultural differences in the workplace have
various manifestations. These include:
– Religious practices
– Social values
– Family obligations
– Non-verbal behaviour
Source: Equal Opportunity Commission
• Using the following ‘Empowerment Model’
as a guide, identify at least three ways in
which a manager might increase
acceptance of cultural diversity in his or
Source: Roosevelt Thomas, 1991
Source: Institute for Employment Studies
• There are myriad diversity initiatives available to
managers. According to Jayne and Dipboye (2004), these
– Recruitment interventions
– Retention strategies
– Development programs
– External partnerships
– Internal communication
– Awareness training
– Dedicated staffing and infrastructure
• Each group will be allocated one of those initiatives. Your
task is to identify at least three ways in which your
allocated initiative can be used for the purpose of
managing age-related diversity.
Employees with disability
• Workers with a disability have, on average, higher job retention
than those without a disability.
• They also have better attendance rates than those without a
• There is little difference between people with a disability and
others when comparing levels of productivity.
• Workers with a disability also have fewer work health and safety
• Furthermore, workers’ compensation costs and WHS costs for
workers with a disability are much lower compared to the
Sources: Australian Bureau of Statistics and Australian Public Service Commission
• According to the Australian Public Service Commission,
there are five employment strategies that can help
employees with disability:
– Fostering inclusive cultures
– Promoting the benefits of candidates with disability
– Improving recruitment processes
– Improving leadership
– Offering reasonable adjustments
• Each group will be allocated one of those strategies.
Using your smartphone device, find out how your
allocated strategy could be implemented effectively.
• Share your discoveries with the class.
• 53% of lesbians and gay men experience workplace harassment
• 50% experience homophobic remarks/jokes in the workplace.
• 28% experience aggressive or unwelcome questions about their
• 22% report being “outed” in the workplace against their will.
• 17% report having a restricted career due to their homosexuality.
The same strategies listed on the previous slides can be used to
mitigate against LGBTI discrimination and harassment.
Sources: AIDS Council of NSW and Diversity Council Australia
• This workshop explored the link between
diversity and organisational performance.
• We also established how inclusion can be
promoted in various diversity issues at work.
• Next week we shall explore the concept of
conscious business cultures in the context of