ESL Instructional Support

APA Sample Paper Page 1
APA Sample Paper
Please note: The page numbers in the comments refer to the APA Student Guide.
Alberta Teachers Supporting Literacy for English Language
Jane Student
School of Human Services, Lethbridge College
EDU-2252: ESL Instructional Support
Dr. Josh Vanderwaal
January 10, 2020
Place page numbers in the
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APA Sample Paper Page 2
Alberta Teachers Supporting Literacy for English Language
Students in Alberta classrooms reflect the diversity of
Canada’s multicultural embrace. Many of these culturally diverse
students are also English Language Learners (ELLs) who struggle
with English language acquisition and literacy. More and more ELLs
are attending school in Alberta every year. In the Edmonton Public
School board, Superintendent Robertson and Assistant
Superintendent Liguori (2014) report that the number of ELLs nearly
doubled from 9, 597 to 18, 278 students in just five years (from
2008–2009 to 2013–2014). For teachers, the challenge is how to best
support all Alberta students, including ELLs. In fact, the Alberta
Teachers’ Association (2018)
Code of Professional Conduct
mandates that teachers work to address all students’ educational
needs and specifically notes that teachers must act “without prejudice
as to…linguistic background” (p. 1). These expectations highlight
significant challenges for teachers. Helfrich and Bosh (2011) argue
that many teachers supporting literacy for ELLs have a poor grasp of
literacy in other cultures, cannot properly differentiate instruction,
and place too little value on peer interactions. Helfrich and Bosh
further explain that differentiating instruction can be problematic
Start with the bold title,
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spell out all words and put
the acronym in
parentheses. After
introducing an acronym,
use it instead of the full
Narrative citation for
paraphrased information.
For more information, see
pp. 21–33.
Narrative citation for a
direct quotation with a
group author. For more
information, see pp. 29–32.
Use an ellipsis (…) to show
that you omitted some
words from a quotation.
For more information, see
p. 32.
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source with two authors. For
more information, see p. 21.
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source for adjacent
sentences, you don’t need to
repeat the year. For more
information, see p. 27.

APA Sample Paper Page 3
because teachers can single out ELLs and take time away from other
students. In order to avoid this pattern and overcome the challenges to
supporting ELLs, teachers should use diverse strategies that scaffold
the learning of all students; such strategies include creating an
inclusive classroom, building a literacy-rich environment, involving
peers, and utilizing explicit instruction.
To support all students, Alberta teachers must establish
inclusive classrooms and contexts. This expectation is detailed by
Alberta Education (2018) in the
Teaching Quality Standard, which
states that teachers will provide “inclusive learning environments
where diversity is embraced and every student is welcomed, cared
for, respected and safe” (p. 6). Teachers working to welcome, care
for, and respect diverse students may need to develop their cultural
awareness. In the article, “Creating Environments of Success and
Resilience: Culturally Responsive Classroom Management and
More,” Bondy et al. (2007) suggest that many teachers can improve
cultural knowledge and the ability to analyze the role of culture in
perceptions of student behavior. To develop cultural awareness and
create environments that recognize the benefits of diverse languages
and cultures, the Edmonton School Board employs intercultural
consultants who work with teachers and other school staff (Robertson
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Narrative citation for a
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information, see p. 35.
Parenthetical citation. Use a
mixture of narrative and
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APA Sample Paper Page 4
& Liguori, 2014). Intercultural consultants can help teachers
understand why students from other cultures might exhibit behaviours
like avoiding eye contact or copying passages for writing
assignments. This understanding helps teachers consider their
perceptions of students’ behaviours and creates opportunities for
explaining unspoken Canadian cultural expectations. Bondy et al.
(2007) also note that teachers can use culture to create classroom
contexts that support, nurture, a nd respect students. In Lethbridge,
teachers have used the cultural practices of the Bhutanese community
to create supportive, nurturing and respectful contexts. T. Rodzinyak
(personal communication, March 2, 2019) helped organize a Holi
celebration at Chinook High School to celebrate the widely practiced,
colourful custom and create an inclusive environment. These
culturally inclusive contexts support language development for ELLs
and enrich the learning experience for all students.
Including culturally diverse students also involves an
understanding of the unique characteristics of each student. As with
all students, teachers should ascertain an understanding of each
learner’s base knowledge and ability. ELLs come from diverse
educational backgrounds and teachers should learn as much as
possible about each student’s educational history. When teachers
This source was cited
earlier in the paragraph,
but then another source
(Robertson and Liguori)
was cited. Also, there are
intervening sentences that
add commentary. To
ensure clarity, provide a
complete citation.
Narrative citation for a
personal communication.
For more information, see
p. 34.

APA Sample Paper Page 5
investigate a student’s educational history, they are more able to
create a “connection between the background knowledge [students]
possess and the academic requirements of the classroom” (Helfrich &
Bosh, 2011, p. 264). As teachers investigate educational histories,
they should strive to understand literacy development in each
student’s first language. Dressler and Kamil (2006, as cited in August
et al., 2014) contend that knowledge gained in a first language relates
to many literacy skills in a second language. In Edmonton, Robertson
and Liguori (2014) report that Reception Centres welcome immigrant
and refugee students, including interviews with families in their first
language. These interviews collect information about students’
background and experiences before coming to Canada (Robertson &
Liguori, 2014). This information helps teachers learn more about each
of their students and develop cultural awareness, which encourages an
inclusive classroom.
To further support the diverse needs of all students, teachers
can create classrooms that are not only inclusive, but also literacyrich. In such an environment, teachers immerse students in literature
and text of various formats, from instant messaging and “hang in
there” posters, to full-length novels. Immersing students in these
different textual formats will help all students develop literacy skills.
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Connect ideas using
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Use square brackets around
any clarifying words that
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quotation. For more
information, see p. 32.

APA Sample Paper Page 6
Teachers can also use literature to increase the awareness and
understanding of several cultures. For example, teachers can make a
conscious decision to feature texts with diverse characters and
cultural themes (Helfrich & Bosh, 2011). A literacy-rich environment
is especially beneficial to ELLs as they are less likely to have access
to English language materials and experiences away from school;
providing ELLs with an everyday environment rich with English
literature and text gives them more equal access to a literacy-rich
experience (August et al., 2014). Although the literacy-rich
environment has more impact on ELLs, such immersion benefits all
In an inclusive, literacy-rich classroom, peer interactions
come more naturally and can support literacy development in all
students. …
Along with strategies for inclusion, immersion in a literaturerich environment, and interaction between peers, teachers should
provide explicit instruction in literacy fundamentals. … Tompkins
(2015) insists the inclusion of activities that develop oral language is
essential, as oral language is foundational to literacy learning. …
Although there is no single answer to best support the
development of literacy and language in ELLs, teachers can improve
This paragraph would
continue with evidence and
commentary about the
best practices for and
benefits of peer
This paragraph would
continue with evidence and
commentary about the
best practices for and
benefits of explicit
instruction in literacy
We kept this narrative
citation so we could include
the corresponding book
example in the references

APA Sample Paper Page 7
practice by creating an inclusive, literacy-rich learning environment
that involves peer interactions and explicit instruction. Used
effectively, these strategies will reinforce and build on each other. For
example, if a teacher creates a literacy-rich environment with
respectful texts about different cultures, the classroom naturally
becomes more inclusive. In this inclusive environment, peer
interactions are more frequent and genuine, and when peers are
comfortable interacting, they can engage in activities like peer writing
revision, applying and refining skills learned through explicit
instruction. This classroom environment then becomes a culture of its
own, one in which all students engage in profound learning

APA Sample Paper Page 8
Alberta Education. (20 18). Teaching quality standard. Government
of Alberta.
Alberta Teachers’ Association (2018). Code of professional conduct.
August, D., McCardle, P., & Shanahan, T. (2014). Developing
literacy in English language learners: Findings from a review
of the experimental research.
School Psychology Review,
(4), 490-498.
Bondy, E., Ross, D. D., Gallingane, C., & Hambacher, E. (2007).
Creating environments of success and resilience: Culturally
responsive classroom management and more.
Education, 42
(4), 326-348.
Helfrich, S. R., & Bosh, A. J. (2011). Teaching English language
learners: Strategies for overcoming barriers.
The Educational
Forum, 75
(3), 260-270.
Arrange entries
alphabetically. Apply a
hanging indent to your
entries (look in the tools of
your word processing app).
Entry for an online
document by a group
author (Alberta
Education). The
(Government of Alberta) is
listed as locating
information. For more
examples, see Internet
Resources and Grey
Literature in Chapter 6.
Entry for an online
document by a group
author. In this case, the
author is the same as the
publisher/website, so you
don’t need to repeat the
name. For more
examples, see Internet
Resources and Grey
Literature in Chapter 6.
These three entries are all
for academic journal articles.
Note the pattern they all
follow. For more examples,
see Periodicals in Chapter 6.

APA Sample Paper Page 9
Robertson, D., & Liguori, M. (2014). Annual report – English
language learners
. Edmonton Public Schools.
Tompkins, G. E. (2014). Literacy in the early grades: A successful
start for PreK-4 readers and writers
(4th ed.). Pearson.
Entry for an online
document with individuals
as authors. In this case,
Edmonton Public Schools
is listed as the
publisher/website. For
more examples, see
Internet Resources and
Grey Literature in Chapter
Entry for a book. For more
examples, see Books and
Reference Works in Chapter