Harvard Referencing Style

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Harvard Referencing Style
This is a general guide to the Harvard referencing style. Please check the guide provided by
your School, or lecturer, as it may vary from these guidelines.
About Harvard referencing style
Harvard style is an author-date referencing system. It has
two components:
1. In-text citation: a partial reference to the source you
are citing in the text of your paper, including the
author surname and date of publication in brackets:
(Smith 1998).
2. The reference list: contains a complete list of all the
resources you have cited in your work. It is usually
placed at the end of the document. Entries in the
reference list must be in agreement to the in-text
What is referencing?
Referencing, or citing, is an essential component of academic writing, as it acknowledges the sources of
information you have used to complete your assignments.
Referencing is important because it:
ensures that you are not open to accusations of plagiarism
identifies your sources and enables readers to locate them
acknowledges copyright and shows respect to the author for their work
demonstrates the validity or credibility of your arguments
demonstrates the extent to which you know the relevant literature
avoid plagiarism and academic misconduct (What is academic integrity and academic misconduct?)
Plagiarism is taking the words or ideas of others and using it as your own without acknowledging the
creator or source. It applies to written material as well as images, music, models, experiments websites
and computer programs. See also the plagiarism and referencing
online tutorial.
What do you need to reference?
You are required to reference any information, ideas or data that are not your own, including when you have:
quoted another author, word for word
paraphrased or summarised information
defined terms
used tables, statistics or diagrams from a source
There are different varieties of Harvard
referencing style. This guide follows the
standards described in the Style Manual for
Authors, Editors and Printers 6th edition,
often referred to as the “AGPS Manual” as it
was formerly published by the Australian
Government Publishing Services.
The manual is available in the Library at
808.027 STYL.

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Citing in text – general guidelines
The purpose of citing in the text is to provide brief information about the source, sufficient to enable readers to
find full details about the source in the reference list.
In-text citations can be presented in two formats:
– (Author Date) – used to show the source of the information you are citing, usually placed at the end of a
For example:
While an activist image of workers is sometimes presented (Rodrıguez-Garavito 2005),
workers are more often depicted as unwilling accomplices in factory managers’ manipulations
(Ngai 2005).
– Author (Date) –used to emphasise the author by integrating author name into the sentence, followed
immediately by date in brackets.
For example:
In the long run, Saarinen (2006) argues, development of tourism may not always be the most
favourable use of natural and cultural resources …
Citing paraphrases or summaries
When referring to the overall content of a work, or putting information in your own words by summarising or
paraphrasing, you must cite the original author and the date of publication.
For example:
Fast-paced change and complex problems can affect organizations (Wagoner 1968).
A page number may be included if you paraphrase a passage, summarise an idea from a particular page, or you
wish to direct the readers to a specific page. Page numbers may also be included when referring to a long work
and the page number(s) might be useful to the reader.
Use ‘p’. for a single page and ‘pp’. for consecutive
pages. Note there is no comma between the name and the year, but a comma is required after the date
if a page number is added.
For example:
At a macro level, negative economic impacts on non-mining sectors of the economy are commonly
known as Dutch disease (Corden 2012, p. 3).
If the author’s name is integrated into the sentence, only the year of publication and maybe a page
number are included in the brackets.
For example:
Brewer (2001, p. 17) suggests that attachment to ingroups is a primary process, fundamental to
individual survival and well-being.
Citing a direct quote
It is essential to include author name, year and page number(s) when incorporating a direct quotation into a
sentence. Use single quotation marks to enclose short quotations (sentence fragments, a sentence or sentences
with less than 30 words). Fit quotations within your sentences, making sure the sentences are grammatically
For example:
When Ladkin (2011, p. 1136) suggests that knowledge of tourism and hospitality labour ‘clearly has a
contribution to make to current wider societal debates’ she is, as we are, reflecting on the shifting
phenomenon of hospitality work.

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A direct quote that is more than 30 words long is usually indented from the text margin in a block format and
uses a one size smaller font in single line spacing. Quotation marks are not needed.
For example:
Modifying a direct quote
If you need to omit a word or words from a quote, indicate this with an ellipsis (three dots) with a space before
and after the ellipsis (…). A direct quote should neither start nor end with an ellipsis. Words should only be
omitted from a quote if they are superfluous to the reason why you are using the quote and the meaning of the
quote is not affected by the change.
For example (using ellipsis, in a block quote):
Square brackets
If you need to add a word or words to a quote, or change the capitalisation of a word to fit with your syntax, put
the word(s)/letter in square brackets [ ]. Words should only be added to a quote for explanatory reasons (e.g. a
name might be added to explain who a pronoun is referencing).
For example:
The church is not the only setting where the soul may be nurtured, as ‘[t]he soul also finds sustenance in
more domestic settings, like the family home’ (Jones 1998, p. 89).
If you need to indicate a misspelling, grammatical error or lack of inclusive language, insert the word [sic]
so or thus) in square brackets immediately following the error but do not change the error in the
For example (non-inclusive language):
According to Havelock (1986, p. 63), the written word can be looked at as an extension of conversation
where the author ‘writes down what he [sic] is saying so that another person can read what he [sic]
says instead of just hearing it.’
The modernist view of the individual voice has been debated:
As with an early modernist like Lautréamont … the subject or “character” is always an unstable
collective, perpetually on the make, on trial and in degeneration, as much as it is in productive process,
riven by contradiction and interruption, and by virtue of the textual mosaic, it hosts a crazed polyphony
with no “originary” voice. (Campbell 2014, pp.157)

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For example (spelling):
The claim that ‘confiscation of these lands was both illegal and sacrilegious [sic]’ takes the approach
that the church should be involved in these decisions (Hamilton & Strier 1996, p. 165).
Citing works with two or three authors
When a work has 2 or 3 authors, cite all the names in the order in which they appear in the reference. If the
author names are integrated into the sentence, use ‘and’ instead of the ampersand ‘&’.
For example:
Learning on demand is becoming a type of lifestyle in modern society (McLoughlin & Lee 2007).
Hogg and Reid (2001) propose several social cognitive processes that may explain leadership
Malinowski, Miller and Guota (1995) reported the same effects …
The sheer size and scale of the industry causes problems for analysis (Riley, Ladkin & Szivas, 2002).
Citing works with four or more authors
If a work has 4 or more authors, cite only the surname of the first-listed author followed by ‘et al.’ in the text.
For example:
Results of the cross-national study reported by Liu et al. (1987) indicate that concerns over impacts of
tourism on the environment were shared by all the residents surveyed …
A total of 38,350 visitors were recorded visiting those areas in 2004, including tour groups (Greiner et
al. 2005).
Citing multiple references by different authors
When referring to two or more references at one point in the text, place them in alphabetical order by author
names separated by semicolons.
For example:
The pace of life is slow allowing for reflection (Hofstede 1997; House et al. 2004; Triandis
Boyer, Gibson, and Loretan (1999); Forbes and Rigobon (1999); and Stambaugh (1995) note
that calculating correlations conditional on high or low returns, …
Citing sources with same author/s
Multiple references by the same author/s – If you cite two or more references from the same author/s,
arrange them in chronological order, starting with the earliest date.
For example:
This behavior is a form of confirmation bias, first identified by Wason (1960, 1966, 1968), referring to
our tendency to selectively overemphasize evidence …
Confirmation bias (Wason 1960, 1966, 1968) imposes persistence on policy and entrepreneurial
expectations, even in the presence of a certain amount of disconfirmation.
If a page number is included in the in-text citation, use a semicolon to separate a page number from a
date following it.

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For example:
(Campbell & Shiller 1987, p. 375; 1988a, p. 220)
References published in the same year by the same author – are listed alphabetically according to the
title of the work, and a lower-case letter (a, b, c, …) is added immediately after the date, in both the
reference list and in-text citations.
For example:
Campbell and Shiller (1988b) find that E/P ratios, especially when past earnings (E) are averaged
over 10-30 years, …
… Campbell and Shiller (1988a) attempt to move the volatility tests in this direction.
Citing authors with the same surname
When citing references written by authors with the same surname, include the authors’ initials in in-text
For example:
Different research reported the same effects occurring, regardless whether it was in lakes (Nguyen, D
2009, p. 3) or rivers (Nguyen, L 2009, p. 145).
D Nguyen (2009) and L Nguyen (2009) reported the same effects occurring in lakes and rivers.
Citing works with no author
When the name of an author or authoring body is not available, cite the reference by its title and the year
For example:
This was apparently not the case before about 1995 (
The entrepreneur’s guide to the law 1999).
Citing works with no publication dates
If the publication date of a source is unknown or unsure, cite it using n.d. (no date), e.g. (Smith n.d.) or Smith
If the publication date can be established with some degree of accuracy, use the abbreviation ‘c’ (circa-about),
e.g. (Smith c.1943) or Smith (c.1943).
If the publication date is dubious, use a question mark after the date, e.g. (Smith 1943?) or Smith (1943?).
Other examples with unsure dates include:
a work that secured a publisher but not yet in the process of publication, e.g. (Smith forthcoming)
a work that is in the process of publication but the publication date is uncertain, e. (Smith in press)

Citing works if page numbers unavailable
If page numbers are not available, such as in a webpage or an online newspaper article, then you cannot
include a page number in the in-text citations. However, if the source indicates paragraph numbers, use the
abbreviation “para” and the relevant number in the parentheses. If the paragraph number is not visible, cite the
heading and the paragraph number following it.

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For example:
As Myers (2000, para. 5) aptly phrased it…
… (Beutler, 2000, Conclusion, para. 1)
Tip: If your source is a journal article in html format (and therefore with no page numbers), check to see if
the article is available elsewhere in PDF format. PDF files usually include page numbers.
Citing a republished book
The date of publication used should be the date of the source you are reading. For example, although Pride and
Prejudice was initially published in 1813 it is unlikely that the version you are reading was published in 1813.
The publication date of the source you are reading is the date to use when citing and in your reference list.
For example:
Austen, J 1991, Pride and prejudice, Tiger, London.
Note: if the source cited is a later edition be sure to include the edition number (see examples).
Citing a work discussed in another work (secondary source)
Sometimes an author writes about research that someone else has done, but you are unable to track down the
original publication. In this case, you will include only the source that you have used in your reference list. Use
the words ‘cited in’ in the parenthetical in-text reference to indicate that you have not read the original
For example, if Lister cited Miller’s work in his/her research and you did not read Miller’s work, you should
refer to Miller in text in the following way:
David Miller’s simple definition of social justice (1999, cited in Lister 2007, p. 113) sums up …
In the reference list, provide the details of the article you actually used (Lister):
Lister, R 2007, ‘Social justice: meanings and politics’,
Benefits, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 113-25.
The reference list – general guidelines
The reference list should identify each item (book, journal article, DVD, report, web document etc.) in enough
details so that others can locate and consult it.
The reference list usually appears at the end of the document. However any appendices will appear
after the reference list.
It is headed by the centred title References.
References cited in text must appear in the reference list and vice versa. The only exceptions to this
rule are personal communications and classical works. In instances when no author can be identified
for newspaper articles and encyclopaedia entries – these are also cited in text only and are not included
in the reference list.
Order of reference list:
o Arrange reference entries in one alphabetical sequence by the surname of the first author or
organisational name, or by the first word of the title if there is no author. Ignore the words A,
An, and The when alphabetising by title.
o Start each reference with a new line, no indentation.
o If the reference list includes two or more entries by the same author(s), list them in
chronological order with the earliest first. The name of the author can be repeated but it is

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preferable to use a 2-em rule* (without a following space) instead. Works published in the same
year by the author are listed alphabetically according to the title of the work, and a lower-case
letter (a, b, c, …) is added to the date, e.g. 1988a, 1988b.
Use only the initial(s) of the author’s given name, not the full name.
Titles should have minimal capitalisation, following this general rule: only capitalise the first letter of
the first word and all proper nouns. Subtitles should be lower case except for all proper nouns. Journal
titles should use maximal capitalisation (see examples).
Titles are italicised unless they are a component of a larger work, then the larger work is italicised and
the smaller work is within single quotes (see example).
Place of publication: use only the first listed place when there are multiple places of publication. If a
publication place is little known or shares its name, you can add the state or country.
References or Bibliography
References or bibliography usually appear at the end of your article, essay or document. However, do you
know which heading you use?
References – a list of all the references you cited in your essay, report or document. This is the heading
required by the Harvard style.
Bibliography – most commonly refers to a list containing the sources used in developing a publication and any
other sources the author considers might be of use or interests to readers, or including all the sources you read
(but not cited) in preparing the article/essay/document. This heading may be used in more substantial
publications (e.g. theses, books, etc.)
* 2-em rule
The 2-em rule is used to avoid repeating an author’s name when more than one work by the same author is listed in the
reference list (
Style manual 2002, p. 107):
Campbell, JY & Shiller, RJ 1987, ‘Cointegration and tests of present value models’,
Journal of political economy, vol.
95, no.5, pp. 1062-88.
—— 1988a, ‘The dividend-price ratio and expectations of future dividends and discount factors’,
Review of financial
, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 195-228.
—— 1988b, ‘Stock prices, earnings, and expected dividends’,
The Journal of Finance, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 661-76.
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In-text and Reference list examples

Resource In-text citation Reference list
1 author
(Tracy 2011)
(Tracy 2011, p. 31)
Tracy, B 2011, Full engagement!: inspire, motivate, and bring out the best
in your people
, Amacom, New York.
2 authors
(Abigail & Cahn 2011)
(Abigail & Cahn 2011, p. 23)
Abigail and Cahn (2011) …
Abigail and Cahn (2011, p.
23) …
Abigail, R & Cahn, D 2011, Managing conflict through communication,
4th edn, Allyn & Bacon, Boston.
Note (in-text citation): when author names are incorporated into the text,
use ‘and’ instead of the ampersand ‘&”.
3 authors
(Spies-Butcher, Paton &
Cahill 2012)
(Spies-Butcher, Paton &
Cahill 2012, p. 78)
Spies-Butcher, Paton and
Cahill (2012) found that …
Spies-Butcher, Paton and
Cahill (2012, p. 78) …
Spies-Butcher, B, Paton, J & Cahill, D 2012, Market society: history,
theories, practice
, Cambridge University Press, Port Melbourne.
Note (in –text citation): when author names are incorporated into the text,
use ‘and’ instead of the ampersand ‘&’.
4 or more
(Kotler et al. 2010)
(Kotler et al. 2010, pp. 59-
Kotler et al. (2010) argued
that …
Kotler et al. (2010, pp. 59-
60) …
Kotler, P, Brown, L, Burton, S, Deans, KR & Armstrong, G 2010,
Marketing, 8th edn, Pearson Australia, French Forest, NSW.
Note: the names of all authors should be provided in the reference list (do
not use ‘et al’).
No author
(Facilities resource handbook
Facilities resource handbook
1997, p. 132)
Facilities resource handbook 1997, 2nd edn, Kogan Page Ltd, London.
Note: if author can’t be identified, alphabetise the source in the reference
list by the first significant word in the title, and use the title in in-text
A translation
(Foucault 1989)
(Foucault 1989, p. 102)
Foucault, M 1989, Madness and civilization: a history of insanity in the
age of reason
, trans. R Howard, Routledge, London.
Edited book (Jalilvand 2012)
(Jalilvand 2012, p. 64)
(Hanrahan & Jacobs 2005)
(Hanrahan & Jacobs 2005, p.
(Gartner et al. 2004)
(Gartner et al. 2004, p. 85)
Jalilvand, A (ed.) 2012, Risk management and corporate governance,
Routledge, New York.
Hanrahan, NW & Jacobs, MD (eds) 2005,
The Blackwell companion to the
sociology of culture
, Blackwell Publishing, Malden, Mass.
Gartner, WB, Shaver, KG, Carter, NM & Reynolds, PD (eds) 2004,
Handbook of entrepreneurial dynamics: the process of business creation,
Sage, Thousand Oaks.
Note: add (ed.) after the name of a single editor and (eds.) for two
or more editors.

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Chapter in an
edited book
(Rosenberg 2004)
(Rosenberg 2004, p. 5)
(Bras, Costa & Buhais 2012)
Bras, Costa and Buhais
(2012) observed that …
Rosenberg, RS 2004, ‘The social impact of computers’, in D Cartmell
Why people choose Macintosh, Elsevier Academic Press, Boston, pp.
Bras, JM, Costa, C & Buhalis, D 2012, ‘Network analysis and wine routes:
the case of the Bairrada Wine Route’, in N Scott & E Laws (eds),
Advances in service network analysis, Routledge, London, pp. 41-61.
Editions other
than the first
(Buglear 2010)
(Buglear 2010, p. 39)
(Harrison 1964)
(Harrison 1964, p. 25)
Buglear, J 2010, Stats mean business, 2nd edn, Butterworth-Heinemann,
Burlington, MA.
Harrison, GB 1964,
Introducing Shakespeare, rev edn, Penguin,
Harmondsworth, Middlesex.
Editions other than the first is noted after the title of the book:
Second edition = 2nd edn
Third edition = 3rd edn
Fourth edition = 4th edn
Revised edition = rev. edn
Part of a series
(Saad 2007)
(Saad 2007, p. 89)
(Pugel 2009)
(Pugel 2009, p. 55)
Saad, G 2007, The evolutionary bases of consumption, Marketing and
consumer psychology series, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah,
New Jersey.
Editions other than the first should be inserted after the series title:
Pugel, TA 2009, International economics, The McGraw-Hill series in
economics, 14th edn, McGraw-Hill Irwin, Boston.
ebook (Ayers 2009)
(Ayers 2009, p. 93)
Ayers, JB 2009, Supply chain project management: a structured
collaborative and measurable approach
, 2nd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton,
FL, viewed 23 May 2015,
Supply_Chain_Project%20Management.pdf >.
from a
(Osherove 2014)
(Osherove 2014, sec. 7.1)
Osherove, R 2014, The art of unit testing: with examples in C#, 2nd ed.
Manning Publications, Shelter Island, NY, viewed 10 October 2015,
<Safari Books Online>.
Entry in
& dictionaries
(Lindgren 1994)
(Lindgren 1994, p. 468)
Lindgren, HC 1994, ‘Stereotyping’, in Encyclopedia of psychology, vol. 3,
Wiley, New York, pp. 468-469.
Entry in
& dictionaries
no author
The Collins dictionary of
(2002) defines
corporate governance as …
If no author is identified, provide the necessary information in the text.
No need for an entry in the reference list.
Play or Poem (Poe 2012, verse 8, line 6)
(Shakespeare 1992, act 2,
scene 2, lines 701-3)
Plays and poems should be referenced similar to a book or book chapter
(depending if the entire work is a single publication or part of a
compilation or anthology.
Poe EA 2012, ‘The raven’, in SR Dziemianowicz SR (ed.),
Essential tales
and poems: Edgar Allan Poe
, Sterling Publishing, New York, pp. 54-6.
Shakespeare W 1992,
Macbeth, Macmillan, Basingstoke.
Classic work (Homer, book 11, lines 164-
Homer, Odyssey, trans. EV Rieu, rev. trans. DCH Rieu, Penguin, London,

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Journal, magazine and newspaper articles
Resource In-text citation Reference list
Journal article
1 author
(Smith 2011)
(Smith 2011, p. 13)
Smith, J 2011, ‘Agency and female teachers’ career decisions: a life
history study of 40 women’,
Educational Management Administration &
vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 7-24.
Journal article
2 authors
(Triplett & Scheumann
(Triplett & Scheumann
2000, p. 44)
Triplett and Scheumann
Triplett and Scheumann
(2000, p. 44) …
Triplett, A & Scheumann, J 2000, ‘Managing shared services with ABM’,
Strategic Finance, vol. 81, no. 8, pp. 40-5.
Note (in text citation): when authors’ names are incorporated into the text,
use ‘and’ instead of the ampersand ‘&’.
Journal article
3 authors
(Soeiro, Santos & Alves
(Soeiro, Santos & Alves
2016, p. 158)
Soeiro, Santos and Alves
(2016) …
Soeiro, Santos and Alves
(2016, p. 158) …
Soeiro, FC, Santos, M & Alves, J 2016, ‘Network-based innovation: the
case for mobile gaming and digital music’,
European Business Review, vol.
28, no. 2, pp. 155-75.
Note (in text citation): when authors’ names are incorporated into the text,
use ‘and’ instead of the ampersand ‘&’.
Journal article
4 or more
(Goltz et al. 2008)
(Goltz et al. 2008, p. 542)
(Salleh et al. 2009)
(Salleh et al. 2009, p. 56)
Goltz, SM, Hietapelto, AB, Reinsch, RW & Tyrell, SK 2008, ‘Teaching
teamwork and problem solving concurrently’
, Journal of Management
, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 541-62.
Note: the names of all authors should be provided in the reference list
Journal articles
(Gruenwald 2013)
(Gruenwald 2013, p. 42)
(Joharishirazi & Chehelmard
(Salleh et al. 2008)
Gruenwald, RK 2013, ‘Entrepreneurship challenges in high-growth
companies and consequences for SME policy’,
Entrepreneurial Business
and Economics Review
, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 41-54, viewed 10 June 2015,
Joharishirazi, M & Chehelmard, D 2015, ‘Study of the impact of
knowledge deployment and appetite for change on work’,
Journal of
Accounting & Marketing
, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1-6, viewed 1 October 2015,
Salleh, NHM, Siong-Hook, L, Ramachandran, S, Shuib, A & Noor, ZM 2008,
‘Asian tourism demand for Malaysia: a bound test approach’,
Contemporary Management Research, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 351-368, viewed
12 October 2014, <http://www.cmr
Journal article
with DOI
(Digital Object
Note: DOIs are generally not required in Harvard style. If your lecturer
specifically requires you to provide a DOI, place it at the end of a

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(Iverson & Deery 1997)
(Iverson & Deery 1997, p.
(Pan 2015)
(Pan 2015, p. 88)
DOI string (pre-2011 format):
Iverson, RD & Deery, M 1997, ‘Turnover culture in the hospitality
Human Resource Management Journal, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 71-82,
doi: 10.1111/j.1748-8583.1997.tb00290.x.
DOI as a link (Current format):
Pan, FC 2015, ‘Practical application of importance-performance analysis in
determining critical job satisfaction factors of a tourist hotel’,
, vol. 46, pp. 84-91,
(Rick & Erlandson 2009)
(Rick & Erlandson 2009, p.
Rick, TC & Erlandson, JM 2009, ‘Coastal exploitation’, Science, 21 August,
pp. 952-53.
(Kuttner 2003)
(Kuttner 2003, p. 26)
Kuttner, R 2003, ‘The great American pension-fund robbery’, Business
, 8 September, pp. 24-6, viewed 20 January 2012,
(Browne 2010)
(Browne 2010, p. 45)
Browne, R 2010, ‘This brainless patient is no dummy’, Sydney Morning
, 21 March, p.45.
(Maslin 2015)
(Maslin 2015, para. 4)
Maslin, J 2015, ‘Public shaming in the Twitter age’, Australian Financial
30 March, viewed 5 April 2015,
No author
If the author of a newspaper article is not obvious, provide all the details in the in-text citation. No need
for an entry in the reference list.
(Sydney Morning Herald 24 January 2000, p.12)
… in the Sydney Morning Herald (24 January 2000, p.12).
US president Obama announced new moves to expand the use of energy improvement loans (Sydney
Morning Herald 26 August 2015, p. 13).
no author,
no page
Footage captured by drone
provides a new perspective
on the ‘Rock’ (‘Uluru like you
never seen it’ 2016).
‘Uluru like you’ve never seen it’ 2016, The Daily Telegraph, 29 August,
viewed 31 August 2016,


Web sites and web pages
Resource In-text citation Reference list
Basic web page (Beard 2006)
(International Monetary
Fund 2000)
Beard, M 2006, The fall of the Roman Republic, viewed 30 January 2011,
International Monetary Fund 2000,
The logic of debt relief for the poorest
, viewed 21 July 2016,

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Web document (D’Amato, Henderson &
Florence 2009)
(D’Amato, Henderson &
Florence 2009, p. 32)
D’Amato, A, Henderson, S & Florence, S 2009, Corporate social
responsibility and sustainable business: a guide to leadership tasks and
, Centre for Creative Leadership, viewed 22 January 2015,
Web page
No date (n.d.)
(Royal Institute of British
Architects n.d.)
Royal Institute of British Architects n.d., Shaping the future: careers in
, viewed 31 May 2005,
Web page
No author
(Investment scams 2016) Investment scams 2016, ASIC’s Money Smart, viewed 31 May 2016,
Web site (Tourism Australia 2015) Tourism Australia 2015, Tourism Australia corporate website, viewed 25
June, 2016, <http://www.tourism.australia.com/>.
Blog Blogging provided Strong
(2016) the opportunity to …
Strong, F 2016, Sword and the script, blog, viewed 23 July 2016 <
Blog post (Suster 2016) Suster, M 2016, ‘Why raising too much money can harm your startup’,
Both Sides of the Table, blog post, 30 June, viewed 15 July 2016,
Note: include the date the blog entry was posted.
Facebook post (World Bank 2016) World Bank 2016, ‘How would you convince business owners to pay
taxes? Tax administration in developing countries […]’, facebook post,
18 June, viewed 28 June 2016,
Wiki (Zachary 2015) Zachary, S 2015, Business change analysis, Techniques Wiki, viewed 5
March 2016,


Government publications
Resource In-text citation Reference list
(South Australia State
Government 2001)
(Australian Government
South Australia State Government 2001, Midyear budget review,
Department of Treasury and Finance (South Australia), viewed 8 May
2002, <http://www.treasury.sa.gov.au/finance/pdf/ mybr2001-02.pdf>.
Australian Government 2004,
Australia’s demographic challenges,
Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, viewed 20 August 2012, <
document –
(Dawkins 1987)
(Dawkins 1987, p. 16)
Dawkins, J 1987, Higher education: a policy discussion paper, Australian
Government Publication Service, Canberra.

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(Henry et al. 2010)
(Henry et al. 2010, p. 14)
Henry, DK, Harmer, J, Piggott, J, Ridout, H & Smith, G 2010, Australia’s
future tax system
, Commonwealth of Australia, Department of Treasury,
Canberra, viewed 24 April 2011,
document –
(Department of Community
Services and Health 1990)
(Department of Industry,
Innovation and Science
(Department of Industry,
Innovation and Science
2016, p. 149)
Department of Community Services and Health 1990, The impact of
population ageing on Commonwealth and State social outlays 1987-1988,
DCSH, Canberra.
Department of Industry, Innovation and Science 2016,
How regional
universities drive regional innovation
, viewed 22 March 2016, <
Mr. Ruddock outlined the two
initiatives … (Australia, House
of Representatives 2001, pp.
Australia, House of Representatives 2001, Parliament debates, vol. HR238,
pp 24483-24488.
Mr. Singh (Australia, Senate
2015, p. 3235) addressed the
issue of …
Australia, Senate 2015, Parliamentary Debates, no. 5, 14 May, viewed 30
May 2016, <http://www.aph.gov.au/
Parliamentary_Business/Hansard/ Hanssen261110#2015>.
Bureau of
Statistics (ABS)
(Australian Bureau of
Statistics 1995)
(ABS 2014)
(ABS 2014, p.5)
Australian Bureau of Statistics 1995, National Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander survey 1994: detailed findings
, cat. no. 4190.0, ABS, Canberra.
Australian Bureau of Statistics 2014,
Overseas arrivals and departures,
, cat. no. 3401.0, viewed 3 October 2014,
<http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/[email protected]/Lookup/
3401.0Main+ Features1Aug%202014?OpenDocument>.
Use acronyms or abbreviations of organizational names
If the name of an authoring organisation, e.g. government agency is
long and cited often in the text, it may be necessary to abbreviate the
name in the in-text citation.
The first time an acronym or abbreviated name is used, you must give
the full name followed by the acronym in parenthesis.
For example:
… (Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 1995)
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS, 1995) ….
You may use just the acronyms in subsequent citations.


Audio visual sources
Resource In-text citation Reference list
DVD, film or
Video recording
(What is marketing 2009)
Wall Street 2014)
What is marketing? 2009, DVD, Classroom Video, United Kingdom.
Distributed by VEA Australia, Bendigo, VIC.
Wall Street 1987, motion picture, American Entertainment Partners &
Amercent Films. Distributed by 20th Century Fox, and starring Michael
Douglas and Charlie Sheen.

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Online videos
Ted talk, etc.)
(Prositions 2009) Prositions 2009, Diversity challenges – what would you do?, YouTube,
online video, viewed 12 June 2014,
(Geis, Jhally & Rideout 2013) Geis, K, Jhally, S & Rideout, R 2013, Feeding frenzy: the food industry,
obesity and the creation of a health crisis
, Media Education Foundation,
streaming video, viewed 22 October 2014, <Kanopy database>.
(Bragg 2014) Bragg, S 2014, Inventory variances, podcast, viewed 8 March 2015,
TV & Radio
(Search for meaning 1998)
At the coal-face 2015)
The search for meaning 1998, radio program, ABC Radio, Sydney, 24
At the coal-face with an Aussie start-up 2015, television program, ABC
Television, Sydney, 4 December.


Conference paper and proceedings
Resource In-text citation Reference list
(in published
(Wilde & Cox 2008)
(Wilde & Cox 2008, p. 115)
Wilde, S & Cox, C 2008, ‘Principal factors contributing to the
competitiveness of tourism destinations at varying stages of
development’, in S Richardson, L Fredline, A Patiar & M Ternel (eds),
CAUTHE 2008: Tourism and Hospitality Research, Training and Practice;
“Where the ‘Bloody Hell’ Are We?”
, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD,
pp. 115-8.
(Julian 2011)
(Julian 2011, p. 63)
(Foldy 2003)
Julian, CC 2011, ‘The relationship between industry structure, marketing
capabilities, strategy and performance: the empirical link in export
ventures’, paper presented to the Clute Institute International Academic
Conference, Las Vegas, 10-12 October.
Foldy, EG 2003, ‘Learning form cultural diversity: a theoretical
exploration’, paper presented at the National Public Management
Research Conference, Washington, D.C, 9-11 October, viewed 18 April
2005, < http://www.pmranet.org/conferences/


Course materials
Resource In-text citation Reference list
Study guide (McMurray 2014)
(McMurray 2014, p. 22)
McMurray, D 2014, MNG00316 Principles of international business: study
, 5th edn, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW.
Revised study
(Westwood 2015)
(Westwood 2015, p. 22)
Westwood, R 2015, MNG00114 Competitive strategy: study guide, 9th
edn, rev. S Wilde & K Lovel, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW.
materials via
(Browne 2010)
(Browne 2010, p. 45)
Nelson, S 2015, MNG00724 Human resource management: topic 2,
PowerPoint slides, Southern Cross University, viewed July 2 2015,
<MNG00724 Blackboard site>
Your own
unpublished or
creative work
(Jackson 2016)
(Jackson 2016, p. 2)
Jackson, H 2016, ‘Sweet fruit’, unpublished creative writing assignment,
Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW.

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Figures and Tables
Resource Copying or reproducing figures and tables from other’s work
Figures and
If you reproduce figures, images and tables or compile a table using data from other sources, cite the
sources below the figure or table with a simple heading Source or Sources:
Source: Jenkins (1999, p. 9)
Source: Adapted from Jenkins (1999, p.9).
Provide the full bibliographic details of the source in the reference list.
Figures (graphs, flow charts, maps, drawings, photos and other visual images)
All figures should be numbered with a caption. Cite the source under the figure.
For example:
Reference list :
Hölzle, K 2010, ‘Designing and implementing a career path for project managers’,
International Journal of Project Management, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 779-86.
All tables should be clearly numbered with a title. Cite the source under the table.
For example:
Reference list:
Boden, LA, Anderson, GA, Charles, JA, Morgan, KL, Morton, JM, Parkin, TDH, Slocombe, RF & Clarke, AF
2006, ‘Risk of fatality and causes of death of Thoroughbred horses associated with racing in Victoria,
Australia: 1989–2004’,
Equine Veterinary Journal, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 312-8.


Legal sources
Resource In-text citation Reference list
Legal cases Note: The name of the case
is italicised and the year is
placed in brackets.
The State of New South
Wales v. The Commonwealth
(1915) 20 CLR 54
The State of New South Wales v. The Commonwealth (1915) 20 CLR 54

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For specific page reference:
use the word ‘at’ instead of
Greutner v. Everard (1960)
103 CLR 177 at 181
Note: Legal cases are only included in a list of reference if they are
important to an understanding of the work. In that case, it is preferable
to list cases separately under the subheading of “Cases”.
acts and
Victoria’s Residential
Tenancies Act 1997 …
Residential Tenancies Act
1997 (Vic) …
Residential Tenancies Act 1997 (Vic), ss. 167-187, reprint 2, Anstat,
Note: Legislation is only included in a list of reference if it is important
to an understanding of the work. In that case, it is preferable to list
separately under the subheading of “Legislation”.


Resource In-text citation Reference list
(Sakunasingha 2006)
(Sakunasingha 2006, p. 36)
Sakunasingha, B 2006, ‘An empirical study into factors influencing the
use of value-based management tools’, DBA thesis, Southern Cross
University, Lismore, NSW.
Thesis online (Ram 2012)
(Ram 2011, p. 130)
Ram, R 2012, Development of the International Financial Reporting
Standard for Small and Medium-sized Entities
, PhD thesis, The
University of Sydney, viewed 23 May 2014,


Other sources
Resource In-text citation Reference list
Annual report
(Tabcorp 2012)
(Tabcorp 2012, p. 2)
Tabcorp 2012, Concise annual report 2012, Tabcorp Holdings Limited,
Annual report
(Woolworths Limited
(Woolworths Limited
2015, p. 12)
Woolworths Limited 2015, Annual report 2015, viewed 10 December 2015,
(Southern Cross
University 2008)
Southern Cross University. 2008. Copyright and you: a guide for staff.
Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW.
Company &
reports from
(Datamonitor 2010)
(Datamonitor 2010, p.
(Stephen 2012)
(Stephen 2012, p. 24)
Datamonitor 2010, Rio Tinto SWOT analysis, viewed 20 January 2012, <
Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost>.
Stephen, T 2012,
IBISWorld Industry Report L771. Retail property operators in
, viewed 20 January 2013, < IBISWorld>.
Map (Department of Lands,
NSW 2004)
Department of Lands, NSW 2004, Topographic & orthophoto map 1:25,000.
9537-3N, New South Wales,
3rd edn, Dept. of Lands, Bathurst, NSW.
Online map (Worldatlas n.d) Worldatlas n.d., Vanuatu outline map, viewed 14 February 2017,

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Media release (Morrison 2015) Morrison, S (Treasurer of the Commonwealth of Australia) 2015, Tax and
business incentives to boost economic growth & jobs
, media release, 7
December, Parliament House, Canberra, viewed 15 December 2010,
(J Smith 2008, pers.
comm., 2 July )
J Smith (2008, pers.
comm., 2 July)
mentioned that …
Information gained through face to face conversations, emails, phones calls,
faxes, letters, lecture presentations or interviews may be cited as Personal
Communications, use “pers. comm.” in the text.
Full date (year, day Month) is included in the in-text citation and the initial is
placed before the surname.)
Details of a personal communication is usually not included in the reference
(Fong 1987, cited in
Betram 1997)
This is supported in a
study by Waters et al
(1986, cited in Kavali et
al. 2001, p. 88 ) who
concluded that …
If an author writes about research that someone else has done but you are
unable to track down the original publication, include only the source that you
have read. Use the words ‘cited in’ in the parentheses to indicate that you
have not read the original publication.
For example, Bertram refers to Fong in his article but you are unable to locate
the publication by Fong. Do not include Fong (1987) in your reference list but
do include Bertram (1997).
Bertram, F 1997,
The tragedy of youth, 2nd edn, Macmillan, New York.
Kavali, S, Tzokos, N and Saren, M. (2001), ‘Corporate ethics: an exploration of
contemporary Greece’,
Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 30, no.1, pp. 87-104.
Standards Standards Australia &
Standards New Zealand
Standards Australia & Standards New Zealand 2004, Risk management: AS/NZS
4360:2004, Standards Australia International, Sydney.
In database
(Standards Australia
Standards Australia 1999, Technical product documentation -organization and
naming of layers for CAD – concepts, format and codes used in construction
AS 13567.2-1999 (R2013), viewed 11 November 2014, <SAI
Stock quote
and financial
Telstra’s share price
dropped 5% … (Yahoo!
Finance 2016) …
Yahoo! Finance 2016, Telstra (TLS.AX) historical share price, viewed 29
September 2016, <


Sources in foreign languages
Resource In-text citation Reference list
(Latin scripts)
(Greau 2008)
(Greau 2008, p. 34)
Provide English translation in parentheses immediately after the
original title. The names of foreign publishing houses should not be
anglicized or translated. Use the anglicised spelling of foreign places of
publications, e.g. Rome not Roma.
Greau, J 2008,
La trahison des économistes (The betrayal of economists),
Gallimard, Paris.

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(East Asian
(Hu 2008)
(Hu 2008, p. 98)
(Nishitaya 2014)
(Nishitaya 2014, p. 43)
Romanise author names and titles into English alphabetes so that the
sources can be placed in an alphabetical order in the reference list.
Include the original characters immediately after the Romanised version
of the items they represent, followed by English translation in
parentheses. Romanise the Publisher name.
Hu, A
胡鞍钢 2008, Zhongguo: minsheng yu fazhan 中国: 民生与发展
(People’s livelihood and development), Zhongguo jingji chuban she 中国
, Beijing.
Nishitaya, H
西田谷洋 2014, Fantajī no ideorogī: gendai Nihon anime
ファンタジーのイデオロギー: 現代日本アニメ研究 (The
ideology of the fantasy: contemporary Japan anime studies), Hitsuji
ひつじ書房, Tokyo.
(Latin scripts)
(Hohler 2007)
(Hohler 2007, p. 67)
Provide a translation in parentheses immediately after the title of the
article. The title of a foreign –language journal should be cited in the
original language without translation – to enable interested readers to
locate it.
Hohler, S 2014,’Von biodiversität zu biodiversifizierung: eine neue
okonomie der natur?’ (From Biodiversity to Biodiversification: a new
economy of nature?),
Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte, vol. 37, no. 1
pp. 60–77, doi:10.1002/bewi.201401664.
(East Asian
(Pan, Lou & Zhang 2016)
(Pan, Lou & Zhang 2016, p.
Romanise author names and the title of the article into English alphabet.
You may include the original characters immediately after the
Romanised version of the items they represent, and followed by English
translation in parentheses. Romanise the journal title as well.
Pan, W, Lou, Y & Zhang, Y
潘文卿, 娄莹 & 张亚雄 2016, Zhongguo yu
dongya ji meiguo de maoyi liuzhuang: kongjian jiegou yu fangui huilu

: 空间结构与反馈回路 (Trade transaction
flows among China, East Asia and USA: spatial structure and feedback
Jingji Xuebao 经济学报, vo.3, no.10, pp. 21-41.