Person-centred communication

WEEK 3 and 4
Person-centred communication leads to better person outcomes, minimises errors in individual’s
care and creates a greater experience for individuals accessing healthcare. To achieve effective
and safe person-centred care nurses need to utilise core skills to create a therapeutic
relationship. The use of respect, empathy and trust are key to being able to achieve a therapeutic
relationship and communication. This module explores culture and creating effective
communication across cultures for person-centred care. The module has a specific focus upon
Indigenous Australians and communicating with embracing of diversity that exists across
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Cultural diversity exists in all areas of Australia
with a population that comes from diverse background. Embracing diversity is integral to effective
person-centred communication and the provision of safe and effective care.
In healthcare the national standards that govern acute and aged care provide support to
healthcare providers and organisations for a standardised evidence-based approach to
communication. The use of tools such as ISBAR for handover is now common
practice. Documentation is considered a type of communication which is embedded with legal
and ethical principles as well as safety standards and regulatory expectations. Registered nurses
must be aware of all these elements as they strive to provide person-centred care.
Documentation is core skill required by the registered nurse. Documentation is a factual
representation of events, situations and a person’s health and the care provided.
Learning Outcomes:
At the completion of this content, it is expected that students will be able to:
1. Articulate the core skills needed to build a therapeutic relationship and the connection between
culture and therapeutic person-centred communication.
2. Describe key elements needed to build therapeutic relationships with Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander peoples.
3. Critique communication to evaluate the ability to create safe and therapeutic care
4. Apply principles and tools of therapeutic communication across culturally diverse groups.
5. Reflect upon self and identify areas for ongoing development in communication
6. Explain the use of national standards in communication for safety, such as ISBAR and the legal
requirements of documentation
Creating person-centred communication
Person-centred communication and care are global approach’s to healthcare delivery and are used by all
healthcare professionals and service providers (organisations, hospitals, community providers and
healthcare settings). The World Health Organisation works with governments to continue to build this
approach into all areas of healthcare.
Watch the video below that provides a brief overview of person-centred care
Creating person-centred communication requires skills in communication. Effective listening is a
core skill needed to build rapport and generate trust. With appropriate questioning and effective

listening it is possible to create a shared common understanding and meaning. Mutual
understanding is more than a shared meaning. It is respect, empathy and trust. Person-centred
care is built upon the belief that each individual’s experience of health and illness is unique. The
approach to care delivery should be grounded in a mutually agreed partnership between
healthcare providers, persons and their families. Individuals and their families, as appropriate,
are involved in planning, delivery and the evaluation of their care. Person-centred care is used
across all ages and practised in all health care settings (Levett-Jones, 2020).
Respect is integral component in the development of mutual understanding, effective care and
patient / person satisfaction. Respect is a core attribute of the registered nurse requiring respect
for others and self. It requires that nurses have an unconditional regard for their patients and
their families regardless of their status, appearance, disability, weakness or failures, beliefs,
culture, religion and or socioeconomic background. Respect requires that nurses uphold the
decisions of others and value each individual. Respect is essential for empathy and empathetic
reactions in healthcare professionals (O’Toole, 2020).
Individuals that engage in healthcare often feel disconnected, disempowered and vulnerable.
The difficulty in understanding their situation (understanding what is occurring and why) can lead
to a feeling of loss of power. This can be exacerbated by an inability to control their situation and
increased dependence upon others. As a consequence, the level of fear can increase
dramatically and exacerbates the feeling of powerlessness. Healthcare professionals must
demonstrate a willingness to build an understanding of the person’s perspectives, experiences
and needs in order to provide meaningful support and care. Through this demonstration of
empathy individuals are encouraged to engage in their care. A direct, clear and accurate
recognition of emotions and an expressed understanding is known as empathy. This should not
be confused with sympathy, the sharing of similar emotions. Empathy is identifying, validating
and accepting the reality of a person’s emotions (O’Toole, 2020).
Empathy requires personal and professional skill requiring honest reflection of self, practice in
expressing empathy, and commitment to the expression of empathy with self-control on the part
of the healthcare professional. Seeing the world from the perspective of the individual and having
respect for this perspective is empathy. Registered nurses need to control and express / resolve
any negative emotions without allowing them to impact upon the vulnerable person for which
they are providing care. Empathy allows the person to see that they are important to the nurse at
that point in time. This then creates an opportunity for confidence in the nurse’s ability to support
their needs (O’Toole, 2020).
H5P Program
Validating and acknowledging the experiences and emotions of individuals and their families is
important. Acknowledgement of the perspective and experiences of others when combined with
respect and empathy leads to trust. To build trust effective communication needs to occur. Being
honest, open, humble, reliable and predictable are behaviours of a registered nurse worthy of
Reading Activity:
Please read the pages 1903 – 1916 from Kozier and Erb Fundamentals of nursing 2020 edition
to continue to expand your understanding of Communication for person-centred care and the
nursing process.
Watch this video and complete the evaluation activity in the video about the different
communication techniques used.
Now that you have competed the activity reflect upon your own understanding of self and your
behaviour and communication style. How might you have reacted? Are there areas which you
might need development? Do you hate confrontation, or do you find that you tend to bite back?
Do you become easily overwhelmed?
Watch the video Say This, Not That: Patient Experience Video
Drawing from your awareness of self, that you developed in previous modules and with
reflection, and think about what are your trigger points that may place you at risk of making
such comments / behaviours.
As the nurse in the video acknowledges, at times things she says and do can easily portray
a negative communication experience for the patient. Think about your own behaviours,
responses, tone of voice and trigger points and document these. In doing so you will create
a greater sense of awareness and be able to use this knowledge as you build your
communication skills and reflect upon interactions. Record your thoughts in the box below.
Culture and person-centred communication
Communicating for person-centred care requires an understanding of an individual. It is
important to not make assumptions about individual’s based upon first impressions or beliefs
about a culture or religion. Taking time to learn a person’s preference and expectations is
important to achieve person-centred communication. When communicating it is common to
expect others to react and act how we do. This overlooks the influence of culture. To develop
culturally responsive care and communication nurses need to be informed about and sensitive to
cultural diversities. These diversities include meaning of health, illness, caring and healing
practices (Mcmillan, Biles and Stanley, 2020).
Culture is an understanding and characteristics of a particular group of people, including
language, religion, diet, social habits, music and arts. Culture influences how we engage in life
and the world around us. Culture also guides how we as individual communicate. This does not
mean that all people of a similar background, race or religion share the same beliefs, values and
experiences. Each group will have subcultures that creates unique perspectives. Major
differences can exist due to gender, age, sexuality, level of education, socioeconomic status and
their origin in home country (urban or rural). Nurses must be careful to not stereotype the people
that they provide care to and their families (Mcmillan, Biles and Stanley, 2020).

Australia is a very culturally diverse country with over 300 languages being spoken. Most
Australian’s are from immigrants who arrived over the past 200 years bringing with them their
own cultural practices. Australia first nation peoples, Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait
Islander peoples, have inhabited Australia for over 10,000 years offering a host of different tribal
groups, wide cultural diversity and different languages (Mcmillan, Biles and Stanley,
2020). Understanding culture and cultural nursing care is integral to effective person-centred
Please read pages 1282-1292 of Kozier and Erb’s fundamentals of nursing 2020 edition covering
the topics of:
Cultural nursing care
Concepts related to cultural nursing care.
Communicating Positively with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples
Culturally safe communication allows effective person-centred communication that is not
offensive. Supporting and providing a culturally respectful communication leads to better health
outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Usage of terminology can vary across
location and students are encouraged to seek support and guidance from clinicians, such as
nurses, and ask the organisations Aboriginal support services.
Cultural Diversity and Non-verbal cues
Non-verbal communication is as important, sometimes more so, than verbal communication. It is
important to understand non-verbal cues such as body language, facial expression and gestures
and personal space from the perspective of Aboriginal people. Averting eyes and not looking at
the person that is having the conversation may be viewed in the western culture as rude. In
Aboriginal culture averting eye contact during communication is a sign of respect.
Please read the Queensland Health Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultural capability
NSW has developed a communicating positively guide to appropriate Aboriginal terminology.
Please read through the document below.
Look at your local area and build knowledge and an understanding of cultural practices. Consider
how this will influence your ability to provide person-centred care to the Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander Peoples in your area.
Embracing Clinical Yarning
Interpersonal communication between healthcare professionals, such as nurses, is a significant
barrier for Aboriginal people when seeking health care. The failure to provide person-centred
communication results in a poor experience with healthcare, and this contributes to decreased
compliance in the management of health and poorer outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander people

Please read the article by Lin, Green and Bessarab (2016) that discusses the use of clinical
Culturally appropriate person-centred communication
As discussed, earlier culture varies amongst individuals and it is important to build an
understanding of the preferences, wishes and views of the person you are providing care to.
Please listen to the podcasts in the link below and build your understanding of Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander Peoples communication. This is a Darwin Hospital initiative to build
knowledge in their staff (Kerrigan, 2020).

1. Getting to know your patient


2. Communicating with your patient


3. Communicating with interpreter and your patient


4. Patient centred care


5. Informed consent


6. Recognising and addressing racism


7. Perspectives on health and well-being

Communicating for person centred care with language barriers and cultural
Communication and culture are closely connected. Through communication culture is shared.
Nurses in Australia care for people with many cultural backgrounds and this means at times the
languages spoken are not shared. When individuals are from a non-English speaking
background nurses need to take action to ensure communication can be person-centred.
Nurses must be vigilant when communicating with individuals who speak a different language. It
is important to not assume that people understand you. For example, many patients will say yes
to you in response to questions that they truly do not understand. It is not that they are being
rude or difficult. Typically, they are trying to be respectful and not cause further challenges for the
nurse. This however means that nurses are unable to assist them with person-centred care. It is
also important to remember that an understanding of conversational language does not equate to
an understanding of health, known as health literacy (O’Toole, 2020).
When communicating with individuals that speak a different language it is important to
demonstrate empathy, respect and attempt to establish a rapport (using non-verbal

communication and body language that is culturally sensitive). Nurses should avoid jumping to
conclusions and allocate more time to communicate (O’Toole, 2020). Families and friends of the
individual can be helpful in these situation, however great care should be taken when using
individuals to translate and share and gain information about health. Where possible speak with
a translator that is often able to provide a resource of words in both languages related to
healthcare need. An interpreter is also able to guide the nurse about cultural expectations and
assist with this conversation with the person to find out their personal preferences for care
(O’Toole, 2020).
Please watch the video below that addresses the role of an interpreter and the benefits that can
be achieved.
Note the laws discussed here apply to the United States of America. However, these align to the
national standards of healthcare in Australia. Medicare affords coverage for this service in
Australian hospitals and aged care facilities.
Please read pages 1298-1303 of
Kozier and Erb fundamentals of nursing 2020 edition starting
with Selected parameters for cultural nursing care
Communicating toward person-centred care across cultural differences
Achieving effective cross-cultural communication requires the use of open communication that is
receptive to differences in the cultural expectations. As nurses it is important to appreciate that
there are many ways to do things that what you believe is the right way might in fact just be a
different way. Becoming a culturally effective communicator is an experimental process of
learning, which you will not always get right. The most important part of this learning is to not
assume and ask the person their preferences. In situations where the person is unable to
communicate (different first language, or altered communication due to health i.e., dementia,
cognitive disability or an acute health situation) the use of an interpreter or family member is
Please read the Chapter 15 of O’Toole Culturally effective communication in healthcare.
Note: Students that are on-campus will need to access this reading either via the book or the
hard copy in the library.
For students that meet the distance requirement may request that the library provide them with
this copy. Due to copy right this this chapter cannot be shared.
You might like to access this e-book edition which remains current the link below is the 2012
Tying it together The video series below shares the experience of an indigenous woman seeking
healthcare related to her pregnancy. As you watch the three video’s think about person-centred
care and communication. Observe the behaviours of all and consider how you might have
conducted or done this differently. Please watch the three videos below.
Video One

Video Two
Video Three
Tying it together
The video series below shares the experience of an indigenous woman seeking healthcare
related to her pregnancy. As you watch the three video’s think about person-centred care and
communication. Observe the behaviours of all and consider how you might have conducted or
done this differently.
Please watch the three videos below.
Video One
Video Two
Video Three
Did you want the conversation to change as you observed certain behaviours?
What might have been a better way to approach this?
How do you feel you would act in this situation?
Effective Communication
Effective communication between healthcare professionals in essential for person-centred care.
In verbal and written communication information is exchanged about the person and their
healthcare needs. The healthcare team is a large group of professionals that extends across
many disciplines and skill sets. It is rare to have all healthcare professionals in the same place at
the same time to share information. Written communication becomes the thread that brings care
together and allows each health professional to see the perspectives, concerns, wishes and
actions of the others as they work toward person-centredness.
Verbal communication while highly effective does bring challenges. As discussed in earlier
weeks communication can be misunderstood, poorly delivered or incomplete. This leads to errors

in healthcare and compromises individual’s health and can contribute to a view of negative
healthcare. When individuals have a negative healthcare experience it can lead to aversion or
delays in seeking assistance in the future.
Reflection activity:
Think for a moment of a time that you encountered poor service. It might have been in healthcare
or in any area of your life. What was impact that you experienced because of this? Were you
disadvantaged? Were you inconvenienced? Did it make you angry? Did it make you sad? Did it
cost you significantly (financially, emotionally, your time)?
People in healthcare often feel like this and this impacts upon their willingness and preparedness
to engage with these individuals again. For individuals that live in metropolitan and major
regional areas there are possibly options to engage with a different service provider. Unhappy or
dissatisfied healthcare users might be able to change doctors or go to a different hospital. But for
those that live with limited resources (geographically isolated, financial constraints and poor
support services) the opportunity to obtain a different provider might not be possible.
Reflect for a moment about how would you feel if you had to attend or seek care with
professionals (nurses, doctors, allied health) or at a facility (hospital, community setting,
residential facility) that had provided you a negative experience? Would this stop you attending,
or would it make you guarded and concerned for your health when you do attend?
Please watch this video of individuals experiences of care and their advice for person-centred
As nurses we engage with people and conduct assessments. The findings of these assessments
need to be documented and communicated. This documentation should not be a generic
approach and should be personalised to individuals and their unique situation and
needs. Documentation of a person’s health and the care provided should reference the person/s
rather than their condition (O’Toole, 2020).
In healthcare non-interactive or one-way audience absent communication is common practice.
The use of written or typed electronic documentation is one of the key communication tools used
by healthcare professionals. Documentation allows the sharing and recording of patient
conversations, needs, care and wishes. With the ever-expanding access to technology comes
the risk of breaches to patient confidentiality and exposure of health records. The sharing of
knowledge and information across providers must comply with all legal requirements for
documentation and maintaining confidentiality (O’Toole, 2020).

Person-centred documentation and the legal requirements are addressed in the Registered
Nurse Standards for Practice (Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia, 2016). Standard 1 for a
registered nurse clearly articulates that nurses must think critically to analyse practice, providing
quality nursing practice with person-centred and evidence-based frameworks. Standard 1.6 of
the RN standards for practice stipulate that a nurse must maintain accurate and comprehensive
documentation that is timely and records assessments, planning, decision making, actions and
evaluation. These must be person centred which means that nurse must involve the patient in
this care (Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia, 2016).
Take some time to read over the standards for practice looking for information about
documentation and person-centredness.
When documenting the health of an individual it is important to be factual and to include all
required information. Conversations that relate to patient wishes, requests and preferences
should be documented. Some organisations might have a specific tool which allows you to go
through the likes dislikes and preferences of individuals. Asking someone ‘what matters to you
today’ and documenting this is an important element of person-centred care and its
Please read chapter 16 Documenting and reporting of Kozier and Erb’s fundamentals of nursing
2020 edition to build your understanding of documentation and legal requirements.
Standards for Documentation
In aged care facilities and in acute care settings there are clear standards for documentation.
Documentation is identified as a component for effective communication and creates ability to
care for complex patients and situations. When documentation is omitted there is a risk of the
need to rely upon memory leading to harm or misdiagnosis.
Standards in Acute Care
Please access the links below and familiarise yourself with the standards and expectations of
documentation in acute care settings.

Standards in Aged care
Documentation for person-centred care in aged care is equally as important as in acute care
setting. While the risks of inadvertent injury or harm are different there still remains a risk for
those in aged care to be negatively impacted upon by poor communication. For individuals living
in aged care facilities there is need to respect that this their home. Therefore, communication
should be vigilant and reflect the wishes and desires of patients.
Please access the standards for aged care and read over Standard 2: Ongoing assessment and
planning with consumers. The consumer statement highlights a partnership in ongoing
assessment and planning to achieve the health and well-being from the perspective of the
person. Page 31 of the document below outlines the purpose and scope of the standard which is
to create a partnership. Consider how you might document these wants of an individual. What do
you need to know when taking over the care of an individual? What would you like to be able to
read about?
GUIDANCE AND RESOURCES – STANDARD 2 | Aged Care Quality and Safety Commission
Please read the article below by Broderick and Coffey (2012) that shares some qualitative
research into person-centred care in nursing documentation.
A note about research: This article is a research article that uses a qualitative approach. You
may not be familiar with reading research articles and interpreting them for quality and validity. A
qualitative research article will share the experiences and real-world situation that faces people
or groups and how they went about addressing this. Qualitative research is a social science and
looks at non-numerical data to interpret meaning from the experiences of others. Qualitative
research often has small numbers (less than 20 participants) in the research. A case study
simply refers to a group or area in which the research was conducted. The article will share with
you the research findings using examples from the data and then a discussion section. Please do
your best to read the whole article, focus on what is being said about what was missed in the
nursing documentation not the research methodology.
Broderick, Margaret C, & Coffey, Alice. (2013). Person-centred care in nursing documentation.
International Journal of Older People Nursing, 8(4), 3
Advanced Care Plans
On page 33 of the Aged Care Standards document you will see a list of resources. The first
resource is called Advanced care planning Australia. Advanced care plans are common
documents that are used in both acute and aged care. An advanced care plan is an opportunity
for an individual to make decisions regarding their future healthcare. The communication of these
wishes is documented and recorded by medical staff and nurses in specific roles.
Advanced care planning should not be confused with assisted dying or euthanasia law.
Advanced care planning is about making decisions about what is important in a person’s life. The
person makes these decisions with the intent of achieving a quality of life that aligns to their own
Please spend some time exploring the advanced care planning website. Ensuring that you build
an understanding of key legislation that governs decision making in your state or territory. Please

ensure you read the ethics tab which outlines the ethical principles and their governing influence
on Advanced Care Directives.
The video below is intended to assist you to build an understanding about why advanced care
planning is important. It looks at end of life from the perspective of Intensive Care Units. Many
people do not die in an ICU environment, passing away in their home, a ward or a residential
facility. It is very important for nurses to understand that sudden unexpected deterioration of
health can lead to a stressful situation where hard choices need to be made.
The video below is a quick short look at what end of life for some people can look like. This might
align to your values and wishes which perfectly acceptable, it might also be an ending that you
do wish to have. It is a nurse’s responsibility to question if a patient has an advanced care
directive and it is a responsibility of all nurses in aged care to identify the quality of life and key
values of the individual. An individual’s wishes should always be documented clearly and using
the words of the person.
The video below shares the experience of person-centred care for patient with an oncology
condition in which treatment failed and the patient was made palliative. Consider as you watch
the video below, what might you need to ask this patient and their loved ones about preferences
for care and how you might document this? How was person-centred care during this time
Communicating for Safety
Communication for safety is important in person-centred care. Errors in healthcare in Australia
are most often attributed to failures to communicate. Four (4) of every 100 individuals who have
a planned admission in a hospital are exposed to an error in care. For those that have an
unplanned admission (emergency settings / acute onset of illness) the incidence of error doubles
to almost 10 of every 100 individuals (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2018). Nurses
play a key role in minimising these errors and ensuring that healthcare provision is safe.
Watch the video below to learn about the three communication risks in the provision of
Previously we have talked about the National Standards that govern acute and aged care.
Please watch this brief overview from the NSQHS standards about why communicating for safety
is so important
Communicating with colleagues
Communication amongst colleagues is an integral component of achieving safe person-centred
Communication amongst nurses and other health professionals is founded upon the
understanding of communication concepts and techniques such as attending, listening,
questioning and instructing. Unlike relationships with patients / persons, this form of
communication is not therapeutic and instead are known as collegial relationships. The terms
multidisciplinary, interprofessional are also used, each reflecting the professions / disciplines that
are involved to achieve higher quality healthcare for individuals and their families. Impaired
communication between colleagues are major findings when investigating healthcare related
errors and incidents.
Please read pages pp.1917-1933 from
Kozier and Erb’s Fundamentals of nursing 2020 edition
that explains Group and team communication and Communication with colleagues.
Communicating for safety – standard
Communicating for safety is a key element in standards for aged and acute healthcare provision.
These standards govern the way that healthcare is provided. An organisation will only be
permitted to provide care when it meets these standards. As registered nurses working in
healthcare there is an expectation that your practice will align and adhere to these standards.
Please watch the video below that outlines the key elements of communicating for safety that
healthcare providers will expect their nurses and other professionals utilise to provide safeperson centred care.
Standardised communication amongst healthcare professionals – ISBAR
ISBAR is a tool that is used across Australia to share the information with other healthcare
professionals and achieve person-centred care. ISBAR was addressed in the video above.
Taken from page 725 of Kozier and Erb
To achieve an effective ISBAR handover it is important to have a clear understanding of
information. This is particularly vital when time critical situations arise in healthcare.
Ineffective communication leads to delays in treatment and can contribute to negative patient
outcomes and experiences.
The video below will share with you the way that ISBAR can be used. Being new to nursing
brings many challenges in the use of ISBAR. However as shown in the videos below the more
information you have the better the communication will be. Please watch these videos and note
the differences as the nurses attempt to communicate for safety.

ISBAR Video 1: Example of poor communication – unprepared – YouTube
ISBAR Video 2: Example of poor communication – too detailed – YouTube
ISBAR Video 3: Example of good communication using ISBAR – YouTube
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2018). Australia’s health 2018.
Berman, A., Frandsen, G., Snyder, S., Levett-Jones, T., Burston, A., Dwyer, T., Hales, M.,
Harvey, N., Moxham, L., Langtree, T., Reid-Searl, K., Rolf, F., & Stanley, D. (2020). Kozier and
Erb’s Fundamentals of Nursing, Volumes 1-3. (5th ed.). Pearson Education Australia.
Broderick, M. C., & Coffey, A. (2013). Personcentred care in nursing documentation.
International Journal of Older People Nursing, 8(4), 309–318.
Courtney-Pratt, H. (2020). Documenting and reporting. In A. Berman, G. Frandsen, S. Snyder, T.
Levett-Jones, A. Burston, T. Dwyer, M. Hales, N. Harvey, L. Moxham, T. Langtree, K. Reid-Searl,
F. Rolf, & D. Stanley, (Eds.), Kozier and Erb’s Fundamentals of Nursing, Volume 1. (5th ed.).
Pearson Education Australia.
Kerrigan, V. (2020) Ask the specialist: Larrakia, Tiwi & Yolngy stories to inspire better healthcare
series [Podcasts].
Levett-Jones, T. (2020). Communicating. A. Berman, G. Frandsen, S. Snyder, T. Levett-Jones,
A. Burston, T. Dwyer, M. Hales, N. Harvey, L. Moxham, T. Langtree, K. Reid-Searl, F. Rolf, & D.
Stanley, (Eds.), Kozier and Erb’s Fundamentals of Nursing, Volume 1. (5th ed.). Pearson
Education Australia.

Lin, I., Green, C., & Bessarab, D. (2016). ‘Yarn with me’: applying clinical yarning to improve
clinician-patient communication in aboriginal health. Australian Journal of Primary Health, 22,
377-382. doi: 10.1071/PY16051
Mcmillan, F., Biles, J., & Stanley, D. (2020). Culture, nursing and Indigenous* health In A.
Berman, G. Frandsen, S. Snyder, T. Levett-Jones, A. Burston, T. Dwyer, M. Hales, N. Harvey, L.
Moxham, T. Langtree, K. Reid-Searl, F. Rolf, & D.Stanley, (Eds.), Kozier and Erb’s
Fundamentals of Nursing, Volume 1. (5th ed.). Pearson Education Australia.
New South Wale Health, Centre for Aboriginal Health. (2019). Communicating positively: a guide
to appropriate aboriginal terminology.
Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia. (2016). Registered nurse standards for practice.
O’Toole, G. (2020). Effective Communication for healthcare professionals: a model to guide
communication (4th ed.). Elsevier Australia.

Queensland Health. (nd). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultural capability document.