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Without the necessary support, it can turn into an enormous challenge and lead to students feeling completely
overworked and stressed. Many of these problems and difficulties often occur after the written assignment has
been turned in, in the form of a proof of plagiarism.
An accurate citation format is the linchpin of a written
. Before you start writing, it is crucial to clarify what the accurate citation format is. Unfortunately, we
have often had the experience that students receive the proof of plagiarism, which isn’t traced back to an attempt
of cheating, but simply uncertainty. For this reason, the IU hopes that these guidelines help clarify all issues
relating to plagiarism so that unnecessary mistakes can be avoided.
Plagiarism can generally be understood as the unauthorized usage of foreign intellectual property, or rather the
theft thereof (Fröhlich, 2006, S. 81) where another’s efforts are presented as one’s own (Schimmel, 2011, S. 5).
Plagiarism isn’t always plagiarism, though. There are different types of plagiarism, with different dimensions.
First an foremost, there is a difference between using passages of text, using foreign intellectual property, and the
usage of one’s own, previously published ideas (Höhner & Steinhauer, 2014, S. 27). When speaking about the
transfer of passages of text, a distinction is made between full and partial plagiarism.
Full plagiarism
In the form of a full plagiarism, either most of the paper or all of it is completely taken from a single literary
source and then released as one’s own work. This is done, for example, by switching out the cover sheet, or
by simply reformatting the work plagiarized by the author.
Furthermore, one also speaks of a full plagiarism when a work in a foreign language is translated into one’s
own language. In all of these cases, it is referred to as intellectual property theft.
Another form of full plagiarism occurs when a ghostwriter is paid for having written the entire paper. (Ebster,
Partial plagiarism
In contrast to this is the so-called partial plagiarism, where the entire work is not plagiarized from one source,
but rather from several sources and incorporated into several different passages of the text. (Höhner &
Steinhauer, 2014, S. 27). In the case of a plagiarism, which is not due to a literal adoption of a passage of text,
but rather the adoption of foreign ideas and arguments, one speaks of a so-called plagiarism of ideas. Here,
the ideas or arguments are presented in the author’s own words, but also mistakenly presented as the
author’s own work (ebd., S. 27).
Additionally, it can also take the form of an „individual plagiarism”. The author of a research paper isnaturally
allowed to use his thoughts, arguments or his ideas more than once. This does, however, need to be
referenced throughout the paper. In this case, should the author fail to reference his firstpublication in the
paper, this falls under self-plagiarism. While there is no evidence of theft of other people’s intellectual
property, the reader isentitled to the topicality of the idea and knowledge of therespective background (ebd.,
S. 27).

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The IU uses the plagiarism software, Turnitin. The written assignments are to be turned in here, in order to
check them or rather inspect them for plagiarism.
The Plagiarism software, Turnitin, gives indications or references whether sections of the assignment have
been plagiarized. It is the responsibility of the examiner to decide whether or not the assignment has been
Furthermore, it is mandatory that a signed anti-plagiarism pledge is provided by the student in electronic
form. Exceptions are final theses. Every bachelor’s or master’s thesis must contain a signed anti-plagiarism
pledge. In this Statement, the student ensures that he has completed their assignment independently.
If an assignment has been turned in, where the student has plagiarized, the student involved will receive an
attempt at cheating. In this case, the assessment will be graded „
insufficient “and the Module, or rather half of
the module will not be acknowledged. Additionally, no credit points will be awarded.
Both time and performance pressure are often causes for plagiarism. (Völger Winsky, 2014, S. 12). Therefore,
it is sensible, that you create a schedule before you begin writing your assignment, in order to best avoid
feeling overly constrained by time (Reichmann, 2013, S. 181).
Additionally, lack of ideas can also lead to plagiarism (Reichmann, 2013, S. 181). It is certainly permitted to
use unfamiliar ideas in your assignment, however, these need to be properly identified. For this reason, it is
important, even when you are doing your literature research, that you immediately identify ideas, thoughts
or arguments which emerge as you do your research, as well as citing the associated sources.
It is always good to structure newly acquired knowledge (Völger Winsky, 2014, S. 15). Another words, while
researching and while creating a possible collection of quotes, be sure that you immediately cite your
sources, so that you can avoid having to searching for your sources later on.
IMPORTANT: The Bibliography and citing of sources are as much a part of writing of the actual paper as is the
text itself. Always cite the sources as you are writing and update the bibliography every time you work on your
Simply including a bibliography in your assignment is not sufficient as the sole list of references. Do not forget
to indicate your sources in the body of text.
If you would like to use verbatim quotes in your assignment, they must be cited and denoted accordingly.
With non-verbatim quotes, another words with analogous quotations, the content must be written in your
own words. These must also be cited accordingly in the body of text.
If you are unsure whether or not to cite the source, cite the source when in doubt (Ebster, 2011).
Check your assignment, before you turn it in, to make sure that your Table of Contents and the list of sources
are complete in main body of text, and make sure that you have quoted thoughts, ideas, and or arguments
We wish you all the best as you begin writing your written assignment!
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Ebster, C. (2011): Wie vermeide ich Plagiate? (URL: [letzter
Zugriff: 11.06.2017]).
Fröhlich, G. (2006): Plagiate und unethische Autorenschaften. In: Information Wissenschaft und Praxis, 57. Jg.,
Heft 2, S. 81–89.
Höhner, K./Steinhauer, E. W. (2014): Akademische Integrität und die Bekämpfung von Plagiaten als
Handlungsfelder für Hochschulen und ihre Bibliotheken. In: Information Wissenschaft und Praxis, 65. Jg., Heft 1,
S. 25–32.
Reichmann, G. (2013): Textplagiate in der Wissenschaft und deren Verhinderung. In: Information Wissenschaft und
Praxis, 64. Jg., Heft 4, S. 175–184.
Schimmel, R. (2011): Von der hohen Kunst ein Plagiat zu fertigen: Eine Anleitung in 10 Schritten. LIT Verlag, Berlin.
Völger Winsky, M. (2014): Wissenschaftliche Redlichkeit und die Generation der Digital Natives – Eine
hochschuldidaktische Perspektive. In: Information Wissenschaft und Praxis, 65. Jg., Heft 1, S. 9–18.