Overview

A Short Guide to Referencing – Part I (In-text)

Approved by: Learning Development Unit

Date of approval: 16/08/2017

Overview

This short guide has been written in order to assist students and staff on how to appropriately use the Harvard system of referencing in-text.

Contents

Why do we reference?

Here are some of the key reasons to reference your work:

To avoid plagiarism

To acknowledge direct quotes

To provide evidence to support arguments

To give readers the opportunity to check how much preparation has gone into your work and demonstrate that the student has the ability to find extra information

General rule

Any in-text reference should include the authorship and the year of the work. Depending on the nature of the sentence/paragraph that is being written, references to sources may be cited in the text as described below:

Direct and indirect references

A direct reference only has the year of the publication and the page number (if applicable) into the brackets. Example:

White and Brown (2004) in their recent research paper found…

An indirect reference has the name(s) of the author(s), the year of the publication and the page number (if applicable) all into the brackets.

Recent research (White and Brown, 2004) suggests that…

Page numbers

The page numbers are included in the in text references if a direct quote is taken, specific ideas or an image, diagram table etc. is used from a source.

The CEO stated clearly that co-op students “needed manager’s permission to access the company’s data warehouse” (Smith 2010, p.15)

In case there are more than one pages, replace p with pp. No page numbers to be included in the Reference List.

Detailed Guidance

Author’s name cited in the text

When making reference to an author’s work in your text, it is sufficient to give the name followed by the year of publication of their work. Think of when you read an entire article form a journal or a book. You may want to provide a summary of your reading as follows:

The neoclassical theory of the firm emerged from the work of Smith (1776) where he suggested the existence of a relationship between industrial output and costs.

However, where you are mentioning a particular part of the work, a page reference should be included as follows:

In their interpretation of the neoclassical view of the firm, Lipczynski et al. (2005, p. 70) state that firms exist “purely to allocate resources and organise production in such a way as to satisfy consumer wants, driven by the desire to maximize profits”.

Author’s name not cited directly in the text

If you make reference to a work or piece of research without mentioning the author in the text then both the author’s name and publication year (and the page number if using direct reference) are placed at the relevant point in the sentence or at the end of the sentence in brackets as follows:

The neoclassical theory of the firm characterizes firms as existing “purely to allocate resources and organise production in such a way as to satisfy consumer wants, driven by the desire to maximize profits” (Lipczynski et al., 2005, p. 70).

More than one author cited in the text

Where reference is made to more than one author in a sentence, and they are referred to directly, they are both cited

Smith (1946) and Jones (1948) have both shown …

When there are two or three authors for a work they should all be listed (in the order in which their names appear in the original publication), with the name listed last preceded by an ‘and’.

During the mid-nineties research undertaken in Luton (Slater and Jones, 1996) showed that…

Where there are several authors (four or more), only the first author should be used, followed by ‘et al.’ meaning ‘and others’:

Direct reference

Johnson et al. (2008) found that the majority …

Indirect reference

Earlier research (Johnson et al., 1995) found that the majority of …

Where several publications from a number of authors are referred to, then the references should be cited in chronological order (i.e. earliest first), putting the author’s name, followed by the date of publication and separated by a semi-colon and within brackets.

Earlier research (Veblen, 1923; Berle and Means, 1932; Baumol, 1959) shows that…

Several works by one author

If more than one publication from an author illustrates the same point and the works are published in different years, or during the same year then the references should be cited in chronological order (i.e. earliest first):

Different years

In his arguments, Bachelier (1900; 1902) recognised that …

Same year

Bachelier (1900a; 1900b) argued that …

Corporate authors

If the work is by a recognised organisation and has no personal author then it is usually cited under the body that commissioned the work. This applies to publications by associations, companies, government departments etc. such as Royal College of Physicians.

It is acceptable to use standard abbreviations for these bodies, e.g. RCP, in your text, providing that the full name is given at the first citing with the abbreviation in brackets:

1st citation:

An earlier research undertaken in 2006 by the Royal College of Physicians (RCP) show …

2nd citation:

More recently the RCP (2006) has issued guidelines for…

Note that the full name is the preferred format in the reference list.

No author or no date

If the author cannot be identified use ‘Anonymous’ or ‘Anon’ and date of publication. Every effort should be made to establish the authorship if you intend to use this work as supporting evidence in an academic submission.

… Anon (2016) demonstrates

If the date of the publication cannot be identified, the abbreviation n.d. should be used. Every effort should be made to establish the year of publication if you intend to use this work as supporting evidence in an academic submission.

Gordon (n.d.) has explained …

Secondary references (second-hand references)

You may come across a summary of another author’s work in the source you are reading, which you would like to make reference to in your own piece of work, this is called secondary referencing.

Direct in-text reference:

Kim and Mauborgne (2005 cited in Johnson et al., 2008, p.81) have argued that head to head competitive rivalry leads to competitive convergence where all companies find the environment tough and threatening. They describe this as a ‘red ocean’ strategy – red because of the bloodiness of the competition and the red ink caused by financial losses.

In this example, Kim and Mauborgne (2005) is the work which you wish to refer to, but have not read directly for yourself. Johnson et al. (2008) is the secondary source, where you found the summary of Kim and Mauborgne’s work.

Indirect in-text citation would be:

Head to head competitive rivalry leads to competitive convergence where all companies find the environment tough and threatening, described as a ‘red ocean’ strategy (Kim and Mauborgne, 2005 cited in Johnson et al., 2008, p.81).

It is important to realise that Johnson et al. may have taken Kim and Mauborgne’s arguments forward, and altered their original meaning. If you need to cite a secondary reference it is recommended that, where possible, you read the original source for yourself rather than rely on someone else’s interpretation of a work. For this reason, it is best to avoid using secondary referencing. The reference list should only contain works that you have read.

Tables and diagrams

When you want to include a table or diagram that you have read from a secondary source, the primary sources should also be mentioned. For example, you use the following graph that appears in page 80 of the book of Johnson et al., published in 2008. The original source of the diagram is an article by Kim and Mauborgne published in 2002. You should reference as follows:

Source: Kim and Mauborgne, 2002 cited in Johnson et al., 2008, p.80

Full details of the book you read, in this case Johnson et al. (2008) should be included in the reference list at the end of your work.

Electronic sources

If you read a website, for example and would like to include a section in your work, the general rule of Name and Year of publication remains the same.

… BBC (2017) …

Other source types

Acts of Parliament

If you need to refer to a specific section and paragraph of an act of parliament, include the section, paragraph number and subsection.

… Finance Act 2007. s.45(9)(b) …

Reports

If you read a corporate report and would like to include a section in your work, the general rule of Name, Year of publication and page number (if applicable) remains the same.

… Asos (2015) …

Course materials and lecture notes

It is important to check with the lecturer who has given the lecture that you can reference from his/her slides. If the lecturer is in agreement, and if it is not a publicly available document, it is important to provide a copy in the Appendix of your work. It would also be advisable to follow up any sources mentioned in your lecture and read these for yourself. For a lecture by John Smith that you attended in 2016, you should reference as follows:

… Smith (2016) …