phonology and grammar

EDUC0006M Assignment 2022


Assessment information 

Choose three of the following five tasks. The tasks are in two groups: Group 1: phonology and grammar and 2 lexis, pragmatics and genre/register. You must choose one task from Group One and two tasks from group Two. Each task is weighted equally. You should write approximately 1000 words for each task.  You should provide a separate list of references for each task.

List of tasks: 

Group One

Phonetics and phonology 


Group Two



Genre and register

Students will be able to submit draft task of 1500 words made up of no more than 500 words for each task by: 12 noon on 8th November 2022.

Submission deadline: 12 noon   on 18th November 2022.

Word limit: 3,000 words 

Group one


Produce a phonological transcription of the following dialogue, assuming both speakers speak RP but are speaking in a casual style. [Note: the transcription does not contribute to the word count]

Identify three words in the dialogue for which a phoneme could be pronounced by a choice of more than one allophone (i.e. there is more than one way to produce the sound). For each phoneme, identify the possible allophones and explain why more than one pronunciation is possible, using one or more of these factors:

a. Complementary distribution & free variation

b. Word stress

c. Connected speech

Specify a group of L2 English learners from a particular L1 background and identify two aspects of pronunciation (i.e. phonemic variation, connected speech, stress or intonation) that might cause them difficulty when speaking this dialogue. Explain why these aspects might be problematic.




Context: Medical consultation. 

Line number Speaker Text


Speaker 1 Good morning


Speaker 2 it’s an insurance updated for yesterday


Speaker 1 twelfth


Speaker 2 Can you give us a prescription for these?


Speaker 1 Just some more of those? sure. That’s that covered…. Twenty second …


Speaker 2 Twenty sixth I’ve got an interview. …


Speaker 1 Are these helping?


Speaker 2 Yes


Speaker 1 Good. …


Speaker 2 Yes, I think I’ve a wee touch of the flu.


Speaker 1 You must be the only one


Speaker 2 Is it back?


Speaker 1 Oh Yes.


Speaker 2 Yes?


Speaker 1 Oh, it’s never been away.


Speaker 2 Oh, I feel terrible this morning.


Speaker 1 Never been away, it’s been … the last month […]


Speaker 2 Oh I never caught it, right enough, but I feel as if I’ve caught it now.






Speaker 1 Well let’s see if we can get things quietened down for your life.
Have it easy.
In the past month in here, well, it’s been like that every day.
Been like that every day, there’s never been a quiet day.
There we are Charlie, that’ll keep that right for you.


Speaker 2 Okay, thanks.


Speaker 1 Okay, right, cheerio now.


Speaker 2 Cheerio.


Adapted from BNC Text H5R





Task 3: Grammar

Identify the word classes, phrases and grammatical relations in the following sentences, using the terminology introduced in the lecture on grammar. This part of the task does not contribute to the word count.


Sentence: “the woman ate the sandwich”

Subject Predicator Object
Noun Phrase Verb phrase Noun Phrase
Determiner Noun Verb Determiner Noun
The woman ate the sandwich


Sometimes, due to grammatical ambiguity, there is more than one grammatical analysis. Find two examples from the sentences where there is more than one way to analyze the grammar. For each example, explain why they are grammatically ambiguous.

Specify a language other than English that you know well and identify two aspects of grammar in English in the example sentences which are different from that language.


Ending the pandemic is only half the job.

For all the devastation it has caused, the pandemic has taught us some important lessons.

Ministers prioritise working together to tackle the virus and develop vaccines.

We have a fighting chance to bring the world back together in 2021.

The UN climate conference announced in December they would start something new and better.

Climate summits rarely turn out to be the make-or-break, all-or-nothing moment people imagine them to be.

Adapted from Sauven J. (2020). Amid 2020’s gloom, there are reasons to be hopeful about the climate in 2020. The Guardian.





Group two


Discuss the following notions using examples from the text below:

Word formation

paradigmatic relations

syntagmatic relations (also known as collocation)



It was the sweetest, most mysterious-looking place anyone could imagine. The high walls which shut it in were covered with the leafless stems of climbing roses which were so thick that they were matted together. Mary Lennox knew they were roses because she had seen a great many roses in India. All the ground was covered with grass of a wintry brown and out of it grew clumps of bushes which were surely rosebushes if they were alive. There were numbers of standard roses which had so spread their branches that they were like little trees. There were other trees in the garden, and one of the things which made the place look strangest and loveliest was that climbing roses had run all over them and swung down long tendrils which made light swaying curtains, and here and there they had caught at each other or at a far-reaching branch and had crept from one tree to another and made lovely bridges of themselves. There were neither leaves nor roses on them now and Mary did not know whether they were dead or alive, but their thin gray or brown branches and sprays looked like a sort of hazy mantle spreading over everything, walls, and trees, and even brown grass, where they had fallen from their fastenings and run along the ground. It was this hazy tangle from tree to tree which made it all look so mysterious. Mary had thought it must be different from other gardens which had not been left all by themselves so long; and indeed it was different from any other place she had ever seen in her life.

How still it is!” she whispered. “How still!”

Then she waited a moment and listened at the stillness. The robin, who had flown to his treetop, was still as all the rest. He did not even flutter his wings; he sat without stirring, and looked at Mary.

No wonder it is still,” she whispered again. “I am the first person who has spoken in here for ten years.”

END OF EXTRACT, adapted from Burnett, F. H. The Secret Garden.



Discuss Speech Act Theory and Politeness Theory giving examples from both of the following two extracts of natural speech. You do not have to comment on the whole of the texts. That is, you do not need to analyse each text line by line but you must use examples from both texts.

Text A: Two friends discussing plans for the weekend


A How busy are you?

I was thinking of a meal together.


B Not too bad.


A Well how about this weekend?

What about the Sunday? 


B Yeah, yeah it’s fine by me. 


A Sunday lunch? 


B Er lunchtime, yeah? 


A Yeah. 


B That would be lovely. 


A That’s November the first


I’ll put it on the calendar


Lend me a pen.


B Sure.


A Thanks.


[writes on calendar].


There’s your pen. 


B Thanks.

(Adapted from the BNC Spoken Corpus)

Text B: A job interview


A What are your current responsibilities? 


B  Dealing with current workers and clients. 


Setting up all our records on the computers and Europeople data base. 


Helping to complete the wages. 


I am also in charge of afterhours emergency calls. 


A How long have you worked at Europeople? 


B  From 2005.

I am the longest serving person working for the company. 


A  Why do you want to leave? 

Why work for us?


B  Well, it’s a combination.

I want an adventure a new challenge, meeting new people, and your company has a strong reputation, helping to change people’s lives for the better. 


A Have you researched us? 


B I suppose you could say that. I have done a bit of research.

I like to be prepared.


A It is good to be prepared.

(adapted from English Web 2020)


Register and Genre

Discuss and compare the following three texts in terms of the frameworks of:




Text one from Best ever chocolate brownies recipe | BBC Good Food

Best ever chocolate brownies recipe


185g unsalted butter

185g best dark chocolate

85g plain flour

40g cocoa powder

50g white chocolate

50g milk chocolate

3 large eggs

275g golden caster sugar


STEP 1: Cut 185g unsalted butter into small cubes and tip into a medium bowl. Break 185g dark chocolate into small pieces and drop into the bowl.

STEP 2: Fill a small saucepan about a quarter full with hot water, then sit the bowl on top so it rests on the rim of the pan, not touching the water. Put over a low heat until the butter and chocolate have melted, stirring occasionally to mix them.

STEP 3: Remove the bowl from the pan. Alternatively, cover the bowl loosely with cling film and put in the microwave for 2 minutes on High. Leave the melted mixture to cool to room temperature.

STEP 4: While you wait for the chocolate to cool, position a shelf in the middle of your oven and turn the oven on to 180C/160C fan/gas 4.

STEP 5: Using a shallow 20cm square tin, cut out a square of non-stick baking parchment to line the base. Tip 85g plain flour and 40g cocoa powder into a sieve held over a medium bowl. Tap and shake the sieve so they run through together and you get rid of any lumps.

STEP 6: Chop 50g white chocolate and 50g milk chocolate into chunks on a board.

STEP 7: Break 3 large eggs into a large bowl and tip in 275g golden caster sugar. With an electric mixer on maximum speed, whisk the eggs and sugar. They will look thick and creamy, like a milk shake. This can take 3-8 minutes, depending on how powerful your mixer is. You’ll know it’s ready when the mixture becomes really pale and about double its original volume. Another check is to turn off the mixer, lift out the beaters and wiggle them from side to side. If the mixture that runs off the beaters leaves a trail on the surface of the mixture in the bowl for a second or two, you’re there.

STEP 8: Pour the cooled chocolate mixture over the eggy mousse, then gently fold together with a rubber spatula. Plunge the spatula in at one side, take it underneath and bring it up the opposite side and in again at the middle. Continue going under and over in a figure of eight, moving the bowl round after each folding so you can get at it from all sides, until the two mixtures are one and the colour is a mottled dark brown. The idea is to marry them without knocking out the air, so be as gentle and slow as you like.

STEP 9: Hold the sieve over the bowl of eggy chocolate mixture and resift the cocoa and flour mixture, shaking the sieve from side to side, to cover the top evenly.

STEP 10: Gently fold in this powder using the same figure of eight action as before. The mixture will look dry and dusty at first, and a bit unpromising, but if you keep going very gently and patiently, it will end up looking gungy and fudgy. Stop just before you feel you should, as you don’t want to overdo this mixing.

STEP 11: Finally, stir in the white and milk chocolate chunks until they’re dotted throughout.

STEP 12: Pour the mixture into the prepared tin, scraping every bit out of the bowl with the spatula. Gently ease the mixture into the corners of the tin and paddle the spatula from side to side across the top to level it.

STEP 13: Put in the oven and set your timer for 25 mins. When the buzzer goes, open the oven, pull the shelf out a bit and gently shake the tin. If the brownie wobbles in the middle, it’s not quite done, so slide it back in and bake for another 5 minutes until the top has a shiny, papery crust and the sides are just beginning to come away from the tin. Take out of the oven.

STEP 14: Leave the whole thing in the tin until completely cold, then, if you’re using the brownie tin, lift up the protruding rim slightly and slide the uncut brownie out on its base. If you’re using a normal tin, lift out the brownie with the foil. Cut into quarters, then cut each quarter into four squares and finally into triangles.


Text Two: Chocolate Brownies: History from Chocolate brownie – Wikipedia


One legend about the creation of brownies is that of Bertha Palmer, a prominent Chicago socialite whose husband owned the Palmer House Hotel. In 1893, Palmer asked a pastry chef for a dessert suitable for ladies attending the Chicago World’s Columbian Exposition. She requested a cake-like confection smaller than a piece of cake that could be included in boxed lunches. The result was the Palmer House Brownie with walnuts and an apricot glaze. The modern Palmer House Hotel serves a dessert to patrons made from the same recipe. The name was given to the dessert sometime after 1893, but was not used by cook books or journals at the time.

The first-known printed use of the word “brownie” to describe a dessert appeared in the 1896 version of the Boston Cooking-School Cook Book by Fannie Farmer, in reference to molasses cakes baked individually in tin molds. However, Farmer’s brownies did not contain chocolate.

In 1899, the first-known recipe was published in Machias Cookbook. They were called “Brownie’s Food”. The recipe appears on page 23 in the cake section of the book. Marie Kelley from Whitewater, Wisconsin, created the recipe.

The earliest-known published recipes for a modern style chocolate brownie appeared in the Home Cookery (1904, Laconia, NH), Service Club Cook Book (1904, Chicago, IL), The Boston Globe (April 2, 1905 p. 34), and the 1906 edition of Fannie Farmer’s cookbook. These recipes produced a relatively mild and cake-like brownie.

By 1907, the brownie was well established in a recognizable form, appearing in Lowney’s Cook Book by Maria Willet Howard (published by Walter M. Lowney Company, Boston) as an adaptation of the Boston Cooking School recipe for a “Bangor Brownie”. It added an extra egg and an additional square of chocolate, creating a richer, fudgier dessert.


Text three: Brownie Heaven reviews from Reviews | Brownie Heaven – the brownie delivery service reviewed

Tara Wilson



I didn’t want to share my orgasmic experience 😉

Great friendly service in support of my picky eating to curate a bespoke mixed box. When they finally arrived I made the mistake of opening before breakfast…. eeeeekkkk.

I begrudgingly shared with friends and saw them melt into their chairs with pure heavenly yummy contentment.

Definitely 5* service and products. My only note would be to find a speedier delivery service as you want to enjoy the brownies at their most fresh the next day.

Still drooling

Brownie Heaven replied

Thank you Tara for the wonderful review, I’m really pleased you enjoyed the Brownies that we put together at your request. Melting is definitely an adjective commonly used to describe when anybody has a bite or two.

We do offer fast delivery as an option which can be named day and the brownies are dispatched on the day before delivery. We also offer the no rush delivery which is 1-2 days delivery after dispatch to help keep costs down. The brownies stay really fresh as they are well wrapped and contain so much chocolate they can be treated more like chocolate.