INSTRUMENTAL

whose ones emice sympathy when he hurts hmsett at hOme teams
meat but they are back. up by a variety of other observations not to aY when h.eAh’chid’ ===74.c r’s:falb”.9″att Fa example. the only ch. does .t. an average. ciffer in per-, from children who have to me with than sib.gs for .me s ro more Ike, than a frsthom to alai, herself to be parental attention (Foto A. Po, 19867. Bala.. differences dom… by her peers tAlaramasitch et al . 1986. Chicken team boys and 941s eAd nor drhhinsh when Parents began to sepaatay how to behove at home and outside the home. and try to heat the. sons and daughters alke (Serbin. Pow.. 8 the. out..-the-home behavior they big wth .m to adltoocl. aiko. 1933). Ch.., who speak Korean. Spanish at home but Ths makes sense. sire they we not dent… to spend …. .0. with their P.m and vP as Ergisn speakers. The language wes n thee paw, house. learned outside the home takes precedence cner the one their 1•e notion that .dren are in a Parents taught them – a d, u N e their parents. trey speak a great hurry to grow up and that they see without a foreign accent (Baron-Cohen S. Staunton. 1994). the. own wood as a pate rotation of the But what about the evidence that dyskrictional parents tend eclat world is an adtto-centric one. A to have dysfunctional offsprng. and that chicken vmo are neated cr,ld’s goats not to be dice her mother Mb affection tend to hum out better .n ch.ren who are Or his lath. – Ws to be a successful treated harshly, The trouble wth this eodence es that rt comes chid. Chicken have the’ own agenda. from studies that aovide no way to ckstingash genetic horn they are not putty in then parents’ environmentai nfkrences. or causes from effects. Are the off. hands. They have to team how to get spring’s problems due to the ….able erwionm.t as dad along in the world outside the home, by the parents or to personality characteristics ..ted horn and out there ..es are Pl…
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SEEING BOTH SIDES HOW INSTRUMENTAL ARE PARENTS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR CHILDREN?
oPrgt.sca,rieidirrlesrtirurnental in the development actenstes and behaviors thst ate. necessarily drect personalty char-y,. the child. Chicken anve at c.c.s.. about themselves. Jerome Kagan. Harvard University ohm near., because they assume that snce they we boiagcal oftsang../ Crobabl/ possess some Ps1Chalcgc. Quakes ot The deNelopment of the skiLS. Yates. and social behaviors that the. parents. The emotianaty charged beef. caned alenabcation. faoktate a chid, adapts.° to his or her society recgires an is the bass. anie n and byalty to ones fumy. on the ore hard. orchestration of a number of relatively ndep.dent ca…. or shame over undesr.le parental characteistics. ir.afng The most nportant are: (I) nhented temperamental bases, alcchoism. cannel,. or unernbymerl. on the other. N chi:ken (21 Me Social doss. ethnic. and rebgous affietons of the dad’s peceWe their .0.4 as affedonate. far. and talerfed. they are wtich become bases for Iffier dent6cations. 18) so. IA* to assume that they. too. possess de.able traits and. as a relationships with s.b.gs and peers. (4) hstoncal era and the res.. feel more ccadent than they ore entitled . given the cuffure n whiten chktood and adolescence are spent. and obirecthe evidence. CNckn win Pao.. a P….P..9. (5) the behaviors and personalty of the parents. odor n d.i, out pi sheet. a WM. fa. feel ashorned The parents. Muer). assume two cifterent forms. The fist because they assume that they may possess some of ire same refers to the. ckect Meractons wth ther ch.. mixing the undearatre chaactenstics pagan. 1998, behaviors they reward or punish the slits they praise. and the ey the soxth a seventh anhclaY. chin. have .9. to actOns that then children ritespret ether as ,gins of affect., dent, wth the moat class of then lam,. Chicken from affluent, imp, that trey are valued. or signs of indrierence a neglect coddle-Gass farniies come to bete. that they nave a greater whim are nterpretecl as re,ecton a host•ty. Patents who laic a sense of age., and more priviege than chldren from eco-read to their ch.. type., produce adolescents with the nano., cisathantaged fannies. The tatter are apt to perceive largest vocabularies. the highest ntergence scores. and the best their relative deawation of material advantage as ma,. some gr.es (Rakes et ai.• 2006). Patents who reason wth then comprornse n ther sense a psychological potency. Thrs b.el is ism wf Ve rra1.9 requests for obedience typicaly have more . usualy supported by parental actions and conynune_ahons chkken Nat,. 1998, The power of the tar.. seen n a study implying that lite is dirt. and their children face serous of over 1000 chicken ban ten different American dies who were obstacles as they plan thes eves. Asa result the social class of rased on’y at home a had sarcgate care fa vaned ampuits of rearing n North Amara and &rope is . best predota of IC/ trne each week. The tam, had the most impatant rilluerre on scores. grades n ,chord. airnnaky, future occupation, and a the older chid’s per.naity, mg v ve dais. and charade, cm., vane, of anesses Werner 8 Smith. 1982,ornson et ai.. Eery Cocoon Research Network. 2004). Even chiclren who were The dramatic advances in the neurosciences and genetics. orphaned. a made homeless by war. were able to regain nteti asserrinated by the media. have persuaded ma, Americans lectual and sccial skis they did not dthekap during their ea, and Europeans that genes are the more important caused the awe., d they were adopted berme age 4 by .rturant. ntellectual and erne.. pasties of addescents. Howe.• this accepting fannies (Rat.. . al, 19581. clams exaggerated. The evidence reveals that the lath, Ctituie and histomal pared can has the chid to anstruct cif- rernans an important cruse of vanaton n maw Ps’IcholcOce. lent nteraetatons of the same behamts. Almost al children of Vats. especially values. EIC.311, talents. and attitude toward Puntan parents growng cp n seventeenth-centin New England authority. more important than any gene discovered thus tar. The were pureshecf harsh,. but most ntera.ed these a..toes as current attract.. to gametic tletemhnsm motif.. by the parents dew. them to de.e.pgood ch.acter s POP.ar because t removes some Of Asa react. the …able consecluerose of harsh pins… the blame from the fain, for undesirable woad occur in ocritemporay New Ergland efict not °car n the outcomes in thee chidren. sevantearan cent, Cruse parents centuries ago used to bnd Most socetes, ancient and mod.n, the feet of their yang dauiptas ri.ia to make them attractive to .eve that the tam, has a significant lave safer, Atha. .was erserne, pan,. and comprornised raluenoe on c.a.. but 4 is often di-ther abilly to walk. most gees accepted . dram bemuse they flat to measue. A commentator who belemd t served their nterests The some conclusion would not be denied parental rituence resembles arrived at today. The mponal pr.°. is that it is the chills Me- someone vkio decides on a foggy Petelen of the parents’ behasiors..t . actual behaviors that is momng that the trees have disappear. critic.. development. because they carat see them.
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Jerome Kagan
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PSYChCLCGICAL DEVELOPMENT
attained identity achicvcmcnt uncrcasa straddv from INTERIM SUMMARY centage remaining in identity diffusion steadily devreaws • Puberly:szr4carit Ldolesc7Lbody (Waterman. 1985) most adolescents make .1 through the pen. without development of ulf-coniept from the penpcctive of crryt- mapr tamoi. uiuvc thcorn.,, rathrr than baud on inz,,on., stages of • Accacing to Erieson’s .ory. lam, a personal identity development. As adolescents mature cognitively, sense of dent, .s the ma. task of the adolescent penal. selves. They begin to view them.lveM11111INNIERREFFRPorvase comei by Erikson to