Literature Review

Literature Review

Table of Contents

Research problem:

Warehouses are mainly used to store goods and products from any manufacturer. Victoria is one of the most famous and centralised places in the UK. Eventually, developing warehouse businesses are very profitable from the perspective of any organisation. As a consequence, proper management along with well-mannered teamwork is very necessary to maintain the storage of products in the warehouses from different manufacturers. Hence, proper organisational behaviour plays an important role in developing a well-maintained work culture for the organisation.

However, in recent times, certain issues or problems have been awakened in the warehouse business in Victoria including employee dissatisfaction regarding gender discrimination, cultural discrimination, and poor behavioural issues from the high authority within the workplaces of the organisations. As a consequence, maintaining proper organisational behaviour is necessary for the warehouse business organisation in Victoria.

Research questions:

What is the importance of organisational behaviour within any organisational culture of the warehouse companies in Victoria?

What are the theories related to organisational behaviour that are followed within any organisation of the warehouse companies in Victoria?

What are the impacts of good organisational behaviour for any organisation of the warehouse companies in Victoria?

What are the benefits of organisational behaviour within the workplace of any organisation of the warehouse companies in Victoria?

What are the challenges faced by any organisation regarding maintaining proper organisational behaviour of the warehouse companies in Victoria?

How can the organisational behaviour of an organisation be improved by the warehouse companies in Victoria?

Organisational Behaviour

Organisational behaviour explores how the individuals, teams and structures affect the organisations. It also evaluates how the organisations affect them. As per Nuckcheddy (2018), the behaviour refers to how the people of the organisation behave or act. Their performance, their attitudes, etc. comprise the behaviour. The organisation refers to mainly business organisations. Thus, the organisational behaviour is applied to workplace context. The workplace issues which include productivity of the employees, motivation, absenteeism, working as a team, employee turnover, job satisfaction, etc. are taken into account under organisational behaviour. As per Balwant (2018), the managers of organisations often implement their knowledge of organisational behaviour to resolve the workplace issues and manage their workforce and organisation efficiently and effectively. According to Jacobs and Manzi (2020), organisational behaviour refers to the study of the behaviour of humans associated or working within the organisational settings. The organisational behaviour is basically the interface between the organisation along with the human behaviour and the organisation itself.

Theories of Organizational Behaviour

According to Abulof (2017), the Hierarchy of Needs by Maslow has been regarded as a major theory that shows the forces driving employees in an organization. It involves needs in terms of physiology, security, social as well as self-esteem. On the other hand, bureaucracy by Max Webber is also regarded as a major theory that indicates management in large sectors are categorised by fixed principles, hierarchy, impersonal relationship as well as unbending adherence to processes. The process management theory by Fayol is also a part of organizational behaviour under which industrial activities has been segregated into six different works that involves commercial, managerial, accounting as well as technical. Attitudes is also an imperious aspect as stated by Fallatah and Syed (2018), that shows that discrepancy is uncomfortable for an individual and they pursue to minimise it thus to decrease disagreement and seek constancy.

Importance of Organisational Behaviour

According to Miao et al (2020), organisational behaviour is very important to the organisations today because a proper understanding of the organisational behaviour would mean better management of the organisation. The knowledge and understanding of organisational behaviour provide better guidance to the top managers of the organisation. The management is able to direct their workforce through organisational behaviour. The organisational goal can be accomplished by application of organisational goals. The study of organisational behaviour is significant for the managers as they are able to motivate their employees through it. As per Huang (2021), the managers having a thorough idea and knowledge of organisational behaviour can foster better employee productivity and motivation. The management with the implementation of organisational behaviour can understand the employees better. The managers are able to keep the employees satisfied, held them back in the organisation and provide them a work-life balance. The organisational behaviour facilitates increase in job satisfaction. This further leads to low absenteeism, low attrition and turnover rate. The overall performance of the employees is enhanced through organisational behaviour.

The organisational behaviour is useful to individuals as it gives them a better understanding of themselves as well as others. As opined by Maio et al (2020), organisational behaviour improves interpersonal relationships. The managers or other employees who have the right organisational behaviour can understand the leadership, develop a better understanding of the attitudes, grow better perception about things, etc. The organisational behaviour facilitates transactional analysis and also helps to resolve conflicts. The personalities of the people within the organisation are shaped by the organisational behaviour. Each aspect of human behaviour is well understood under organisational behaviour.

Benefits of Organisational Behaviour

As per Gillam and Cosford (2021), the organisational behaviour studies the psychology of the human beings, which provides a better understanding of the nature of humans, the pattern of work, their attitude towards work, etc. The human behaviour that is analysed under the subject matter of organisational behaviour, states that the way humans behave is shaped by their social factors, cultural factors, personal factors, psychological factors, job factors, etc. The organisational behaviour comprises these factors which facilitates better comprehension of the employees’ behaviour at their workplace.

According to Xiao and Cooke (2019), the organisational behaviour shapes the interpersonal behaviour as well. The human beings possess a very strong need for developing interpersonal relations. The interpersonal behaviour is therefore based on how the interaction takes place between two or more people. In every organisation, the managers and the employees need to improve their interpersonal relations. An organisation which has a pleasant and strong interpersonal relationship fosters better productivity and better behaviour across the workforce. The workforce yields better output and starts moving collectively towards the organisational goal. The improvement and strengthening of the interpersonal relations would result in better unity among the employees of the organisation. The organisations with better organisational behaviour generate quality work. The organisation as a whole delivers excellence in working procedures and overall performance.

The organisational behaviour as stated by Brierley et al (2019), is a behavioural science which analyses the interpersonal relations across the organisation. Through enhancement in organisational behaviour, the attitudes, perceptions, transactional analysis and role analysis are better understood. The group behaviour is also impacted by the organisational behaviour. The humans who work for organisations as employees or managers are social animals. Therefore, they prefer living in groups. There are different types of people who form their own groups. Through effective organisational behaviour these group members share a common goal. They start sharing a similar interest, share their skills and purpose and work with the same purpose. The groups play a significant role in an organisation because they impact the people and their work behaviour.

Types of Organizational Behaviour

There are four diverse types of organizational behaviour models that has been reflected by different authors. According to Bratton (2020), autocratic model regards power with a decision-making orientation of authority as its root level. The employees who are involved in this mode are preoccupied with discipline as well as obedience. In other words, the employees are greatly relied on their boss. Wibowo (2017) argued that this model majorly lacks in terms of making employees insecure as well as frustrated. The employees also provide minimum performance due to reliability on superiors along with negligible wage. The second most imperative model has been custodial model that deals with economic resources with an administrative alignment towards money. In this model, the employees are lean towards rewards as well as security that are provided to them. In this case, the employees rely on the organization rather than their boss (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2019). They provide unreceptive cooperation as they are gratified but not strongly persuaded. The third most imperious model has been collegial model that involves partnership with an executive orientation of teamwork. This model is regarded as an extension of supportive model under which employees are inclined towards self-discipline. Employees feel a responsibility to support quality standard for the improved image of the company. Wibowo (2017), stated that the system model also a part of organizational behaviour motivates employees through challenges by providing them with financial incentives. This in turn helps employees to generate a positive workplace to work. The entire company structure is looked upon by employers that helps them to regard different probability by each individual. This particular model intends to balance the objectives of the individual with the aims of the organisation.

Impact of Organisational Behaviour on Workplace

According to Farooq et al (2021), the organisational behaviour leads to motivation of the human resources. The group or organisational dynamics are improved through organisational behaviour. This further foster effective communication, strong leadership, skill development and morale building. The organisations which have been able to develop a strong and effective organisational behaviour can produce better quality of work along with higher productivity. The organisational behaviour will create an effective organisational climate and culture. The organisational behaviour is crucial for a workplace. The human relations are enhanced through organisational behaviour. As per Vveinhardt and Sroka (2020), the dissatisfaction of the employees is reduced, the work environment is made healthier and harmonious, the turnover is minimised, etc. through organisational behaviour. The change management is enhanced through organisational behaviour. The changes are implemented easily and smoothly. The leaders of an organisation with strong organisational behaviour can easily manage the workforce effectively. They can coach their staff better, knowing their abilities and potentials. The leaders show appreciation towards their employees while the employees respect and follow their leader or manager, exhibiting desirable organisational behaviour (Hartmann et al, 2020). The corporate strategy is well executed and the organisational goals are effectively reached when organisational behaviour is effective in an organisation.

Challenges of organisational behaviour:

According to Stemn et al., (2018), some of the factors are needed to address effective learning and some significant challenges cause damage to organisational behaviour. Cross and Carbery (2022), said that organisational behaviour refers to the study of independent performers and the group of people and their activities that can affect an organisation. It shows the determination of human behaviour within an environmental position with the workforce culture. In this assessment, with the help of a literature review, some of the challenges that have affected organisational behaviour have been defined.

As per Gonzalez (2019), one of the major challenges that cause is the improvement of customer service situation under the issues of organisational behaviour. Sometimes the rude behaviour and the attitude of the employees damage customer satisfaction, especially in health care services. However, Bird (2021), defined that these challenges only happen when the employees are not satisfied with the workforce culture they have been working in. It is not the actual fault of the employees although the leadership qualities must be needed to improve to handle the situation by providing the reward facilities to the employees. However, it has been seen that the improvement of customer satisfaction needs the sales service facility. On the other hand, after-sales service is also essential to maintain customer service.

According to Zaki, Karim and Khan (2019), one of the major challenges that have been faced to manage organisational behaviour is maintaining diversity in the workforce. However, as per them, sometimes it is not maintained properly. Some reports say that people are harassed or treated unequally due to their race in the workforce and that leads to a major challenge to organisational behaviour. However, as per Yadav and Lenka (2020), it is not that minorities are always affected, it is just that some employees want to keep their independent cultural identity, values and their behaviour the same even though they are working in the workforce with some general rules to be followed. As a result, that causes a misleading controversy to the organisation that affects the behaviour of the organisation. However, the third argument states that the major reason for the rise of this challenge is when it comes to some employees who are defining their social and cultural lifestyle with an identity to the diverse group. Lastly, a critical review, is needed to address that the organisational behaviour is dependent upon the leadership qualities. The leaders need to be diverse and always ready for customer service then the employees can work accordingly.

Ways to improve the organisational behaviour:

Every organization has a desire to grow day by day in some monotonous fashion and become humongous in the global market. Success is the key make any organization grow. To achieve some success, it is necessary to build a compact team that can perform unanimously and produces some extravagant results. But proper team building is very much necessary. According to Erath et al (2021) to build a proper team, organizational behaviour should be maintained compactly. There are various ways to improve organizational behaviour. They are discussed below.

To build a great team, the leader should be very rightful and virtuous. According to DeSocio, Garzon, and Hicks, (2019) without proper leadership qualities, annexed with qualities like flexibility, respectful nature, knowledge, and truthfulness, no one can build a team with a bright scope. Hence, to improve organizational behaviour, it is necessary to substitute toxic leaders with some productive, futuristic, constructive leaders who might have the capability to transform the organization and its employees by creating exceptional examples. According to Miller (2018), transformational leadership can be used to contribute to a positive environment.

According to Tasselli, Kilduff, and Landis (2018) team is not only constructed by a leader but also by its members. So, the right people should be hired that can deliver a positive impact on the organization’s working culture. The team members should acquire proper skills according to their respective positions. They should be hard-working, sincere, and team members overall. Every team member should know how to personalize any situation and react. Various sessions can be hosted on personality development or various issues that need to be resolved for improving the organization as a whole.

A proper leader, with a qualitative team, needs to work on building a better working culture. The working environment needs to be creative, and relaxed. At the same time, the environment should also encourage every employee to work hard for consummating something new and effective. According to Basnet, (2019) to create such an environment, the team should be allowed to wear comfortable clothes. Whereas, according to Silic, and Lowry, (2020) employees with excellence in work should be provided with some remuneration. Any success should be celebrated with every team member.

Last but not least, every employee and employer should know the goal of the organization, and therefore, the actions should be measured and realistic in a given timebound which would eventually lead to an improvised organization.

References

Abulof, U., 2017. Introduction: Why we need Maslow in the twenty-first century. Society54(6), pp.508-509.

Balwant, P.T., 2018. The meaning of student engagement and disengagement in the classroom context: Lessons from organisational behaviour. Journal of Further and Higher Education42(3), pp.389-401.

Basnet, B.J., 2019. Basic assumptions of organizational behavior. NCC Journal, 4(1), pp.27-30.https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/NCCJ/article/view/24731

Bird, J.J., 2021. Improving Customer Service Chatbots with Attention-based Transfer Learning. arXiv preprint arXiv:2111.14621.https://arxiv.org/abs/2111.14621

Bratton, J., 2020. Work and organizational behaviour. Bloomsbury Publishing.

Brierley, M.L., Chater, A.M., Smith, L.R. and Bailey, D.P., 2019. The effectiveness of sedentary behaviour reduction workplace interventions on cardiometabolic risk markers: a systematic review. Sports Medicine49(11), pp.1739-1767.

Buchanan, D.A. and Huczynski, A.A., 2019. Organizational behaviour. Pearson UK.

Cross, C. and Carbery, R., 2022. Organisational Behaviour. Bloomsbury Publishing.https://www.google.co.in/books/edition/Organisational_Behaviour/vzBREAAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=organisational+behaviour&pg=PR5&printsec=frontcover

DeSocio, P.A., Garzon, M.P. and Hicks, M.R., 2019. Building a culture of safety: relearning organizational behavior. International Anesthesiology Clinics, 57(3), pp.12-24.https://journals.lww.com/anesthesiaclinics/Citation/2019/05730/Building_a_Culture_of_Safety__Relearning.3.aspx

Erath, T.G., Pellegrino, A.J., DiGennaro Reed, F.D., Ruby, S.A., Blackman, A.L. and Novak, M.D., 2021. Experimental research methodologies in organizational behavior management. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 41(2), pp.150-181.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01608061.2020.1869137

Fallatah, R.H.M. and Syed, J., 2018. A critical review of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. employee motivation in Saudi Arabia, pp.19-59.

Farooq, K., Yusliza, M.Y., Wahyuningtyas, R., Haque, A.U., Muhammad, Z. and Saputra, J., 2021. Exploring challenges and solutions in performing employee ecological behaviour for a sustainable workplace. Sustainability13(17), p.9665.

Gillam, S. and Cosford, P., 2021. Organisational behaviour. In Leadership and Management for Doctors in Training (pp. 32-39). CRC Press.

Gonzalez, M.E., 2019. Improving customer satisfaction of a healthcare facility: reading the customers’ needs. Benchmarking: An International Journal.https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/BIJ-01-2017-0007/full/html

Hartmann, S., Weiss, M., Newman, A. and Hoegl, M., 2020. Resilience in the workplace: A multilevel review and synthesis. Applied Psychology69(3), pp.913-959.

Huang, Y., 2021. Work motivation and operational risk assessment: a new direction for organisational behaviour studies. International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management24(1), pp.54-72.

Jacobs, K. and Manzi, T., 2020. Conceptualising ‘financialisation’: governance, organisational behaviour and social interaction in UK housing. International Journal of Housing Policy20(2), pp.184-202.

Maio, G.R., Hanel, P.H., Martin, R., Lee, A. and Thomas, G., 2020. Setting the foundations for theoretical progress toward understanding the role of values in organisational behaviour: Commentary on “Values at work: The impact of personal values in organisations” by Arieli, Sagiv, and Roccas. Applied Psychology69(2), pp.284-290.

Miao, Q., Eva, N., Newman, A., Nielsen, I. and Herbert, K., 2020. Ethical leadership and unethical proorganisational behaviour: The mediating mechanism of reflective moral attentiveness. Applied Psychology69(3), pp.834-853.

Miller, T., 2018. Effects of transformational leadership on employee’s organizational cynicism in an educational organization.https://scholarworks.calstate.edu/concern/theses/jh343t105

Nuckcheddy, A., 2018. The effect of personality on motivation and organisational behaviour. Psychology and Behavioral Science International Journal9(2), pp.1-5.

Silic, M. and Lowry, P.B., 2020. Using design-science based gamification to improve organizational security training and compliance. Journal of Management Information Systems, 37(1), pp.129-161.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07421222.2019.1705512

Stemn, E., Bofinger, C., Cliff, D. and Hassall, M.E., 2018. Failure to learn from safety incidents: Status, challenges and opportunities. Safety science, 101, pp.313-325.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S092575351730509X

Tasselli, S., Kilduff, M. and Landis, B., 2018. Personality change: Implications for organizational behavior. Academy of Management Annals, 12(2), pp.467-493.https://journals.aom.org/doi/abs/10.5465/annals.2016.0008

Vveinhardt, J. and Sroka, W., 2020. Workplace mobbing in Polish and Lithuanian organisations with regard to Corporate Social Responsibility. International journal of environmental research and public health17(8), p.2944.

Wibowo, G., 2017. Comparison of the Models of Organizational Behavior: A Review. Manag Econ Res J2(2016), p.1264.

Xiao, M. and Cooke, F.L., 2019. Why and when knowledge hiding in the workplace is harmful: a review of the literature and directions for future research in the Chinese context. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources57(4), pp.470-502.

Yadav, S. and Lenka, U., 2020. Workforce diversity: from a literature review to future research agenda. Journal of Indian Business Research.https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/JIBR-08-2019-0243/full/html

Zaki, A.R., Karim, A.S. and Khan, H., 2019. Managing workforce diversity in multicultural organizations: some observations. Journal of European Studies (JES), 35(1), pp.79-91.https://asce-uok.edu.pk/journal/index.php/JES/article/view/84