Learning objectives

Unit 3: Principles and
Models of Learning in
Education and Training
Dr Sonia Khan
Learning objectives
1. Review understanding of different reflective models learned last
2. Understand few more models/theories of reflection
3. Compare and evaluate the models
4. Start reflecting on which these models resonate with our individual
style (teaching/learning)
5. Extra: group work theories

Compare the different models we learned last week
Group work
ERA, Jasper
What model, Driscoll
Gibb’s reflective cycle
Dewey’ reflective practice
Schön’s reflection-in-action; reflection-on-action
Let’s learn some more models
Atkins and Murphy theory of reflective
practice (1994)
Uncomfortable feelings and
thoughts – Self aware
Analyse feelings and
knowledge relevant to the
Critically evaluate
Identify learning from such

Tripp (1994)
Major crises or turning point.
Learning through critical incidents that emerge from classrooms.
Defining critical incident:
It does not necessarily has to mean something serious or dangerous. It
be relevant or important; something without which someone is not
able to function well
. Some event that would require more in-depth
. It means you need to take steps/ some action to move
Brookfield’s lenses (1995)
Autobiographical lens
Students’ views
Colleagues’ views
Theoretical lens

Brookfield’s lenses (1995)
Autobiographical lens
Previous experience, reactions/feelings
Past/personal story impacted your reactions
Students’ views
Put yourself in their shoes and review the situation
Past experiences impacted their responses
Talk to them/ offer feedback if necessary – dialogue with them with an
aim to understand

Brookfield’s lenses (1995)
Colleagues’ views
Talk to your colleagues and add their reflections on your situation
Their observations of your work, their own experiences – might help to bring
some resolve/ offer strategies
Theoretical lens
Come back to the literature
Gain a deeper/ new insight
Relate your readings with the other three views/lenses- autobiographical,
student and colleagues
Apply theory to practice/experience

Wk3- Individual activity (Formative
Which of the three reflective practice models/theories resonate with
you and why?

Atkins, S. & Murphy, K. (1993). Reflection; a review of the literature, Journal of Advanced Nursing,
18: 1188-1192.
Brookfield, S. (1995). Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher. San-Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Dewey, J. (1997).
How we think. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications.
Driscoll, J. ed. (2007).
Practicing Clinical Supervision: A Reflective Approach for Healthcare
. Edinburgh: Elsevier.
Gibbs, G. (1998).
Learning by Doing: A Guide to Teaching and Learning Methods. Oxford: Further
Education Unit, Oxford Polytechic.
Greenaway, R., 1995.
Powerful learning experiences in management learning and development: A
study of the experiences of managers attending residential development training courses at the
Brathay Hall Trust (1988-9)
(Doctoral dissertation, University of Lancaster).
Jasper, M. (2013).
Beginning Reflective Practice. Andover: Cengage Learning.
Schön, D. A. (1983).
The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York, NY:
Basic Books.
Tripp, D. (1993). Critical incidents in teaching: Developing professional judgement. London: