Implementing organisational change strategies

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Assessment Submission Cover Sheet

Student name Tahir Mohammed
Student CMI registration number P04508603
Unit code S1110V1
Tutor Rosemary Alford
Date submitted 18/08/2017

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Printed Tahir Mohammed Date_18_/_08_/_2017_

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Implementing Change Strategies in SQA…………………………………..3
Literature Review …………………………………………………………………….3
Resistance to change in the organisation……………………………….4
Force Field analysis (Lewin 1951)……………………………………………..6
Bullock and Baiten (1985) – Model of Planned Change ………………8
3 Step Model (Lewin, 1958)……………………………………………………….9
SQA as a Case Study for Change ……………………………………………11
Impact of Change?…………………………………………………………………12
Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………13
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Implementing Change Strategies in SQA
Many organisations undergo major change every three to five years and where
major change can include introduction of new Information Systems, mergers, new
working practices while minor change can mean anything from introduction of new
training courses, change in delivery of training courses from face to face to online
delivery using Moodle or introduction of clear desk policy. Change often alters the
way we do things routinely and it challenges our perception and makes us to reflect
how things are done. The purpose of change is to improve things, whether it’s cashflow, processes or products.
This essay will discuss how organisational objectives within the Scottish
Qualifications Authority are met through a process of identifying an issue, to
developing a change strategy and thereafter monitoring the impact of the change
initiated through feedback from the stakeholders and effectiveness of the change by
measuring the difference the change has made to the organisation on a year on year
I will begin by sharing an overview of the Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA)
before I put forward 3 frameworks that can be used to address change within my
organisation in the Literature Review. I will discuss the framework I decide to utilise
as the most appropriate change implementation. The findings will firstly identify and
justify the change solutions which help achieve organisational objectives, and a
range of creative problem solving techniques used to address the change
challenges. I will discuss how key strategies were used to minimise the adverse
effects of change on the organisation, and how I used monitoring and measurement
techniques in resolving change challenges. I will conclude by sharing how this
change has impacted across other departments across the organisation.
The next section will explore the role of management in the change process and how
they can work with their employees in implementing change frameworks.
Literature Review
The management’s role in the change process is to analyse the organisation and
motivate change, where it will appoint a change manager (external or internal), who

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is fully dedicated to the change to make the organisation run more cost efficiently
and effectively. The change manager selects a change team to help him and
members are chosen from all levels in the organisation.
Their role is to:-
1. Ensure that everyone understands why change is necessary. If people are
dissatisfied with the way that things are, they will be more likely to welcome change.
2. Show people in the organisation how things will be better in the future.
3. Ensure that people understand the plan.
4. Try to ensure that there can be no way of going back to previous ways of doing
things: ensure that only new forms are available, that computer systems reflect the
new way of working, and that procedures work smoother under the new system than
the old.
Resistance to change in the organisation
An excellent way to find out how the organisation feels about the change process is
to ask them. A very valuable tool to use to find out employees viewpoints is through
questionnaires, surveys and discussions.
Resistance mainly comes from these areas:-
Loss of trust due to past problems
With the survey you can show who you are and that you are trustworthy, by
deeds rather than words, helping to overcome this
Belief there is no need to change
The survey results will show the need for change
No way to overcome the inertia of day-to-day events – “this can wait”
The survey event brings some immediacy to change efforts and makes them
top of mind, in the same way that a political demonstration gets the attention
of journalists who normally wouldn’t find a continuing problem to be
Many managers complain that their people resist change. Generally, though,
resistance to change is a matter of not gaining consensus at the start of a project.
In this section I explored three different problem solving techniques from mind
mapping, focus groups and away days which could be used to engage with the
stakeholders to discuss if, why, when and how the change can occur.

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Tony Buzan’s Mind Mapping Technique
Mind Maps originated in the late 1960s by Tony Buzan and now used by millions of
people around the world for taking notes during lectures, meetings and
planning/training sessions. Mind Maps are used by very young to the very old. A
mind map is a way to represent ideas and concepts graphically. It is a visual thinking
tool that helps to structure, analyse, comprehend information and also helps to recall
and generate new ideas. Mind maps can be drawn by hand, either as “rough notes”
during a meeting or planning session, higher quality pictures can be drawn using
different colours and shapes when more time is available. Mind maps are considered
to be a type of spider diagram. Mind map is an activity that is both analytical and
artistic, it engages brain in a much richer way, helping in all its cognitive functions.
Focus Groups
A focus group is a small group of six to ten people led through an open discussion by
a skilled facilitator. The group needs to be large enough to generate rich discussion
but not too large. If group is too large then there is a danger that some participants
are left out of discussion. The amount of time set for the focus group is 45 minutes
to 90 minutes. If is beyond that then focus group is not productive. It takes more
than one focus group on any one topic to produce valid results – usually three or
four. Focus groups are structured around a set of carefully predetermined questions
– usually no more than 10 – but the discussion is free-flowing. In order to stimulate
discussion, the facilitator will ask open-ended questions for example:
What did you think of the project?
How did you feel about the project?
What do you like best about the proposed project?
Away days
An away day is where employees meet at a venue away from the workplace to plan
strategy or to discuss a particular issue. It is a time away from emails, phones and
interrupted conversations. A good away day could help to motivate team members,

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create sense of shared purpose, prepare future plans, generate new ideas for more
efficient working and so forth.
SQA have used all three techniques, away days were organised and during away
day focus groups were setup which have discussed the change programme, the
facilitator used mind mapping technique and took notes which were transferred to
digital format by using Tony Buzan’s Mind Mapping software called IMind Map.
This leads to the first framework which I use to illustrate how change can be driven in
the organisation.
Force Field analysis (Lewin 1951)
Force Field Analysis is a tool for systematically analysing factors found in complex
problems. It is widely used to make decisions in planning and implementing change
This analytical framework helps us to think about the pressures for and against a
decision or a change. Think about what is the problem or proposal and identify
driving forces and forces against change. These forces could be internal or external
forces, i.e. Scottish Government, Teachers, lecturers, Qualifications Managers, Local
Authorities and so forth.
There are 5 steps in Force Field Analysis:
1) Define the problem/proposal for change
What is the problem or what is the proposal for change?
2) Identify driving forces
In step 2 we will identify what are the driving forces for change and will place them
on the left hand side of Force Field Diagram.
3) Identify forces against change
In step 2 we will identify what are the forces against change and will place them on
the right hand side of Force Field Diagram.
4) Assign score
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In step 4 we will score each force, where one would be weak and five would be
strong. Once all the forces are scored the score is added up and a total score is
written for driving forces in Total Score For box and forces against change in Total
Score Against. This will help us decide the next steps, for example, strengthen any
driving forces, adding new driving forces reducing or removing any forces against
5) Developing the change Strategy
In step five we will develop a change strategy and how we will communicate it with
our stakeholders.
Initially there was strong resistance from Heads of Service, Qualifications Managers
and Qualifications Officers. This was dealt by delivering presentations, sharing

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feedback from pilot programme, answering questions and demonstrating how it
would help reduce number of queries to Qualifications Managers and Qualifications
Officers and it will allow them to concentrate on other tasks. There was resistance
from practitioners and this was addressed by sharing how it would help them, for
example, webinars will be arranged after school which means they don’t need to
leave their classroom, also recording will be available for them to watch at a later
date, not only that we will also produce Questions and Answers document which
they can refer to in the future.
There was resistance from the IT Department, as we were proposing to use Adobe
Connect which was an additional one off cost, with the IT Department insisting that
we use Skype as the communication webinar delivery tool. We had tested Skype in a
previous pilot and found it wasn’t fit for purpose.
Bullock and Baiten (1985) – Model of Planned Change
This is a four stage model and is more structured, as it can be used very exactly to
enable and maintain change.
1) Exploration Phase
This occurs when the organisation becomes aware of the need for change, and
selects a change manager. A contract is established defining the duties and
responsibilities of the agent and the organisation.
2) Planning phase
An accurate diagnosis of the problem is made using data gathering, through surveys
etc. The change goals are established. These have to be specific, relevant, time
and cost effective in the long term for the organisation. The key decision makers in
the company also need to approve and support the change mission.
3) Action phase
This is the implementation stage, where the appropriate systems are put into place
to manage the change process, with the support for the action by the employees on
all levels, operational, tactical and strategic. Constant evaluation of the
implementation phase is carried out so that the feedback may be analysed and
adjustments may be made to make the phase more effective.

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4) Integration phase
In this phase of the change process, the new behaviours are reinforced,
strengthened and stabilised, through a system of feedback, reward and
remuneration package. The reliance on a change agent is gently phased out as the
new behaviour becomes the new ‘norm’. The managers and employees are trained
to take over the change agent’s role and to make the change agents phasing out
more feasible, and also to allow them to constantly monitor and evaluate the
changes and improve on them.
3 Step Model (Lewin, 1958)
This framework is used to unlearn old behaviour and then learn a new behaviour and
is broken into three steps.
It is difficult to get people to change. Change is multi-cyclical, and involves many
stages for it to occur.
Source Lewin’s Framework for Change
1) Unfreezing
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This involves recognising the need for change by identifying the initial problem/need
for change and preparing the ground for change and communicating the change
programme to all the internal and external stakeholders. Communication about the
proposed change programme is vital at stage 1 (unfreezing). If stakeholders
understand what the change is, and how it will benefit the organisation, they will
support it. For example, in SQA there is external pressure from practitioners to
deliver more CPD support training sessions. This needs to be clearly communicated
to the stakeholder(s), the need for change and how it is going to benefit SQA.
2) Change
This is the implementation stage where the staff are encouraged to accept that
change is needed. This involves implementation and action planning stage, which is
constantly checked and evaluated to see if the correct path is being taken, by
assessing the consequences of the action plan.
In relation to the SQA, this is where CPD support training plan is communicated to
all the internal and external stakeholder and both internal and external stakeholders
are encouraged to accept and support the new model of training delivery.
3) Refreezing
This stage involves evaluation, stabilisation and assessment of the consequences of
the change programme, to make sure that the behaviour put in place in the
organisation is kept in place.
This stage also needs to help people and the organisation embed the changes. This
means making sure that the changes are used all the time, and that they are
incorporated into everyday business. With a new sense of stability, employees feel
confident and comfortable with the new ways of working.
This is the model which was the best fit for the change we wished to implement in
the organisation and is described in the case scenario I will now share in the next
section, and why I felt it was the most effective model in the conclusion.

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SQA as a Case Study for Change
The Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) is the executive non-departmental public
body of the Scottish Government responsible for accrediting educational awards. It is
partly funded by the Education and Lifelong Learning Directorate of the Scottish
Government, and employs approximately 900 staff based in Glasgow and Shawfair
in Scotland. SQA is best known for the delivery of the annual diet of public
examinations within Scotland for school pupils, however, a greater number of
candidates of all ages participates in SQA specialist, vocational and higher education
Since the implementation of Curriculum for Excellence, SQA has spent over £1.25
million pounds on delivering ‘Continuous Professional Development’ training, and
clarification of standards for new qualifications, for secondary school teachers,
further education lecturers and local authority officials. However due to lack of
capacity SQA was only able to offer one place per institution to go for training which
raises many issues from lack of opportunity to progress with professional
development, clarification of standards for the prospective delegate.
Despite the investment in ensuring information was being taken back into
institutions, through the feedback and monitoring process, the delegates and
teaching staff said they wanted more training and the opportunity for training to be
more accessible. To address this gap in order to reach more teachers, lecturers and
officials and deliver information to a wider education audience, SQA investigated and
invested in the viability of innovative training models. These included face to face
meetings at local authority level; audio presentations and webinars for teachers and
Over last few years, the cost of providing training has amounted to £1.25 million
(approximately 100 events), where in a large number of cases, there was a high
percentage of non-attendees (10 to 15%) on the day. Delegates were expected to
share the information with their colleagues in their institutions.

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Upon assessing feedback from the delegates, apart from aforementioned issues
several other issues arose from the schools requiring to bring in supply teachers to
cover the teacher who was nominated as a delegate to go to the SQA training event,
which resulted in a cost to the school budget; quite regularly the delegate had to
travel a distance to the event venue; the delegate needed to arrange childcare if they
had young children in order to attend the event.
A pilot programme consisting of 10 webinars for Scottish colleges were delivered to
delegates, which showed an increase of 200 delegates (to the previous face to face
events where less than 100 delegates attended), meaning a larger audience was
being reached and a question and answer document was produced after each
session which was used as reference material for those who had attended or logged
into the webinar, and also acted as supplementary material for those who watched
the webinars after the event and when they were uploaded onto the SQA website.
There has been a substantial reduction in delivery costs, with each webinar costing
£285 – £456 to broadcast.
This change was introduced in December 2015/January 2016 were it was reviewed
by qualification managers, with feedback from presenters, and measured by how
many views the webinars received. This data was presented to the senior
management, who asked the CPD team to continue broadcasting webinars and
monitoring their progress. To date 34 webinars have been presented in 2016/2017.
The results have led the change programme to be fully implemented as a delivery
system for CPD training as well as understanding standards training from
2017/2018. As a result of this senior management adopted the webinar model as a
primary model for training.
Impact of Change?
There have been 3 significant impacts evidenced by the change from face to face
delivery of training to using a webinar based model.
For the delegate, the training becomes more accessible more quickly, reducing
travel times, childcare costs, with it immediately then becoming a more ‘green’ (ecofriendly) model with fewer individuals driving to events and releasing carbon
emissions into the atmosphere. This delivery model enables every practitioner

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across Scotland to access the training, rather than the one delegate per institution
model which was previously implemented.
There were significant savings for institutions, in traditional face to face training,
institutions had to source cover for those practitioners who were out to attend
training which meant significant overhead costs. The practitioner who was going to
attend training session he/she had to prepare the lesson plan for someone to cover
their classes, in most cases they had to go back and deliver that planned lesson as
individual who covered the class didn’t deliver the lesson to the class room instead
just sat there and chatted with the class throughout the period.
There was a reduction in the number of queries to subject implementation managers
and qualification managers. There was also a reduction in the number of CPD
requests to CPD Team. For example, from 01/04/2015 to 31/3/2016, the number of
CPD requests received was 250. From 01/04/2016 to 31/03/2017, the number of
CPD requests received was 147. For the same period next year, the number is
expected to fall further to around the 100 or less benchmark.
This directly impacts on the SQA staff, allowing them to concentrate on their daily
remit and focus on subject development.
SQA has centres across the globe, and the webinar model is currently being rolled
out to support SQA’s national and international centres to enable more effective
learning and training of qualification standards and CPD. The Head of Organisation
Development is working with the CPD team to adapt the webinar model to use to
deliver internal staff training from the desktop computer or in the employee’s spare
time, which will result in fewer meeting rooms are required to host staff training
making training accessible to all staff and reducing the cost training cost significantly
leading to upskilled staff, staff concentrating on their day to day remits. This will allow
SQA to deliver more training as it is cost effective and less time consuming for the
staff members.
In conclusion after looking at all the conceptual frameworks, I would use Lewin’s 3
step model for planned change for Scottish Qualifications Authority. I found this

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model very thorough and it gives greater control to the organisation. All three stages
are very important but I think stage 3 is very important because if this is not
implemented properly, it could lead to sliding back to the original state and all the
effort and investment could go to waste. In this stage, emphasis is to anchor the
change into the culture, develop ways to sustain the change including leadership
support. Feedback is very important throughout the whole change process. It is
only through feedback we are able to monitor and evaluate effectiveness of the
change process. The change process is not static, rather dynamic and should be
kept going, i.e proactive and in this case regular feedback will be sought from
practitioners, managers and presenters.
The organisation dealt with resistance quite well and overcame by showing staff and
practitioners benefits to the organisation, the difference it would make to Scottish
education system.
There was strong support from senior management to change from traditional face to
face events to webinar model. The face to face model was too expensive and it was
only allowing one delegate per institution whereas the webinar model didn’t have this
restriction. The webinar model was also favoured by local authorities and head
teachers compared to the previous face to face model, as it reduced barriers and
improved access to the information and training resources.
Tony Buzan’s Mind Mapping Technique
Force Field analysis (Lewin 1951)
Force Field analysis (Lewin 1951)
Bullock and Baiten (1985) – Model of Planned Change
Bullock and Baiten (1985)
3 Step Model (Lewin, 1958)
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