Install lining, panelling and moulding

LEARNER GUIDE
CPCCCA3024
Install lining, panelling and moulding

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Version Control

Unit code Document version Release date Comments/actions
CPCCCA3024 1.0 27.11.2020 First edition

Table of Contents
Table of Contents ……………………………………………………………………………………. 1
Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………… 2
CHAPTER 1: PLAN AND PREPARE ……………………………………………………………….. 5
1.1 Read and interpret work instructions and plan sequence of work ……………………. 7
1.2 Plan all work to comply with laws and regulations, the National Construction Code
(NCC), Australian Standards, work health and safety (WHS) and environmental
requirements, manufacturers’ specifications, workplace requirements, drawings and
specifications …………………………………………………………………………………… 9
1.3 Select tools and equipment, check for serviceability and report any faults…………20
1.4 Select and use personal protective equipment (PPE) as required for each stage of
the task………………………………………………………………………………………….23
1.5 Inspect work site, locate services, assess hazards and apply risk controls, including
required signage and barricades ……………………………………………………………25
1.6 Select materials required for task, calculate quantities, handle safely and prepare
and position ready for use. ………………………………………………………………….30
CHAPTER 2: PREPARE SURFACE FOR LINING/PANELLING……………………………. 36
2.1 Select fixing procedures for lining materials ……………………………………………..38
2.2 Set out surface to provide a balanced panel or board effect to width and height …39
CHAPTER 3: INSTALL LINING/PANELLING ………………………………………………… 41
3.1 Mark lining materials and cut to length and/or shape, fit and position ……………..43
3.2 Secure and fix panelling/lining………………………………………………………………45
3.3 Install paneling/lining to plumb, level and uniform plane ……………………………..49
CHAPTER 4: CUT AND FIX PROFILED ARCHITRAVE MOULDING …………………….. 52
4.1 Mark standard architraves for edging and cut to length, position and fit …………..56
4.2 Mark skirtings and cut to length, position and fit………………………………………..58
4.3 Mark mitre joints, cut to length, position and fit flush to face and true without gaps
……………………………………………………………………………………………………60
4.4 Mark scribed joints and cut to length, position and fit………………………………….62
4.5 Cut scotia return end to profile shape and length……………………………………….64
4.6 Mark standard pelmet moulding to length and cut, fit, assemble and fix with miters
true without gaps ……………………………………………………………………………..65
4.7 Set out raked moulding to position and shape mould to pattern for each position. 67
CHAPTER 5: CLEAN UP……………………………………………………………………………. 70
5.1 Clean up meeting all legislative and workplace requirements for safety, waste
disposal and materials handling…………………………………………………………….72
5.2 Check, maintain and store tools and equipment and report any faults. …………….74
References …………………………………………………………………………………………… 77
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Introduction
Walls are used to support a frame as well as to enclose a specific region. Wall panels are
made of a variety of materials and then framed together to decorate walls. In the space
where they are used, wall panels add luxury and elegance.
Panel: –A thin flat piece of wood, plywood, or similar material that is framed by stiles and
rails as in a door (or cabinet door) or built into grooves of thicker material with moulded
edges for the decorative wall treatment. Wood-based structural panels are lightweight, flat
composite materials that can withstand loads in particular applications. Plywood, matformed panels (oriented strand sheet, or OSB), and composite panels are the three basic
types of structural panels depending on the manufacturing process.
When panels are mounted “on top” of a building’s frame, additional efforts such as painting
or applying finishes are no longer needed. The end result is a uniform and consistent
appearance. Wall panelling may often also be used to cover an entire wall.
Lining: –Lining is a protective or decorative layer of material applied to the inner surface of
something. It is a layer of concrete, mortar, wood, or other materials used in canals to avoid
leaks or in tunnels or shafts to prevent cave-ins in Civil Engineering. Polymers, refractories,
cement, and bricks are the most popular lining materials. Canals have linings to prevent
water from flowing into them. These can be made out of a variety of materials, including
compacted soil, cement, concrete, plastics, boulders, and bricks. The key benefit of canal
lining is that it protects water from seepage.
Linings prevent corrosion in a wide range of difficult applications. Linings offer a number of
benefits, including:
Chemical resistance
Low permeability
Physical durability
Economical installation
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Moulding: –Mouldings, also known as covings, are decorative strips that are used to cover
aesthetically pleasing transitions between surfaces. They are commonly found on columns
and entablatures in classical architecture. Mouldings were traditionally carved out of marble
or stone, but they are now usually made out of wood, plaster, and plastics. Moulding is an
ornamental strip of plaster or wood that runs along the top of a wall or around a door and
is painted with a pattern. In India and its neighbouring countries, hand moulding of bricks
is popular. This may be achieved on the ground or on the table, which is referred to as
Ground moulding and Table moulding, respectively.
Ground moulding: –
Where a wide and level area of land is required for the purpose, this approach is
used. The area of land where the moulding will be done is levelled, plastered flat,
and strewn with sand.
To keep the moulded bricks from sticking to the moulds, sand is poured on the inner
sides of the moulds or the moulds are dipped in water each time before moulding.
Sand moulded bricks are made when sand is used to keep the earth from sticking to
the moulds, and slop moulded bricks are made when the mould is dipped in water
each time before moulding a brick. The edges of sand moulded bricks are smoother
and have a better finish.
After sprinkling sand on the inside of the mould or dipping it in water, take a lump of
well-prepared earth that is slightly larger than the brick’s volume. This lump is
moulded into the size and shape of a brick with the hands.
It is now rolled in sand and dashed into the mould with a jerk in such a way that the
mould is fully filled with earth. The moulder then strikes the corners and sides with
his hands and presses the edges and corners with his thumbs.
The excess dirt is scraped away, and the top surface is levelled. The surplus soil is
removed using a metal plate with a sharp edge known as a hit. This is usually done
with a thin wire spread over a frame.
After the brick has been moulded, the mould is gently brushed away with something
rough, and the brick is allowed to dry on the ground. The mould is then moved to a
nearby location to be used to mould another brick, and the process is repeated.
Bricks moulded directly on the ground have an unappealingly rough lower face and
cannot have a frog*. To stop it, use bricks with a frog (*A frog is an indentation in

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the face of a brick. It can bear the manufacturer’s trademark. With the frog up, bricks
are laid in masonry. Frog provides a key for the mortar and keeps the bricks securely
in place on top) moulded on a block of wood known as the moulding block, with a
projection 0.5 cm thick and the same length and width as the inside of the mould.
Table Moulding: –
Moulds bricks on stock boards, which are the same size as the moulds and have a
frog projection. Sand is strewn in the mould as well as on the stock sheet. The mould
is then filled with earth after it has been adjusted to suit the stock sheet. A sufficient
amount of earth is dashed into the mould, pressed hard, and the excess earth is
struck or removed with a thin wire. After that, a pallet is set on the mould. The brickcontaining mould is then cleverly lifted off the stock board and rotated, allowing the
entire assembly to rest on the pallet. After that, the mould is gently tapped and lifted,
leaving the brick on the pallet. Between the two pallets, another pallet is put on the
brick and transported to the drying site. It’s left to dry on the side
What will I learn?
This learning guide will provide you the skills and knowledge required to:
1. Plan and prepare.
2. Prepare surface for lining/panelling.
3. Install lining/panelling.
4. Cut and fix profiled architrave mouldings.
5. Clean up.

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CHAPTER 1: PLAN AND PREPARE
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Plan and prepare
General
Before initiating the construction of panelling on walls, it is important to plan and prepare
properly. In the installation of panelling, lining, and moulding, the planning and preparation
is the most important phase. Before initiating the work of installation of panelling, it is
important to understand the construction.
During the planning and preparation phase, the following activities take place:
Work requirements are obtained, confirmed, and applied.
Safety plans and policies are confirmed and applied.
Signage and barricade requirements are identified from the traffic management plans.
Selection of plants, tools, and equipment are made according to the type of task and
any fault identified are rectified.
The required quantity of material is determined.
Availability of material is checked and confirmed.
Environmental necessities are determined for the task according to environmental
strategies and statutory and regulatory requirements and legislations.
The above-stated activities are crucial for workers’ safety, and it also ensures that the
construction of eaves is done according to required specifications, standards, and legislation.
What will I learn?
In this chapter, you will learn about the following:
1. Read and interpret work instructions and plan sequence of work.
2. Plan all work to comply with laws and regulations, the National
Construction Code (NCC), Australian Standards, work health and safety
(WHS) and environmental requirements, manufacturers’ specifications,
workplace requirements, drawings and specifications.
3. Select tools and equipment, check for serviceability and report any
faults.
4. Select and use personal protective equipment (PPE) as required for
each stage of the task.
5. Inspect work site, locate services, assess hazards and apply risk
controls, including required signage and barricades.
6. Select materials required for task, calculate quantities, handle safely
and prepare and position ready for use.

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1.1Read and interpret work instructions and plan
sequence of work
First, you have to be clear about what type of work you will be doing in the given project.
Moreover, everything should be written down before actual work is carried out, which
includes the required procedure and equipment that will be used in the construction of timber
stairs.
Make sure you have all the details about the working area from where you will start your
job, for example:
The Site –It includes access to all required equipment. Furthermore, you also need to
collect information about other structures and buildings and their types.
The Weather – Is there wind, rain, or other bad weather? Is it too dark?
Traffic –In this section, you should check how many people move close to the site or
any road near the working area to set up barrier or signs for people and equipment
safety.
Hazards –You should be clear about potential hazards on the worksite. This includes
inspecting worksites, conducting Job Safety Analysis (JSA), and understanding Safe
Work Method Statement (SWMS). Further, you should assess environmental hazards.
Besides the above information, you also need to make sure you have detailed information
about the type of work you will be doing:
The Task –What is the type of building? Which type of lining, panelling and moulding
is required to be constructed? What will be the size of the flight for stair?
Plant –Which kind of plant will be used? What should be the size of the plant?
Communications – What are the different ways to communicate with other workers?
Procedures and Rules –Is any special permits or licenses required? Are there any set
rules of the site that will affect the way you will work?
Work instruction Sources
Work specifications and strategies are the characteristics that are necessary to complete a
particular job or task.
You may require a manual that includes plans, specifications, quality requirements, and
operational details and checks the work accurately.
Work instructions may be obtained via:
Oral or written and graphic instructions
Signposts
Work schedules/plans/specifications
Work-related journal/newsletter/advertisements
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Charts and hand drawings
Memos
Materials safety data sheets
Technical drawings or sketches
Read work Instructions
All work must comply with worksite, environment, and organisation safety strategies.
Procedures ensure that the work is completed safely, without damaging equipment or
putting individuals in unsafe situations. They also ensure that the work is completed in the
correct order and doesn’t interrupt or get within the way of other work on the site.
Your work manual will describe the safest method of performing the work and the equipment
based on the specifications. You must clarify work instructions with your Supervisor.
If you are unclear about where you will find work instructions or any section regarding work
instructions, you must seek help from your Supervisor. They will help you to locate and
understand the work instructions.
Interpret and apply work instructions
The meaning of interpreting is to explain or understand.
It is important to understand the work requirements. A good understanding of the
compliance documents will help you to:
Make the right decisions for each work activity/solution.
Distinguish the steps that are given in the given situation.
Determine expectations.
The keywords that must be understood when reading the compliance documents are as
follows:
If there is any doubt during reading the compliance documents, discuss it with the site
manager to understand them.
•Designate preffered course of action. It is
foremost to explain the action in case of any
Should event.
•The actions that are mandatory consistened with
Must legislative and compliance requirements.
•Selecting the measures from a group of actions
Consider which will produce best and safest results.
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1.2Plan all work to comply with laws and regulations, the
National Construction Code (NCC), Australian
Standards, work health and safety (WHS) and
environmental requirements, manufacturers’
specifications, workplace requirements, drawings and
specifications
Before starting the installation of lining and panelling, you need to make sure that you have
accessed, interpreted and applied all documentation for the job. This will help you do your
work safely and make sure all work is compliant.
The most important point of consideration is that the eaves must be constructed in
accordance with the requirements of relevant legislation, Australian Standards, and Codes
of Practice
The
National Construction Code (NCC) provides the minimum requirements for safety
and health, amenity and accessibility, and sustainability in the design, construction,
performance and liability of new buildings (and new building work in existing buildings)
throughout Australia. It is given legal effect by building regulatory legislation in each State
& Territory. The legislation consists of an Act of Parliament and subordinate regulations.
The Australian Building Codes Board mission is to address issues relating to safety, health,
amenity and sustainability in the design and performance of buildings through the National
Construction Code (NCC) Series, and the development of effective regulatory systems and
appropriate non-regulatory solutions.
Compliance documentation
Compliance documentation is essential to all aspects of operations on every worksite. From
the work instructions to quality and environmental requirements, documentation sets out
the type of work, the timeframe for construction and the procedures of the completion of
the task.
Statements containing the words “must”, “shall” or “will” are often used within these
documents to indicate that there are mandatory (legally must be applied) requirements.
Each project site will have different compliance documentation that must be referred to.
These documents require that the tasks should be undertaken in such a way that it meets
the required standards.
It is significant to know your obligations under the compliance documents such as.

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Worksites are required to meet a range of compliance documents. These include:
Each state uses different OHS/WHS legislation. They all have the same requirements. In
case of any questions regarding the safety rules, you must contact your Supervisor.
Other compliance documents include:
Before starting your work, ensure that you have access to all the operation documents for
the job. This will help you do your work safely and make sure all work is in compliance. The
operation documents include:
Work Method Statement
Acts: These are laws that you have to follow.
Regulations: These explain what the law means.
Codes of Practice: These are instructions on how to follow the law,
based on industry standards.
Australian Standards: These define the minimum requirements for a job,
product or hazard.
Legislative, organisational and site requirements
Licensing requirements
Equal employee opprotunity legislations
Australian standards
Code of practice
Safe Work Method Statements (SWMS)
Job safety Analysis (JSA)
Operational manuals
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)

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Safety Data Sheets (SDS)
Project Quality requirements
Work Method Statement: A Safe Work Method Statement (SWMS) is a document that
outlines the high-risk construction work activities to be carried out at a workplace, the
hazards that may arise from these activities, and the measures to put in place to control the
risks.
SWMS are required for high-risk construction work activities, as defined in the WHS
Regulations. For works carried out regularly, a generic SWMS may be prepared and can be
used for those work activities. The content of the SWMS can be refined over time and include
consultation with workers and other persons conducting a business or undertaking.
Work method statements must be completed before initiating the work. The work methods
statements provide details on the steps to complete the job. These include details of any
hazards you might face while completing the job and the safety measures to control these
hazards.
These statements can also be known as:
Safe Work Method Statement (SWMS)
Job Safety Analysis (JSA)
Job Hazard Analysis (JHA)
Safe Operating Procedure (SOP)
These statements are also used to organise work activities and ensuring that everything is
completed based on the job requirements. You must ensure that you have these required
documents available before initiating the task.
Safety Data Sheet: The schedule for the amount of work to be carried out varies depending
on location.
A Safety Data Sheet (SDS) is a document that provides health and safety information about
products, substances or chemicals that are classified as hazardous substances or dangerous
goods. If you buy one of these products, it should come with an SDS.
SDSs tell you
The product (its name, ingredients and properties), who manufactured or imported
it, how the product can affect your health how to use and store it safely.
Who manufactured or imported it
How the product can affect your health
How to use and store it safely
Health and safety
A person conducting a business or undertaking must manage risks associated with any highrisk construction work.
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Safe Work Method Statement (SWMS) must be prepared for high-risk construction works.
Further guidance on the duties related to high-risk construction work and SWMS is available
in the
Code of Practice: Construction Work.
Operations Documentation
Before initiating your work, you must ensure that you access the required operational
documents. This will ensure that the work is completed in the safest way possible and
complies with the legislative requirements. These documents include:
How to ensure everyone is safe?
OHS/WHS laws ensure that employers comply with their duty of care to keep employees
and other people safe at work.
Who does the duty of care apply to?
Persons conducting a business or undertaking (PCBU)
Managers
Suppliers
Designers
Employees
Contractors and sub-contractors
Site details : information and safety requirements of workplace environement.
Include instructions on how to handle dangerous or hazardous material.
Instructions on what work is or what you will be doing. Instructions on how to
safely do the job.
Fault equipment procedures: Isolation procedures to follow or forms to fill out.
Signage: Sign signages tells you what equipment you need to have, or areas
that are not safe to be in.
Emergency procedures: Instructions on what to do in emergency situations
where excavation or first aid is needed.
Equipment and work instructions: Details of how to operate plant and
equipment where excavation of first aid is needed.

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Volunteers
Worker’s duty of care
The workers must ensure that they take care of their own health and safety and the safety
of others in the workplace. The workers must ensure that they do not put their own and
other’s health and safety at risk with their actions.
PCBU’s duty of care
The person conducting a business undertaking (PCBU) must:
Ensure that a safe workplace is provided to the employees and others.
Ensure that the workers are trained and are familiar with the job tasks to be
completed.
Eliminate or minimise risks.
Notify workers of any present and potential hazards and risks.
Ensure the workers are familiar with the emergency procedures.
Ensure the worksites have a safety plan in place.
WHS laws
Safe Work Australia developed a single set of WHS laws to be implemented across Australia.
These are known as ‘model’ laws.
You must follow the following at the construction worksite:
If you identify any hazard or potential risk, you must tell the Supervisor as soon as possible.
Your civil construction worksite also has the work instructions for working safely, including:
Emergency procedures (using firefighting equipment, first aid and evacuation)
Handling hazardous materials
Safe operating procedures
Personal protective clothing and equipment
Work instructions.
Workplace rules.
Operation manuals

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Safe use of tools and equipment
Environmental requirements
When we use the timber material, then it does not have so much impact on the environment,
but there are some points that must be considered while working on a construction site:
Water quality
Air levels
Waste management
Hazardous chemicals

Element Description
Water Quality Waterways should be free from pollution. As a construction
worker, it is your responsibility to ensure that any material
residue should not enter waterways
Air Quality Dust control and maintenance ensure good air quality. Water
sprays must be used on windy days to keep dust from growing
Noise level Noise should be maintained to the optimum level. This is
considered important during night operations, especially in
residential sectors
Waste Management Waste management is an important factor in maintaining a
clean and safe environment. Waste problems can be reduced
by acting on the following priorities:
Avoidance
Recycling
Re-use
Disposal.
Hazardous chemicals A construction worker must know about the storage, use and
disposal of hazardous chemicals. You should seek advice from
your Supervisor

Environmental Hazards
Objectives
1. Recognise environmental hazards.
2. Acknowledge treatment and first aid for exposure to environmental hazards.
All employees of Australia are committed to observant and active environmental
administration in every aspect of their field and undertaking activities with the consent of
all regulatory provisions and other legal demands.

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Figure: Environment protection
Environmental protection of the building site
The workers should be saved from any fumes from construction machinery and building
waste or materials; moreover, these materials should be altered carefully and then recycled
or disposed of after completing work. At last, the soil is also a valuable asset; therefore, it
should not be polluted by disposing of this type of material.
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
What is the necessity of environmental controls?
It is our duty to protect the environment not only on a tiny scale but also on a global scale.
Several types of structures or monitoring systems are installed on the worksites to protect
the environment to reduce construction activities’ impacts.
Deciding which controls to use depends on the reasons why controls may be needed.
Waste control
Hazardous materials
Water quality (erosion and sediment control)
Cultural heritage management issues
Air quality
Noise
Flora and fauna
What the law says
You must follow several legal necessities to proceed construction process without making
harm to the environment. The legislation includes Acts and Regulations, which are
mandatory, codes of Practice, Advisory Standards, and Guidelines, which are non-mandatory
but may be cited in mandatory Acts and Regulations.
The tiers of Government are:

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Federal or Commonwealth Legislation (the Environmental Protection &Biodiversity
Conservation Act 1999)
State & Territory Legislation (Environmental Protection Act 1994 and Water Act 2000)
Local Government Legislation (Development Approvals, Material Change of Use,
Environmentally Relevant Activities)
Common law is where a precedent has been set in a Court of Law, not through an Act of
Parliament (also known as Case Law). Two examples of Common Law are:
Rights of neighbours – causing undue interference with the use of land or damage.
Rights of Protection – requires obligations to be met to provide adequate safety
standards.
Most recent legislation updates relating to the environment Aboriginal Cultural
Heritage Act 2003:
New legislation, which includes changes to regulate impacts and disturbances to significant
Aboriginal areas or objects.
It includes the following new provisions:
Duty of Care (section 23) carries a penalty for Individuals of $7500 and for
Corporations $75000.
Unlawful Harm (section 24) carries a penalty of $7500 or 2 years imprisonment.
Prohibited excavation, relocation, and taking away (section 25).
Unlawful possession of Aboriginal Cultural Heritage (section 26).
Water Regulation 2002:
Permits and approvals are required for the development, which affects water access or
impacts on water (e.g. canal developments). Environmental Protection Act 1994 and
Integrated Planning Act 1997 outline the required ERA’s and Development Approvals.
Common-law Obligations regarding Prevention of Vandalism, Fire, or Flooding:
A duty of care exists for managing land to prevent foreseeable events from providing Due
Diligence for the public and your employee’s safety. The contractor must prevent
consequential air pollution, water pollution, and unlawful discharges to the sewer, noise
pollution, and other environmental offences by taking preventative actions to deal with
foreseeable acts of vandalism or natural events. For example, properly maintain and protect
through fencing, roofing, contouring, fire breaks, locked gates, etc. Any liquid storage tanks
or other plant and equipment exposed to the elements or to mischief from vandals.
DETAILS FROM THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ACT, 1994
Due Diligence
Due diligence is:
1. A defence under the Environmental Protection (EP) Act to protect the workforce and the
companies they work with against prosecution
2. A duty of care for individuals and companies to prevent or minimise environmental harm.

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3. “Taking all reasonable and practical steps to prevent or minimise environmental harm by
establishing and maintaining a system to ensure compliance with the EP Act”.
4. Where there is an obligation to provide a level of care through expected standards (e.g.
Record keeping demonstrating compliance with legal obligations, contractor responsibilities
such as obtaining an Environmentally Relevant Activity (ERA) permit to undertake an ERA
activity.)
General environmental duty
Every person has a duty not to carry out any activity that will cause or is likely to cause
environmental harm unless all reasonable and practicable measures have been taken to
prevent or reduce the danger. It is important to understand that a person can be found
guilty of an offence before any actual harm is caused by this act.
Duty to Notify Environmental Harm
Any person who becomes aware that serious or material environmental harm must notify
their employer or the relevant authority as soon as possible (S37). The maximum penalty
for not notifying environmental harm is $6,000. Project employees should notify their
Supervisor as soon as possible if they have any concerns.
Environmental protection policies
Environmental policies have been established under the EP Act for air, water, noise, and
waste management. Some examples are as follows:
Air – failure to comply with an air quality abatement notice (S19 Air Policy). The penalty is
$2500.
Water-
1) Rubbish, wastewater, concrete, pesticides, oil, etc., cannot be released into a roadside
gutter, drain, or body of water or be placed in a position where it could be released (S31
of136). The penalty varies between $1200 and $1500.
This may include an unprotected stockpile of topsoil or mulch close to a creek.
2) Stormwater that results in a build-up of mud or silt in drains. Sand, silt, or mud may not
be deposited or placed where it could wash into a gutter or drain (S32 Water Policy). The
penalty is $1200. This may include washing a vehicle on the roadside or in a driveway.
NoiseFailure to comply with a noise abatement notice (S23 Noise Policy), the penalty is
$2500.Under the new Noise Policy, any audible noise outside normal working hours is a
nuisance and is an offence under the EP Act. This means a contractor cannot work on Sunday
or a public holiday at any time or any weekday, such as Saturday before 6.30 am or after
6.30 pm, without pre-approval of a government authority.
Land Administration

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The EP (Waste Management) Law 2000 obtrudes fines for littering and garbage disposal.
Fines range up to Fifteen hundred dollars for littering, then from around three thousand
dollars (less than 200 litres) to up to twelve thousand three hundred seventy-five dollars if
more than two hundred litres for illegally disposing of rubbish. The offence described above
is an indication only and may change according to conditions.
Damage to the natural environment
There are fines quoted for persons, but it is five to ten times greater than others for industry
workers.
Illegal environmental danger – any kind of act or omission that generates material
or serious environmental danger or a nuisance is indictable unless it is authorised or
an emergency (S119).
Environmental annoyance –In unruly condition(S123), the fine is $10,000 or$50,
000. To exemplify: if noise, dust and odour cross the limits.
Substances environmental danger – the highest fine is $50,000. If the damage is
unruly, the penalty is $100,000 and up to two years imprisonment (S120).
Extreme environmental danger – the maximum fine is $100 000. If the damage is
willful, the penalty is $250 000 and less than five years imprisonment (S120). For
instance: the largest oil spill in water sources and/or disposed of toxic substances.
Delinquency against environmental safety policies – an individual who does not
willfully contravene this environmental policy should be penalised up to $100,000
(S124).
Prescribed Pollutants – The pollutants which are prescribed by an environmental
policy should be avoided in places where they could cause severe or environmental
nuisance (S126). The maximum fine is $10,000 for this offence.
Environmental Management System.
A number of companies in the construction industry implement and maintain Environmental
Management System in accordance with the requirements of AS/NZ ISO 14001
(International Standard Quality Assurance for the Environment).
These provide guidelines specific to:
Organisation’s environmental policy
Environmental management plan.
Environmental protection Acts and Regulations
Environmental Protection Act 1994
Environmental Protection Regulation 1998
Environmental Protection (Waste) Policy and Regulation 2000
Environmental Protection (Water) Policy 1997
Environmental Protection (Noise) Policy 1997
Environmental Protection (Air) Policy 1997
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Establish requirements and specifications
Your work requirements must be clarified, interpreted, and confirmed correctly. Clarifying
these instructions means asking questions until you understand what’s required from you.
Interpreting the instructions means drawing out the knowledge from the instructions that
allow you to finish the assigned tasks successfully.
Confirming work requirements is often achieved through:
Speaking together with your Supervisor or other personnel involved within
the planning process.
Gaining knowledge of and becoming conversant in the documents commonly found
on a worksite.
Interpreting drawings and sketches correctly, as these are commonly used.
Understanding the task requirements will allow you to organise your work tasks and
manage some time more effectively.
To try to do this, you’ll wish to make a to-do list or task sheet for yourself.

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1.3Select tools and equipment, check for serviceability
and report any faults
It is important to select plants, tools and equipment according to the type of work. Before
choosing the tools, it is necessary to inspect them properly to ensure safety and avoid any
unnecessary risks. If you find any fault in the tools or equipment, you should use a lockout
tag, discuss the Supervisor’s fault, and prepare a fault report.
The Supervisor will organise the repair of the tool.
If the equipment’s condition is just like as shown in the above image and your boss asks
you to use this equipment, you should strictly say ‘no’ because your life is too much more
important than to say” OK”.
Figure: Sign for faulty tool
Faulty tools should be tagged out with an out-of-service tag
.
Checking for serviceability
Each tool and equipment you are going to use should be checked for serviceability. You
should look at the maintenance log and check the dates of the tools or equipment that were
used last time.
You should perform these checks every time you are going to use any tool or equipment.
This will ensure your and other’s health and safety.
Procedures to be followed
When operating any tool or equipment, you must follow safety or operating procedures.
These procedures are specified in the ‘Operations manual’ for each tool or equipment. These
are basic procedures that will ensure that the tools or equipment are used safely.
For instance, if connecting power extension results in a power supply, there are some basic
rules to use.
Selection of tools and equipment:
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The versatile range of equipment available commercially involves the decision of people.
Few basic things are considered in the selection of suitable equipment
1. Use of available construction equipment: Where the full utilisation of new equipment
for its entire working life is not foreseen, or its utilisation on further projects is
uncertain; it may be desirable to use existing old equipment even if its operation is
somewhat more expensive. The depreciation cost of the new machine is likely to be
high, and this would raise the owning cost of the equipment and thus the unit cost
of work
2. Suitability of job conditions: The equipment chosen should suit the conditions of the
job, soil, valley, working conditions, and climate of the region.
3. Uniformity in type: A minimum number of types should be acquired so that there is
uniformity in the type of equipment on a job.
4. Size of construction equipment: Larger equipment gives higher output on full load,
but its cost of production on part load is usually greater than that of smaller units
working on full load. Larger equipment needs a correspondingly larger size of
matching units, and shutting down one primary unit may render several other large
units idle. Transportation to works is generally difficult and costly. Servicing,
maintenance, and repair facilities have to be greater for larger units. However, larger
machines are usually more sturdy and suitable for tough working conditions. It is
desirable to have equipment of the same size on the project.
5. Versatility: The machine selected should, if possible, be able to do more than one
function and should be inter-convertible wherever possible
6. Suitability of local labour: the locally available operators and technicians should be
able to handle the equipment selected. Special equipment may have excellent
performance, but it may be difficult to handle it through available know-how
Why is the inspection of equipment important?
The purpose of an inspection is to identify whether work equipment can be operated,
adjusted, and maintained safely, with any deterioration detected and remedied before it
results in a health and safety risk. Not all work equipment needs a formal inspection to
ensure safety, and, in many cases, a quick visual check before use will be sufficient.
However, inspection is necessary for any equipment where significant risks to health and
safety may arise from incorrect installation, reinstallation, deterioration, or other
circumstances. The need for inspection and inspection frequencies should be determined
through risk assessment.
You should inspect work equipment if your risk assessment identifies any significant risk (for
example, of major injury) to operators and others from the equipment’s installation or use.
The result of the inspection should be recorded, and this record should be kept at least until
the next inspection of that equipment. Records do not have to be made in writing but, if
kept in another form (e.g. on a computer), these should be held securely and made available
upon request by any enforcing authority.
Work equipment that requires inspection should not be used unless you know the inspection
has taken place. Where it leaves your undertaking or is obtained from another (e.g. a hire
company), it should be accompanied by physical evidence of the last inspection, such as an
inspection report or, for smaller items of equipment, some form of tagging, colour coding,
or labelling system

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Work equipment that needs inspection be re-inspected?
Work equipment exposed to conditions causing deterioration that could result in a dangerous
situation should be inspected at suitable intervals. The frequency of inspection may vary,
depending on environmental conditions (e.g. equipment subject to harsh outdoor conditions
is likely to need more frequent inspections than if used in an indoor environment).
The frequency of inspection should be determined through risk assessment, taking account
of the manufacturer’s recommendations, industry advice, and your own experience. It may
be appropriate to review the frequency of inspection in light of your experience. Intervals
between inspections can be increased if the inspection history shows negligible deterioration
or shortened where experience shows this is necessary to prevent danger.

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1.4Select and use personal protective equipment (PPE)
as required for each stage of the task
Employers have duties concerning the provision and use of personal protective equipment
(PPE) at work.
PPE is equipment that will protect the user against health or safety risks at work. It can
include items such as safety helmets, gloves, eye protection, high-visibility clothing, safety
footwear, and safety harnesses. It also includes respiratory protective equipment (RPE).
Making the workplace safe includes providing instructions, procedures, training, and
supervision to encourage people to work safely and responsibly.
Even where engineering controls and safe systems of work have been applied, some hazards
might remain. These include injuries to:
The lungs, e.g. From breathing in contaminated air
The head and feet, e.g. From falling materials
The eyes, e.g. From flying particles or splashes of corrosive liquids
The skin, e.g. From contact with corrosive materials
The body, e.g. From extremes of heat or cold
PPE is needed in these cases to reduce the risk.
Requirement of PPE – When and Where?
Personal protective equipment (PPE) has been designed for safeguarding masses from an
injury. It’s considered the last shield against the hazards. Your employer will provide PPE to
you, and it’s your responsibility to use it properly. It is strongly recommended that you
simply do so when it’s appropriate.
The selection and use of PPE shouldn’t be taken lightly or ignored. Many hazards within the
construction industry can cause serious harm. The right selection of the acceptable PPE is
important.
When considering buying PPE, choose items that are quality products and fit comfortably,
and are convenient to use.
Hard hats – These are needed on nearly all construction sites. They guard against head
injuries caused by swinging or dropping objects, colliding with something, or coming into
contact with an electrical hazard. Before each usage, check hard hats for dents, holes, and
other damage; broken ones should never be worn.

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Steel-toe boots are a popular example of foot safety. On the job, work boots with toe
protection should be worn to avoid being crushed by heavy or dropping equipment or
materials. They often need nonslip, puncture-resistant soles, as work surfaces can contain
sharp objects, and slips are a major danger on the job.
Hand safety – At construction sites, different styles of
work gloves are ideally suited to specific tasks and risks.
There are heavy-duty leather and canvas gloves for
cutting and burning protection, welding gloves for welders,
heavy-duty rubber gloves for working with concrete,
insulated gloves with sleeves for working with electric
hazards, and chemical-resistant gloves for working with
chemical agents.
Work pants and shirts – Workers should wear thick, flexible work pants and shirts to
protect their entire legs, arms, and torso from cuts, scrapes, burns, and other superficial
injuries. These should be form-fitting and never baggy while also allowing for optimum
mobility.
Face and/or eye protection – Where there is a risk of
airborne debris or hazardous dust going into the eyes,
safety glasses or face masks should be worn. Protective
eyewear is needed for activities such as cutting, grinding,
welding, chipping, and nailing. Other face protection
includes welding shields, chemical splash goggles, and
dust goggles, in addition to standard safety glasses.
Hearing protection – Chainsaws, jackhammers, and other heavy machinery generate
noise levels that can harm workers’ hearing, particularly if they are exposed for an extended
period of time. The best option is normally pre-moulded or formable earplugs, but acoustic
foam-lined ear muffs that securely seal against the head can also work well.
High-visibility/reflective clothing – For worker
visibility, brightly coloured and/or reflective jackets,
vests, or other upper-body clothing is essential. It’s best
to wear it at all times on the job, but it’s particularly
important near busy roads, in low lighting, and for dusk
and night-time work.

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1.5Inspect work site, locate services, assess hazards and
apply risk controls, including required signage and
barricades
What are workplace inspections?
Workplace inspections are an essential component to assess job safety. The process involves
carefully examining the workplace on a regular basis with a view to:
Identifying and recording actual and potential hazards posed by buildings,
equipment, the environment, processes, and practices
Recording any hazards requiring immediate attention
Determining whether existing hazard controls are adequate and operational
Recommending corrective action where appropriate.
Several types of inspection:
1. Inspections are carried out on occasion in order to meet a range of responsibilities
with respect to workplace health and safety. They focus on a specific hazard
associated with a specific workstation or work area, for example, the noise made by
a shredder, operation of a pump, pressure from a boiler, or exposure to a solvent.
2. Pre-operation inspections of special equipment and processes are often required
before starting the inspection itself, such as equipment checks before working or
entering a closed area.
3. Critical parts inspections are regular inspections of the critical parts of a machine,
piece of equipment, or system that have a high potential for serious accidents. These
inspections are often part of a preventive maintenance program or hazard control
program
4. Content New equipment inspections involve a series of specific tests and checks
carried out before starting up any new piece of equipment. This means that prior to
starting to operate a recently acquired air compressor, the manufacturer or installer
checks to ensure that all the parts are in the right place and are working properly.
Inspection Teams:
Workplace safety inspections should include persons with knowledge of the area
Inspection teams may include the relevant health and safety representative(s)
Supervisors and managers are encouraged to participate in workplace safety
inspections.
Inspection process:
1. Identifying the hazard:
Conduct regular worksite inspections. Walkthrough the worksite and visually assess
the types of equipment, work practices, and any potential hazards that could be
harmful to workers.

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Create a hazard map. Draw a large outline of the worksite(s) and mark existing and
potential hazards. Involve workers in this activity to solicit feedback and to increase
awareness of the importance of safety in the workplace.
2. Accessing the risk:
Identify the hazard: A hazard is ‘something with the potential to cause harm, and
risk is ‘the likelihood of that potential harm being realised’. Hazards can be identified
by using a number of different techniques such as walking around the workplace or
asking your employees
Decide who might be harmed and how: Once you have identified a number of
hazards, you need to understand who might be harmed and how, such as ‘people
working in the warehouse’, or members of the public
Evaluate the risk and decide on control measures: After ‘identifying the hazards’ and
‘deciding who might be harmed and how, you are then required to protect the people
from harm. The hazards can either be removed completely or the risks controlled so
that the injury is unlikely
Record your findings: Your findings should be written down it’s a legal requirement
where there are five or more employees; recording the findings shows that you have
identified the hazards, decided who could be harmed and how, and shows how you
plan to eliminate the risks and hazards.
Review your assessment and update as and when necessary: You should never forget
that few workplaces stay the same, and as a result, this risk assessment should be
reviewed and updated when required.
Hazards that occur at construction sites are:
1. Working at height: A fall hazard is anywhere a person could fall from one level to
another. Although fall hazards are more obvious in multi-story construction, they
are common on most construction sites
The preventions to be taken
Edge protection that incorporates a guard rail, mid-rail and toe board must be
provided to the edge of any scaffold platform, fixed stair, landing, suspended slab,
formwork, or falsework where there is a risk of the person falling two or more metres.
Edge protection should be provided where there is a risk that a person could fall three
or more metres from an edge at the workplace
2. Electricity: Working in and around electricity creates significant workplace hazards in
the construction industry. The industry uses electrical equipment and powered tools.
These tools can be damaged and incur frayed leads
Prevention:
Damaged power tools should be tagged out of service and no longer used until
repaired or replaced
Activities that are at risk include
Drilling, excavating, loading, hauling, or dumping
The construction, fabrication, maintenance, or storage of buildings, structures,
machinery, and equipment

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Operation of vehicles or machinery with elevating parts that do not afford the
required clearance when fully raised.
When lifting near overhead power lines, a minimum 6m safe distance must be
maintained. If the crane boom is required to move closer to the power lines, then a
Spotter must be in place to ensure that the boom remains a minimum of 3m away
3. Fall, trips, and slips: Slips, trips, and the resulting falls are common workplace
injuries, and a critical safety training theme, often due to poor housekeeping
practices. Slips, trips, and the resulting falls are common workplace injuries, and a
critical safety training theme, often due to poor housekeeping practices
Prevention:
Only keep frequently used tools in your work area.
Floors around benches and machinery must be kept clear.
Always keep your work area tidy by storing materials and equipment neatly,
Keep extension leads off the ground by using cable stands, and
Regularly dispose of waste material and rubbish in appropriate bins
4. Hand-arm vibration syndrome: Hand Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS) is a painful
and debilitating disease of the blood vessels, nerves, and joints. It is usually caused
by the prolonged use of hand-held power tools, including vibratory power tools and
ground working equipment
5. Asbestos: Asbestos refers to a set of six naturally occurring fibrous minerals. When
materials that contain asbestos are disturbed or damaged, these fibres are released
into the air. Inhaling these fibres can cause fatal and serious diseases such as lung
cancer, asbestosis, and pleural thickening. If there is asbestos on the construction
site, workers must be informed where it is. They must be trained in what to do should
they come across suspicious materials that may contain asbestos.
Barricades and signage requirements:
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It shall be ensured that safety signs are erected to warn workers of specific hazards and to
communicate necessary precautionary measures and emergency actions. As a minimum, it
shall be ensured that safety signs are erected in accordance with Queensland Work Health
and Safety Regulation 2011.

Caution Table access is allowed, but caution is
advised. The caution tape will be used
to draw attention to potential hazards
for other workers who may need to
enter the area. Anyone can enter the
warning barricaded area as long as
they are familiar with the hazards
detailed on the barricade signage and
have followed any controls specified on
the signage. For medium, high, or
extreme risk hazards, such as exposed
edges, falling objects, or electrical
hazards, this tape is not suitable
Restricted
access area
Access is only allowed with the
permission and authority of the Safe
Work Coordinator / Person Responsible
mentioned on the signage. Entry to the
barricaded work area is limited by the
restricted access tape. Only those who
have been given permission by the
Safe Work Coordinator are allowed to
join. This barricade can be used to
prevent entry to hazardous areas:
Hot work;
Persons working above / falling
objects;
Spills/leaks;
Unprotected edges creating a
fall risk of
Less than 2m; and
Over 2m may be used to
delineate a hard
Barrier

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Radiation Access is only allowed with the
permission and authority of the
Radiation Safety
Officer/assistant/delegate. Entry to the
barricaded work area is restricted by
radiation tape. Only those who have
been given permission by the Safe
Work Coordinator/Radiation Safety
Officer are allowed to join
Solid/hard
barrier
Hard barrier control options include but
are not limited to Jersey type barriers
A modular device is used to segregate
areas where plants and equipment are
being operated, and as a traffic safety
control, The barrier is established to
maintain a safe distance that
segregates pedestrians and workers
from the plant and equipment. Where a
risk assessment determines that the
barrier system is required to provide
physical protection such as to deflect
an out-of-control vehicle, the barrier
shall meet the design criteria of
relevant Australian Standards

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1.6Select materials required for task, calculate
quantities, handle safely and prepare and position
ready for use.
Calculation of Quantities
When calculating surface lining there are a number of factors that require consideration.
These are:
Overall size of the surface.
Specified openings in surface.
Type of lining (sheet or board).
Directional placement.
Effective cover.
Size of sheet lining.
Calculation of Quantities:
No. of sheets for overall surface = m2 of overall surface / m2 of individual sheet
This method will give the exact number of sheets required. However, certain situations
where the positioning of the sheets need to be determined prior to calculating quantities.
Another consideration is joint minimisation, which can necessitate ordering extra sheets to
avoid excessive use of offcuts, which would result in further joins. An aspect that can help
minimise the number of joints in a lined surface is choosing the right size of sheets.
Calculating lining board quantities differs from calculating sheet lining quantities.
Total lineal meters are measured when determining lining board amounts.
While total lineal metres can be measured, it is more realistic to determine the number and
length of boards needed.
Two factors that must be considered when determining quantities of lining board are:
Effective cover (E.C.)
Standard lengths of lining boards.
Effective Cover (E.C.): Effective cover is the actual coverage that each lining board will allow.
Number of boards = Width/EC
To calculate the materials for sheet lining:
Step 1: Determine the overall size of the surface is lined.
Step 2: Determine the size of the sheet lining to be used.
Step 3: Determine the direction of sheet lining.
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Step 4: Calculate the quantity of batten material where required.
Step 5: Calculate the total surface area (m2) of the wall to be lined.
Step 6: Calculate the area (m2) of openings in the wall.
Step 7: Determine by calculation the actual area of the surface to be covered by the
lining. Calculate the surface area (m2) or coverage of one sheet of the lining.
Step 8: Using the results from steps 6 & 7 determine the number of sheets required.
Step 9: Determine the cost per sheet of lining and calculate the total cost of lining
required to line the nominated surface
How materials stored
Employees must not be exposed to hazardous chemicals when they are being stored. When
stacking and piling materials, employers should make employees aware of such factors as
the materials’ height and weight, how open the stored materials are to the customer, and
the condition of the containers where the materials are stored.
Keep storage areas free of piled-up materials that could cause tripping, fires, or
explosions or that could attract rats and other pests
Store materials at least 6 feet from hoistways or inside floor openings, at least 10
feet from exterior walls, in under-construction buildings
Separate any materials that are incompatible
Boxed materials must be banded or held in place using cross-ties or shrink plastic
fibre
Employees should remember that flammable and combustible materials must be
stored according to their fire characteristics when following fire safety precautions.
Liquids that can catch fire

Hardboard
Main features Benefits Applications
Standard hardboard
Hardwood fibre building
board
Manufacture from
hardwood fibre
Density is
consistent.
The surface is
tough and smooth
Will not split or
crack when
properly used.
Strong and
flexible, can be
shaped or bent.
Impact-resistant
Suitable for most
common finished
Furniture,
packaging, wall
linings, displays
and signs, interior
linings, drawer
bottoms, cabinet
backs, partitions
and doors,
automotive
components
Pegboard Tough, excellent
strength and
machinability.
A smooth surface
is precoated with
Durable and easy
to work for the
panel. Compatible
with most latex
paints or enamels.
Utensil panels for
Kitchens.
Tools boards for
workshops.

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a matt white
undercoat.
Regularly spaced
perforations, in
either a diagonal
or square pattern
Allows the
hanging of goods,
tools, decorations,
etc.
Makes bare walls
more decorative
and functional
For attractive
visual displays,
shop fittings and
renovations.
Wall shelving
Construction of
acoustic panel
system
Readi-cote
Primed hardboard
The smooth,
prime coated
surface
Uniform light
colour coating
provides an
excellent ‘key’ for
paint finishes.
Generally
compatible with
most domestic
and industrial
paints.
Eliminates the
need for on-site
priming
As a lining for:
interior walls,
ceilings, furniture,
cabinets, doors,
partitions,
displays, and
interior and short
term exterior
signs.
White-cote
Pre-finished hardboard
Smooth, white,
semigloss finish.
Highly resistant to
scuffing, marring,
denting, and
abrasion.
Easily maintained,
wipe clean.
Not normally
affected by
mineral turps or
household stains
Wardrobe and
cupboard back,
drawer bottoms
Primed Lining board Reduced density
wallboard.
Planned back for
thickness control
with long edges
bevelled.
Pre-conditioned to
normal moisture
content.
Strong, tough and
flexible. Adds
bracing strength.
Easy to work and
fix.
Ready to use
under normal
atmospheric
conditions.
Compatible with
most domestic
Lining for: interior
walls, ceilings,
wardrobes, and
cabinets.
Renovating
existing walls.
Flush panel
partitions and
doors.
Displays and
signboards

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Light grey primer
sealer coating on
the surface
and industrial
paints giving
excellent ‘key’ for
finish paint
coatings
Underlay Reduced density
hardboard flooring
underlay
Flat, indent
resistance
surface.
Tough, smooth
surface, without
grain or
blemishes.
Reverse side
planed.
Uniform density.
Pre-conditioned to
normal moisture
content
Uniform thickness
provides for
uniform and
economical
application of
adhesive.
Rigid enough to
bridge small
irregularities.
Easy to trim and
sand
Use over strip
timber, particle
board and
plywood floors.
As a base for
resilient sheet and
tile floor
coverings,
including flexible
and semi-rigid
PVC, cork, rubber,
linoleum, and
cushioned vinyl.
Beneath textile
floor coverings
including carpet
tiles.
Tempered Hardboard
(High-density hardboard)
Tough, strong
surface. Durable
and moisture
resistant.
Smooth, dark
surface and fine
wire screen back
Resistance to
abrasive and
impact.
Used in “wet
area” rooms or in
semi protected
exterior
applications.
Easy to work with
normal
woodworking
tools.
Smooth surface
provides an
excellent base for
finishing
Interior linings of
walls and ceilings
in workshops,
garages,
bathrooms,
laundries.
Shopfitting,
cabinet
construction,
industrial shelving
and workbench
surfacing.
Short-term
exterior signs.
Structural bracing
of timber frames
in high wind
areas.
Seat backing,
interior side and
floor panels for
vehicles.

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Wood Fibre Insulating
Board
Low-density
board.
Natural pine
colour or with
ivory paint
coating one side.
Fine-textured
surface
Lightweight, easy
to cut and fasten.
Good thermal and
acoustic insulation
properties.
Little or no
finishing required
Protective
coverings to
decorative walls
during
construction.
Protective
packaging.
fin boards.
Thermal and
acoustic insulation
panels for
partitions, screens
and ceilings

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Self-check assessment
QUESTION 1
Why PPE kits are important for workers working on construction site?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
QUESTION 2
What is workplace inspection?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
QUESTION 3
What is check for serviceability? What tools and equipments are used for
check?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

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CHAPTER 2: PREPARE SURFACE FOR
LINING/PANELLING

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The method used to prepare the surface for lining will be determined by the structural
material that forms the surface to be lined, such as timber stud walls, steel frames,
brickwork, and so on.
Prior to laying out, inspect the surface to be lined for any potential flaws. This can be
achieved either visually or by hand. It is a preventative measure because detecting and
correcting defects at this stage will save time, effort, and help achieve a successful result
during the installation stage.
Some areas that may need rectifying have been listed below.
Straightening of stud wall.
Straightening of ceiling joists.
Installation of extra noggins to support joints in the lining material.
Installation of timber or metal battens where specified.
Installation of flashings for wet areas.
Uneven rendered surfaces.
Since there are so many different structural materials to choose from, it’s crucial to make
sure that the fixing method is consistent with the material.
For example: -Fix tongue and groove Vee jointed (TGVJ) lining to a steel frame using
concealed fastening according to the specifications. Since screws are commonly used to
secure steel frames, timber battens or cleats can need to be screwed to the frame, allowing
the lining board to be hidden nailed.
What will I learn?
In this chapter, you will learn about the following:
1. Select fixing procedures for lining materials.
2. Set out surface to provide a balanced panel or board effect to width
and height.

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2.1Select fixing procedures for lining materials
This is a vital aspect of the lining process because it helps avoid mistakes during the
installation stage, and, like surface preparation, it improves the lined surface’s finished
appearance.
Listed below are some of the factors that will determine the setting out process.
The direction of lining material.
Positioning of sheet or solid timber lining, i.e. balance of lining.
Identification of starting point for installation.
Lines of fastening to be indicated, i.e. stud position.
The direction of Lining Material:
Factors such as the location and direction of structural members that support the lining can
influence the positioning and direction of the sheet/lining board. i.e., sheet lining should be
installed at a 90-degree angle to the structural member in the surface to be lined. Battens
or rows of noggins must be mounted at defined spacing if this is not feasible. Another
consideration is the finished surface’s overall appearance. Lining boards hung vertically on
the wall, for example, would give the impression of a higher ceiling.

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2.2Set out surface to provide a balanced panel or board
effect to width and height
Positioning of Sheet or Solid Timber Lining: –
The aim of balancing the location of the lining is for aesthetic reasons. Essentially, this entails
aligning the linings so that the first and last lining boards/sheets are the same width or
length.
Identification of Starting Point: –
To determine the starting point, precise measuring and calculations may be needed. Starting
the installation process in the wrong place will lead to difficulties and an unbalanced overall
appearance of the lined surface.
Lines of Fastening: –
Marking stud or batten positions on adjoining walls, floors, or ceilings are part of this
method. This will allow for precise fastener alignment with studs/battens that linings may
hide. To ensure a quality finish, both the surface preparation and setting out processes must
be completed.

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Self-check assessment
QUESTION 1
How to prepare surface for panelling?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
QUESTION 2
Explain the fixing procedure for lining material.
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
QUESTION 3
How starting point is identified?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

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CHAPTER 3: INSTALL LINING/PANELLING
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Having identified the material fixing method and prepared the surface, the process of
installation is now carried out
.
This procedure will cover three areas:
Material measurement and cutting.
Sheet/lining installation and fastening.
If necessary, install a cover strap or beading.
After determining the starting point and ensuring the surface is square, the next step is to
ensure the grid pattern of the first sheet/lining board is correctly aligned to maintain
accuracy.
What will I learn?
In this chapter, you will learn about the following:
1. Mark lining materials and cut to length and/or shape, fit and position.
2. Secure and fix panelling/lining.
3. Install panelling/lining to plumb, level and uniform plane.

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3.1Mark lining materials and cut to length and/or shape,
fit and position
The type of lining to be added, as well as architectural or manufacturer requirements, will
decide the processes involved in this segment. When sheet lining a wide area, for example,
only the perimeter sheets will need to be cut, while solid wood lining boards may need to be
measured and cut individually.
Solid wood lining boards may even be needed to be installed at an angle, which complicates
the marking and cutting process and necessitates further focus.
To ensure close fitting joints, make sure the sheet lining is square, straight, and parallel.
Where lining butt joints to wall or ceiling are not concealed, extra care should be taken when
marking and cutting to ensure a clean finish.
Since this stage of the installation requires the use of power and hand tools, all applicable
Australian regulations must be followed.
As seen in the side elevation of the wall and eave detail, use a storey rod or evenly space
outboards to finish panelling neatly up to the top of the wall frame.
This illustration shows panelling installed over a waterproof membrane and uniformly spaced
to the top of the wall height.

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3.2Secure and fix panelling/lining
The first step in installing panelling is to take out all of the wall plates, sockets, and nails.
Remove any crown moulding, baseboards, and trim that you want to reuse gently. Set the
panelling in the room for a few days before installing it for better performance. It will be
able to adapt to the humidity in the room as a result of this.
The second step to install sheet panelling properly, you’ll need to know how many sheets
you will need. Measure the height and width of each wall you’re covering to find its square
footage. (Don’t forget to subtract the size of any doors or windows). Divide the wall length
by the width of your panel sheets to get the number of sheets you’ll need. Add 10 percent
to your total measurement to account for waste and match colour.
Third When learning how to hang panelling over drywall, it’s important to remember that
walls are rarely straight, so make sure your first panel is level before hanging the rest of
your panels.

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Place the first panel in one corner of the room with the aid of a friend, but don’t add
panel adhesive yet.
Make sure the inside edge of the panel is plumb by using a level.
The fourth is to suit or stay level, trim each panel as required. To prevent splitting and
fraying on the front of the panel, use a fine-toothed saw blade.
To allow for contraction and expansion, all panels should be trimmed 1/4 inch shorter than
the ceiling.
Fifth issuing a sabre saw with a fine cutting blade, cut-outs for any wall plates, outlets, or
electrical boxes in panels as desired.

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Arrange and number all of the panels in the room before adding any adhesive. Make sure
the cut openings are aligned. Apply adhesive in a “W” or wave pattern with a caulk gun.
Place the panel in the desired location and secure it with a firm click. With a rubber mallet,
tap in place. Repeat before all of the walls are sealed. For a flawless finish, glue, then nail
the moulding into place with finishing nails and cover with wood putty.
The panel is attached to the wall with finishing nails as a partner holds it. Locate the studs
with a stud finder and nail them into them to protect your panel. Continue until all of the
walls have been covered and all of the mouldings has been installed.
Tip: Don’t hammer the nail all the way in for a professional look. Fix the head flush with a
nail set.

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Take pleasure in your new panelled bed. Now that you’ve seen how easy it is to mount
panelling, here are some pointers on how to do it on studs rather than drywall.
When working with unfinished walls, nail the panel sheets directly to the studs or between
the studs.
When nailing into plastered walls, furring strips can be needed to provide a safe place for
the nail to catch hold.

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3.3Install paneling/lining to plumb, level and uniform
plane
Sprit level: –
The duration and consistency of the spirits varies. A tradesperson would typically buy a
trustworthy brand that promises a long life and accuracy. Cheap levels are rarely reliable
for a long time. Carpenters, stonemasons, bricklayers, and other building trades workers,
surveyors, millwrights, and other metalworkers, as well as some photographic and video
graphic work, can use various types of spirit levels.
Straight Edges: -Straight edges may be used to align materials, draw pencil lines on walls
or floors, stretch the length of a spirit level, and a variety of other things. They must be
treated with care so that the straight edge’s edges and face are not damaged. Straight edges
are extremely useful for ensuring the wall and floor framing members are aligned. It is
recommended that the tool have at least two straight edges so that it can be used in tight
spaces.
Storey Rod: -These objects are used to keep the distance between planks on a wall
consistent during the construction process. The spacing can also be held consistent by using
joiners that lap the product below. Small differences in product and conditions add up when
going up a wall, but care should also be taken to ensure that the product lines up as
accurately as possible.

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Self-check assessment
QUESTION 1
What is the proper position of lining to install in order to have proper joint?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
QUESTION 2
Describe the various level instruments.
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
QUESTION 3
Describe the steps for installing panelling.
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
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______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

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CHAPTER 4: CUT AND FIX PROFILED
ARCHITRAVE MOULDING

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This section deals with the knowledge and skills required for internal fixing out of domestic
dwellings. Installation of architraves, nosing, and scotia around windows: –
Installing architraves on internal door jambs;
Installing skirting and timber cornices in a specific area; and
Calculating the quantity and cost of materials needed
The words architrave, skirting, and the cornice is synonymous with the “fit-out” or “fixing”
stage of domestic dwelling building, which is one of the final tasks a tradesman will complete.
Architrave: –
This is a form of timber lining that is mounted around the perimeter of internal door jambs
and window frames to conceal the joints between the window or door jamb and the wall
lining. Architraves come in a wide range of profiles and sizes.
Skirting: –
This timber member is mounted at the bottom of walls to provide a continuous timber
trim around the room’s perimeter. There are two reasons why skirting is installed.
Professionally conceal the joint between the wall lining and the adjoining floor.
To shield the lining of the wall from the damage that is likely to occur at that height.
Skirting, like architraves, comes in a range of profiles, heights, and woods.
The architrave and skirting have the same profile, as they do in most cases. If
Bullnose skirting is used, Bullnose architrave is also used. Occasionally, the widths
vary, with wider widths being used for skirting.

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Cornice: –
While plaster cornice is the most common, there are times when timber cornice is needed.
These are often used in combination with wood-panelled ceilings or walls. Cornice helps a
tradesperson to cover the joint between the ceiling and adjoining walls in a professional
manner while still adding a decorative touch.
Nosing:
The most common type of nosing is a bullnosed timber section located at the bottom of the
window frame. The nosing is attached to the window frame’s sill and supported by a scotia
bead that is attached under the nosing. The vertical architraves can be conveniently placed
and mounted if the nosing is installed first. It’s worth noting that the installation of the
components mentioned above necessitates a high level of precision, and poor workmanship
can detract from the job’s overall appearance.

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Scotia
Is a finishing piece that can be used not only under the window to complete the nosing
piece, but also around the floor to complete the floor-to-wall construction? To alter the
appearance of the wood, the scotia can be used next to skirting or architrave.
What will I learn?
In this chapter, you will learn about the following:
1. Mark standard architraves for edging and cut to length, position and
fit.
2. Mark skirtings and cut to length, position and fit.
3. Mark mitre joints, cut to length, position and fit flush to face and true
without gaps.
4. Mark scribed joints and cut to length, position and fit.
5. Cut scotia return end to profile shape and length.
6. Mark standard pelmet moulding to length and cut, fit, assemble and fix
with mitres true without gaps.

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4.1Mark standard architraves for edging and cut to
length, position and fit
Architraves are very flexible moulding that can be used to cover loft traps, box sash
windows, stair stringers, the front edge of shelves, and any other areas that need enhancing
or hiding.
Different types of architrave are:
Tools used to install architrave:
The right Carpenters pencil
Chop/miter saw (can use hand mitre saw instead),
Tape measure,
Combination square
Hammer
Nail punch
30-50mm oval head nails
Step by step installation of architrave
Step 1: Set out the margins: -The moulding should be set back slightly from the frame’s
front edge. Draw a few lines along the lining and crosses where the architraves would meet
at the corners. The mitre is often more critical than the margin, so make sure the mitre is
correct before putting it in place.
Step 2: Measure and select timber: -For the thighs, cut two lengths that are long enough.
2.1m is usually sufficient, but double-check.
Step 3: Mark, cut, and fix the first leg: -First, cut and match the head, then measure the
legs off the floor. Keeping the left leg up to the marks on the door lining, transfer the cross
where they overlap onto the inside edge. Place the moulding 45 degrees to the left on the
chop saw, with the square edge pressed against the back of the fence.
Step 4: Trim the head and make any necessary adjustments.

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Cut an opposing mitre on a piece long enough for the head and match it with the margins
for a near mitre. The head is always out of level and the door linings are mounted improperly.
Step 5: Cut and fix the last leg
raise the right leg and make a mark where the angle should be cut. After gluing and nailing
the head in place and checking that the right-hand mitre matches, glue and nail the righthand mitre. When measuring architraves, it is usual practice to show the long point of the
mitre. The quirk must also be allowed for when calculating the length.
Cutting a side or vertical architrave first is suggested. The header architrave is then
followed by the opposite side or vertical architrave.
After cutting the first architrave to length, tack it in place. (Tacking allows for slight
changes that might be required in the future.)
After that, the header or top architrave is cut and tested for proper fit. After that, the
header is tacked into place. The remaining side architrave is then cut and fitted.
The header can be removed, and glue added to both mitres until all architraves and
mitre joints are perfectly aligned. The mitres on each architrave can then be nailed
to protect the glue joint.
Make sure that all architraves are risen and sanded, and that all nails are driven
below the surface of the wood.
INSTALLATION OF ARCHITRAVES (DOOR)
The method of installing architraves around an internal door jamb is identical to that of
installing architraves around a window. Nosing or scotia are not needed for door jambs;
however, the vertical and header architraves are mounted in a similar manner, as shown in
the photos.

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4.2Mark skirtings and cut to length, position and fit
The procedure for measuring, cutting, and installing skirting to a specified area.
When installing skirting there are two types of joints that may be required these being.
Scribe Joint – for internal corners
Mitre Joint – for external corners.
On internal corners, a scribe joint rather than a mitre joint is preferred because the scribed
joint does not open up when the skirting is sealed. A mitre joint is used on external corners
because the skirting can close the mitre and help keep the joint together. The installation
sequence for skirting must be calculated before it can be mounted. The scribe joints would
face in the correct direction if the skirting is installed in the correct order. This is done so
that people entering a room don’t look directly into the scribe joint but instead, look at it
from the hand. As a result, the first length of skirting to be constructed is the one on the
opposite wall from the room’s doorway or entrance. This skirting length is ideal. A scribe
joint is cut on the end of the adjoining skirting to bind it to the initial skirting. This is then
cut to length on the opposite end with a square cut. This procedure is repeated until all of
the skirting has been added. The location of wall studs should be marked on the floor for
ease of installation and secure fixing. This will eliminate the need for needless nailing and
ensure a secure attachment.
Cutting a Scribe Joint: -Before cutting a scribe joint, an internal mitre on the skirting must
be removed. The internal shoulder of the mitre should have the same profile as the skirting’s
face. The waste must be hacked away with a coping saw. The mitre’s interna shoulder serves
as a reference to obey. It is recommended that when cutting the scribe, you cut slightly off
square to ease the back of the scribe and achieve a close joint in the face of the skirting. A
typical mitre is used to cut the external corner joints. The short point of the mitre at the
back of the skirting is used to calculate the length of the skirting. At both the top and bottom
of the skirting, nails are normally used to secure it at any stud. One nail per stud is
appropriate where narrow skirting (50 mm) is defined.
Installation of skirting:
Choose the right tools and supplies.
Choose and use personal protection equipment that complies with Australian
requirements.
Determine the region where skirting will be installed based on the requirements.
Decide on the style of skirting that will be used.
Determine the location of the first skirting board’s starting point.
Define the stud positions. Cut and install the first skirting board to specifications.
Layout and cut the scribe on the adjacent skirting.
Trim adjoining skirting to length and install to specified tolerances, scribe to ensure
a snug fit.

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Complete the remaining skirting, including the scribe and mitre joints, by cutting and
installing them. The alignment of both joints must be correct. Punch nails to the
specified tolerance below the skirting surface.
Butt joints to architrave must fit snugly, with no tolerance.
Keep recycled products in a secure location.
Keep tools and equipment in good working order. Clean work area and dispose of
waste materials safely.

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4.3Mark mitre joints, cut to length, position and fit flush
to face and true without gaps
When cutting a mitre joint, it’s important to cut it at half the angle of the corner. Two 45
degree angles are cut for a 90-degree corner. You would cut two 60 degree angles if the
angle was 120 degrees.
Steps by steps on how to mark mitre joints and cut to length:
1. Get the right cutting and measuring equipment: there are a variety of tools for cutting
mitre joints. A mitre box and a hand saw may be used to make regular cuts on basic
materials. A circular or table saw will be needed for more complicated cuts.
2. Measure the complete angle shift to determine the mitre angle. Subtract the number
of pieces that will make the turn from the total. The angle to which you must set
your mitre will be determined by the resultant number. 45 degrees is the most typical
mitre angle.
3. Since the cuts are angled, one side of the wood will be longer than the other, so
measure for your starting points. On an inside corner piece, for example, the wall
measurement must match the length of the wood on the backside. The inside of an
outside corner piece must be identical to the wall, but it must be the shorter distance.
4. If the mitred corner is at a normal 45-degree angle ((360/2)/corners), you’ll need a
gap equal to the depth of the piece of wood at the top. If the angle isn’t 45 degrees,
use a calculator to calculate it and divide the sin by the cos. Multiply the result by
the depth of your wood to get the total. The effect is the amount of extra room you’ll
need.
Cutting the material:
1. Align the mitre saw: Align the mitre saw to the angle at which it will be cutting.
2. Line up the wood: If at all necessary, place the wood on the machine upside down.
Always keep in mind where the short and long sides of a piece of wood should be.
When cutting a picture frame style cut, place the flat side on the cutting surface.
3. When making a box cut, make sure the flat side is against the fence (or back piece
of the cutting surface)
4. Lock the wood in place: If you don’t have a long enough piece to hold and your hands
aren’t in the way of the saw, you can use clamps to hold the wood in place.
5. Switch on the saw and lower it: Follow the directions that came with it. Keep your
hands away from the saw as you lower it, and don’t push down too hard.
6. Raise the saw and hold it there until the blade stops moving. Unclamp and remove
your piece until it’s done.
Joining the material:
1. Use clamps: using clamps to keep the joint steady while it sets in important.
2. Use nails and glue. The most basic method of joining the pieces is to glue the angles
together, match them together, and then use a pneumatic brad nailer to secure them.

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Before assembling the pieces, apply a thin layer of wood glue to the end grain of
each one. To remove excess glue from the joint, use a damp (not wet) rag. Using a
small piece of 120-grit sandpaper, sand over the mitre. Sand over the joint, then
gently sand out any cross-grain sanding traces by turning the paper in both directions
with the grain.
3. Make use of dowels. If the wood is thick enough, you can drill dowel holes and insert
dowels in the joined ends. This will provide additional reinforcement and strengthen
the joint. Simply drill a hole, insert a dowel, and glue the pieces together. Use a
dowel that is the right size for the thickness of your wood.
Burnish the corner: If your baseboard or crown moulding has a small gap in the outside
corner mitre, cover it with the shank of a screwdriver or a nail kit. The gap will be hidden
by the bent fibres, and the slightly rounded corner will be less likely to chip or be affected.
The easiest way to avoid this issue is to cut your outside corner mitres 1 degree sharper
than the actual angle, so the mitre tips touch.

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4.4Mark scribed joints and cut to length, position and fit
Every now and then, the topic of scribed joints and the debate about whether to use a mitred
or a scribed joint comes up. The traditional mitred joint will look like this in the simplest
case of an internal right angle joint, say a piece of plain rectangular skirting:
A scribed joint, on the other hand, will look like this:
Since the skirting profile is a simple rectangle, in this case, the scribed joint is actually a
simple butt joint; however, if the skirting board were moulded, the end of the board “a”
would have to be scribed or cut into the inverse moulded profile of board “b” in order for
them to come together neatly. The mitred joint, on the other hand, would put the two parts
together neatly even though the skirtings were moulded into a decorative profile.
When it comes to sash frames and sash bars, for example, the scribed joint is almost always
the only choice. The frame joints are tenoned for strength, and the rails are also butted into
the frame stiles. As a result, any decorative moulding on the internal face of the frame would
need to be scribed for a neat joint.
The same principle applies to any sash bars that butt into the stiles or rails, and where sash
bars cross; a mitred joint might be necessary, but the strength would be weakened.
Consider the situation with the skirtings. According to the literature, one piece should be
scribed into the other at internal corners, and external corners should be mitred. External
corners make sense since a scribed joint would display end grain in one direction, which
would be unattractive, particularly if the skirtings were to be stained.
Internal corners are scribed for a variety of purposes, according to the literature, including:
As compared to a mitred joint, any shrinkage around the grain reduces the opening of the
scribed joint
.
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While this is valid to some degree, in the worst case, if the skirtings are rigidly fixed to the
walls at the back and shrink 10% around the grain, the mitre joint will open at the front 14
percent of the skirting thickness, while a scribed joint will only open 10%.
Any opening of the mitred joint, on the other hand, can be seen from any angle, and if one
is clever, any opening of the scribed joint can only be seen by looking along the unscribed
piece. This is why most texts stress the importance of being aware of which piece should be
scribed so that any joint opening (due to shrinkage or inadequate scribing) is minimised.
If the skirtings are tall, scribing a joint is easier than mitring
.
With the widespread availability of inexpensive radial arm and drop saws that can easily cut
precise mitres, this reason is largely obsolete. Maintaining a precise 45° angle over a 9 or
10-inch width of skirting, on the other hand, can be difficult if you’re cutting the mitre by
hand. Typically, some fine remedial planning is needed. It’s not easy to scribble a complex
moulding, but there are techniques that we’ll go over later.
Internal scribbled joints, including dovetail joints, are a hallmark of excellent and skilled
craftsmanship
.
Cutting a Scribe Joint: -An internal mitre must first be cut on the skirting before cutting a
scribe joint. The profile of the internal shoulder of the mitre would be the same as the face
of the skirting. The waste must be hacked away with a coping saw. The mitre’s internal
shoulder serves as a reference point. It is recommended that when cutting the scribe, you
cut slightly off square to ease the back of the scribe and achieve a close joint in the face of
the skirting.
A typical mitre is used to cut the external corner joints. The short point of the mitre at the
back of the skirting is used to calculate the length of the skirting. At both the top and bottom
of the skirting, nails are normally used to secure it at any stud. One nail per stud is
appropriate where narrow skirting (50 mm) is defined.
Figure: -Skirting – internal scribe joint and external mitre joint

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4.5Cut scotia return end to profile shape and length
Before you start, make sure that all expansion gaps are clear of debris, as this can shorten
the life of an installation. Arrange the lengths of scotia across the room’s perimeter to make
the construction process simpler.
It is important to have the lengths in the correct order before cutting Scotia. This is
accomplished by attaching the mitre block’s unprinted sides to the bottom and back. You
shouldn’t be able to see the sides that are blank
Cut the right-hand side of one length of Scotia with a mitre block set at 45 degrees, and the
left-hand side of the other length with a mitre block set at 45 degrees. Duration two, on the
left-hand side. Check for a good fit and, if necessary, add mitre adhesive to the joint.
Internal corners: Using a mitre block, join the two lengths of Scotia/skirting. Cut the righthand side of one length and the left-hand side of length two at a 45-degree angle. Check
for a good fit and, if necessary, add mitre adhesive to the joint.
External corners: Mark the top of the scotia/skirting where it protrudes past the corner. Cut
a 45-degree angle with a mitre block. Repeat the procedure on the opposite side of the mitre
block with the second duration. Ascertain proper fit and secure the two lengths together
with mitre adhesive.
Step by step procedure:
1. At its base, where it meets the floor, measure the wall section you want to install
scotia along. For each corner that folds back away from the wall, you’re installing on,
cut the scotia to the length of the wall section plus the width of the base of your
scotia. A corner on the outside is referred to as an outside corner.
2. Mark whether your ends will be mitered for an outside or inside corner. So that the
back edge is the widest, the inside corners are cut into the length of the scotia. So
that the front edge is the widest, the outside corners are cut away
3. Align the indicator arrow to the correct setting on mitre saw’s mitre gauge to set saw
to 45 degrees. For a left-end outside corner or right-end inside corner, set the gauge
to the left of centre. For a right-end outside corner or a left-end inside corner, set
the saw to the right of main.
4. Place scotia on the table of the saw, with the top edge against the back fence, as if
it were against the wall, and the bottom face against the table, as if it were against
the floor. For a right end, place mark to the left of the blade, and for a left end, place
mark to the right of the blade.
5. Hold the moulding tightly against the table and fence
with your left hand for a right end and your right hand
for a left end, keeping your hand away from the blade.
On the opposite hand, grasp the trigger handle without
crossing the other arm. Start the saw and bring the
blade down in one smooth motion to make the cut

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4.6Mark standard pelmet moulding to length and cut, fit,
assemble and fix with miters true without gaps
The mild pelmet, which is the moulding installed beneath the wall units and, as the name
implies, screens the lighting fixtures installed beneath the units, is the next work. When the
pelmet is installed and the lights are switched on, light will also shine through the gap
between the bottom of the wall unit and the top of the pelmet. This can be solved by
powering the pelmet with dark silicone or mastic wherever it meets the wall device.
When it comes to putting the pelmet back in position, there are two options depending on
the profile of the moulding. If the moulding is an L type, the correction may be made using
the L’s extension piece. Care must be taken when choosing the screw size.
If the tiling and the cooking area are both being completed, it is better to fit the pelmet
along the fronts and then lower but not in shape all of the returns that go back to the wall.
Until trimming and Formica Countertop Vs Granite Countertop fitting the returns, complete
all tiling and grouting.
Since it is not possible to screw the returns on certain types of pelmet, they are best
protected by jogging clear silicone along the top of the pelmet and applying a good quality
adhesive to the joint, and pressing it into place. While the joint is effectively aligned, cleaned
up, and taped with 20mm masking tape, the silicone will keep the pelmet in place.
The glue normally dries in 30 minutes, but you can leave it on for as long as you want or
until the next day.
Install your Pelmet: –
Step 1: – Mounting the bracket
Install your brackets about 100mm from the edge of the architrave. The two
outside brackets should be installed first, and they should be level. Since your
architraves can not be perfectly straight or square, use your spirit standard.
Make sure that all of your brackets are level with one another.
Step 2: -Fitting the pelmet to the brackets
Place a bracket on either side of the seam and slide the pelmets together so they
connect and there is no gap if your pelmet is supplied in two parts (due to its
length).
First, attach the pelmet to the brackets at an angle, with the pelmet’s front facing
upward. The brackets will be placed in the pelmet’s top groove. The pelmet will lock
into position if you push it towards the back.
Your pelmet is now complete, and you can begin installing your blinds inside it.
Step 3: -Fitting the blind inside the pelmet
Make sure the chain is uniformly hanging on both sides and the flat surface is
facing the top before placing the blind into the bracket.
Install your blind first in the male bracket, which also serves as the chain’s end.
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Continue to the other end of the blind, keeping the chain end in place. Place the
spring-loaded pin in the female bracket’s track until it clicks into place.
After the blind is mounted, the ‘float’ should be 1.5 mm to 2 mm from left to right
between the brackets. Your blind will not run smoothly if there is no float, so
change your brackets accordingly for a safe fit.
Alternatively, if more scope is needed, you may change the pin end.
Lower your blind to the bottom of your window frame with the chain drive, then
mount your stop ball on the chain just before it reaches the chain drive. When
lowering your blind, this will ensure that it is not over-rolled.
Keep your protection cleat out of children’s reach.
The pelmet and blind are now fully in place.
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4.7Set out raked moulding to position and shape mould
to pattern for each position.
Mouldings that have been raked. When a moulding resting in one line, such as crown or bed
moulding at the eaves, is to be membered with moulding swung up out of that plane, such
as up a gable, one of two things must be done:
The top edge of the eave moulding can be tipped forward until it’s in the same plane
as the top edge of the corresponding gable moulding.
A moulding with a new face that will join with the eaves moulding when their reverse
surfaces are added to the fascia or, in the case of bed moulding, the frieze, can be
worked.
To become a member using the second process, follow these steps:
Draw a full-size cross-section of the moulding, as shown in Figure.
At an angle equal to the pitch of the gable, draw a series of lines across the more
important reference points of the moulding.
Draw horizontal lines through the points of reference and erect a perpendicular
through these, as A-B, passing through the back of the mould.
Draw a line C-D perpendicular to the oblique lines, as shown in Figure.
Transfer the lengths of the different points on the eaves moulding, measured
horizontally from A-B, to pitch lines measured obliquely, using the lines A-B and CD as reference lines.
The shape of the moulding needed for the gable can be determined by tracing a curve
through these points. Since this moulding will almost certainly have to be made specifically
for each task, this technique is only used for large or significant projects. Cornices are
normally designed to eliminate this type of work.
Figure: -Illustrate two miter-boxes constructed for use in cutting rake mouldings in gables.
Figure: -Miter Box for Gable Moulding Plumb Cut
There is no need for a special box when making mitre cuts on eave and horizontal member
mouldings. The moulding will be placed upside down on the box’s far side. The angles across

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the top edges will be determined by the mitre of the plate, sill, or corner of the building, and
the side cuts will be perpendicular to the top edge. This mitre would be 45° on a square
cornered building, with 12″ and 12″ being taken on the square. In each box, two cuts of
each kind are made, but in the opposite direction, so that the moulding for each side of each
gable can be easily cut. On the octagonal structure, the mitre will be laid out with 5″ and
12″ members, with scribing done along the 5″ member of the square.

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Self-check assessment
QUESTION 1
What is pelmet moulding?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
QUESTION 2
Explain the following
a) Mitre joint
b) Scribed joint
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
QUESTION 3
How architraves and scotia designed.
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

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CHAPTER 5: CLEAN UP
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What will I learn?
In this chapter, you will learn about the following:
1. Clean up meeting all legislative and workplace requirements for safety,
waste disposal and materials handling.
2. Check, maintain and store tools and equipment and report any faults.

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5.1Clean up meeting all legislative and workplace
requirements for safety, waste disposal and materials
handling.
After the completion of the work, the construction site should be cleared, and waste material
should be disposed off according to the environmental legislations. Moreover, the material
that is excess or left should be stacked and stored for later use.
Disposing of hazardous materials
After the completion of your work tasks, put the waste materials in the bins provided for
recycling where possible in line with the site Environmental Management Plans or Waste
Disposal Plans.
Make sure that you understand the site environmental management plans and the specific
necessities of disposing of toxic wastes you may come across on the construction site. You
should follow Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS’s) for provisions and handling of toxic
substances.
Environmental management plans
Environmental management plans mainly describe the action that affects the natural
environment in which it occurs and set out clear commitments from an individual to find out
methods so that these actions can be minimised, reduced and managed to make the
environment friendly.
Basically, the environmental management plan (EMP) will direct the actions to dispose off
recycled material at the construction site.
The following diagram shows the primary purpose of working on an environmental
management plan (EMP). You should take advice from your Supervisor or manager if any
unaccepted issues occur in the system. It is the responsibility of everyone working on the
site to improve environmental methods and procedures in the workplace.
Figure:5.1 Environment management Plan
Good housekeeping
Meet all
relevant
environmen
tal laws,
policies and
procedures.
Improve
environmen
tal
manageme
nt system
on
continuous
basis as per
internationa
l standards

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Good housekeeping is recommended to control any danger and risks on the construction
site, but it also encourages good work practices, pride and ownership of the work. When the
job has finished, then it is your responsibility to clear out all the areas. Do not leave it for
someone else to do.
The Worksite requirements for cleaning the work area and disposing or recycling substances
will be outlined in the project quality necessities, environmental plans or site-specific
strategies.
If you are unsure about your necessities under this plan, contact your manager or talk with
the environmental officer or coordinator. They have the ability to describe the requirements
you must meet.
Dispose / Recycle Material
As waste has a huge number of negative impacts on the environment, therefore, recycling
of materials, in this case, is a crucial one. Following are some benefits of recycling waste
material:
Recycling saves energy
Recycling decreases landfills
Recycling protects natural resources
Recycling is good for the economy
Recycling assists our climate problems
Worksite disposal areas
The workplace plan should be familiar to the workers. This assists them to find out the
location of eras where the material is to be disposed off. The signs at the workplace must
be followed, as they will direct you to different points. The workplace strategies must be
followed while disposing of any material.
Wastewater Disposal
Although the wastewater is classified as non-toxic waste, this can have a harmful impact on
the environment. Care should be needed to dispose of the wastewater. If the wastewater is
not properly disposed of, then it will lead to a serious effect on the environment which further
cause pollution.

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5.2Check, maintain and store tools and equipment and
report any faults.
Cleanliness, maintenance and storage of all tools and equipment are required to keep them
safe and in the best working conduction.
Cleaning and maintaining equipment
During the construction of eaves, many tools and equipment are used.
All the tools and equipment should be properly cleaned and maintained. The maintenance
of equipment is carried out in accordance with the Operations Manual.
It is easy to notice any default on the tool when it is properly cleaned and maintained. After
finishing the cleaning and maintenance, the tools and equipment must be stored in the
allocated place so that these can be easily detected when required.
Preventative and ongoing maintenance
Preventative and ongoing maintenance are actions taken to prolong the life of the equipment
and avoid unnecessary downtime. This includes:
Cleaning
Maintenance
A successful maintenance plan can enhance safety and operations. The merits include:
Fewer equipment failures and emergency breakdowns
More planned work finished
Decrease labor charges
Extended equipment life
Improved equipment working
Less downtime and more productivity
Reduce maintenance costs
Servicing
Regular servicing prevents excessive wear and damage. Follow the servicing schedule
provided and site safety procedures. Ensure sufficient safety PPE is worn at all times.
After cleaning, check equipment for:
Structural damage such as cracks, leaks, fractures or rusting
Excessive component wear
Loose controls
Loose nuts, bolts or connectors
Poorly attached or damaged guards
Worn power cords
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Poorly connected or damaged compressed air or hydraulic lines
Leaking tanks, seals or filler caps
Poorly lubricated surfaces
Faults or defects should be repaired or reported immediately.
Storage
Proper storage increases equipment life and is an important part of housekeeping. Store
equipment in designated areas and positioned according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
Remember that defective equipment should be reported and not stowed with equipment
ready for operational use.
Report an issue
While working with a tool or equipment, if you notice a fault, you must take the following
actions:
1. Stop working
2. Remove key and isolate the power supply
3. Put a tag on the equipment that read ‘Do not
Use’ or danger
4. Record the fault in the logbook or the daily
inspection checklist.

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Self-check assessment
QUESTION 1
How equipments can be stored and maintained?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
QUESTION 2
How faults are reported?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
QUESTION 3
Explain how clean up is done, meeting all legislative and workplace
requirements for safety, waste disposal and materials handling.
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

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