End-of-module assignment

TU100-15J My digital life
End-of-module assignment (EMA)
End-of-module assignment (EMA) 2
Context 2
The tasks 3
Task 1 (40 marks) 3
Task 2 (50 marks) 5
Task 3 (40 marks) 11
Task 4 (40 marks) 12
Task 5 (40 marks) 13
What to submit 15
Appendix A 16
References 31
WEB 044042
Copyright © 2015 The Open University

End-of-module assignment (EMA)
If you would like to print this document out then please use the PDF format
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Contents pane on the left of the screen.
This end-of-module assignment must be submitted as TU100 TMA 30
by 12 noon (UK local time) on 31 May 2016.
This module uses the online TMA/EMA service for submission of the
EMA. You can access this system through your StudentHome page.
If you’re using the PDF version of this EMA, please remember the
formatting is very basic. As a result you will need to use the online version
to see formatting more clearly and to access any links and image
You can
find instructions on the electronic submission process in the
Information for students submitting examinable work electronically,
which is available online at
. The booklet also
contains information about the University
s policies and procedures
regarding the submission of examinable work. Please read it carefully and
take note of those items which directly concern you.
Important help with EMA questions
As always, please read and follow all the advice given in the TMA questions and
guidance section of the TU100 website before answering the questions here.
However, note that the EMA is marked out of 250 and then rescaled to 100, so
there will be 210 marks available for the questions and a further 40 marks allocated
for demonstrating key skills and practical/professional skills associated with the
learning outcomes for TU100. You may want to refer back to the speci
fic skills
feedback given to you by your tutor on your TMAs, as this will give you an idea of
where you could gain more marks for the EMA.
OpenInnovations is a technology transfer company which will lead the
proposal stage of a major project aimed at exploring the medical
applications of Wireless Body Area Networks. For now, the project will be
limited to
on-body(as opposed to in-body) applications. The focus is on
heart disease, although future projects may look at other leading causes of
death and other non-medical applications.
The project will be run in collaboration with a number of stakeholders,
including academics, a private technology company, funding agencies both
public and private, and the UK National Health Service (NHS). One of the
funding agencies is involved in health projects in Central Asia where heart
disease is a leading cause of death.
End-of-module assignment (EMA)

The project is seeking to recruit a new employee who will provide a bridge
between the various stakeholders and also provide administrative support.
You have applied for the job and have reached the second stage of the
application process. The
five tasks that follow have been set by the project
manager to assess your suitability for the role, and your answers to them
will make up your EMA submission.
The tasks
Task 1 (40 marks)
Part 1 (30 marks)
Appendix A, which you will need to read, contains extracts from an article
on Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN). A reference to the full article is
provided but the article is too long and technical for the purposes of this
task, so you do
not need to read the full article.
The following two two tables contain comparative data for the United
Kingdom and the Republic of Uzbekistan. Table 2 is deliberately
Table 1 UK and Uzbekistan: economy and health
United Kingdom Uzbekistan
Population 63 million (2013) 29 million (2013)
Population living in urban areas 82% (2013) 36% (2013)
Per capita GDP $35760 (2013) $5340 (2013)
HDI (2013 rank out of 187
14 116

Leading cause of death Heart disease

Heart disease
Probability of dying before age 70 Males 32%
Females 22%
Males 69%
Females 55%
Health spending per capita $3495 (2013) $221 (2012)
Source: World Health Organization (2015) and UNDP (2014)
Table 2 UK and Uzbekistan: internet and phone communications
United Kingdom Uzbekistan
Internet usage %
Secure internet servers
Average broadband download rate
Fixed broadband Internet subscribers
Mobile phone subscriptions
You are required to write a short report on the use of WBANs in
combatting heart disease. The target audience is professional and/or degree
educated but you must not assume they have expertise in computing and IT.
Your report must have the following parts:
(i) Introduction
The tasks

(ii) A briefing on WBANs, in which you summarise the content of the
edited paper in
Appendix A.

(iii) Table 2 completed using the latest available data taken from
Wolfram|Alpha website (see Activity 34 in Block 6 Part 1 for
more information on Wolfram|Alpha).
(iv) A discussion of the appropriateness of using WBAN technology to
address the problem of heart disease, in the context of the United
(v) A discussion of how Uzbekistan compares to the UK when considering
the appropriateness of using the same technology for the same purpose.
(vi) Conclusion
(vii) A glossary in which you explain what is meant by the terms:
IEEE 802.15.6 standard
bit rates
kb/s and Mb/s.
Guidance on Task 1 Part 1
Remember that the term appropriate technologyis defined in Block 6 Part
1: you will need to draw on this and on the wider discussion on the digital
divide given in Block 6 Part 1.
Some other parts of the module are also relevant and you can use the search
facility on the module website to help you to research your answer.
There is no need for you to reproduce Table 1 but it will be relevant to your
answer and you may refer to it in your report.
Use Table 1, the completed Table 2, and the article in
Appendix A as the
main non-TU100 sources for your report.
Fully reference any non-TU100 sources,
including any quotes you use from
the article in
Appendix A.
Your answer to Part 1 of Task 1 must be no more than 1100 words in total,
and we suggest around 200 words for part (ii) and 750 words in total for
parts (iv) and (v).
The completed Table 2, glossary and references will not be counted as part
of the word limit.
Part 2 (10 marks)
OpenInnovations are seeking to recruit a new employee to provide a bridge
between the various stakeholders and also provide administrative support.
The original job advertisement states that applicants will be required to:
. liaise with the technical staff
. report back to the project board on the progress of the project

. provide news items for posting on stakeholder websites and for use as
press releases

End-of-module assignment (EMA)

. advise on data handling aspects.
Using the ‘Key skills’ and ‘Practical and professional skills’ learning
outcomes listed before each Part of each Block, explain to the selection
panel how your study of TU100 has prepared you to successfully meet any
TWO of the four job requirements given above.
Guidance on Task 1 Part 2
You must review the Career development section of the TU100 website and
remind yourself of the skills you have developed and displayed in your
studies. Note especially the section entitled ‘What employers are looking
for’ and the video podcast produced by OU’s Careers Service at
mentioned in the news feed on the module website.
Employers frequently report that candidates lack awareness of the sector
they are applying to work in, and the kind of research you will be doing
here is intended to demonstrate your skills and help you to stand out from
other candidates.
Your answer to Part 2 of Task 1 must be no more than 200 words in total.
Task 2 (50 marks)
OpenInnovations are interested in developing new health monitoring
software systems to be used by health workers in projects in Central Asia.
One particular system is concerned with heart health; speci
monitoring intervals between heartbeats. It will include a sensor attached to
the body, detecting heartbeats. The software will measure time intervals
between heartbeats, record summary data, and display signs according to
whether the data is within speci
fied parameters.
You have been asked to create a prototype of this system using Sense and
your SenseBoard. For this prototype the Stage will display the signs and the
SenseBoard button will be used to simulate heartbeats.
The program
The Sense file TU100_EMA_Start.sb is provided in the Supporting files for
folder on the Assessment resourcespage of the module website.
With your SenseBoard connected, open this
file in Sense and ensure that the
SenseBoard is detected.
Look at the three sprites,
Amber, Red and Green, whose purpose is to
flashing signs. The scripts for each of these sprites are provided.
Select each sprite in turn and see what its scripts do (execute each script by
double-clicking on it).
Next, turn to the Stage and look at the script we have provided. It is headed
by a
when_green_flag_clicked hat block. It starts by deleting a text
file, EMAfile.txt, and hiding each of the sprites.
The tasks

It then controls the rest of the program by repeatedly (until the program is
stopped) broadcasting messages. There are four of these messages and in
each of Parts 1-4 you will create a script for the Stage to respond to one of
In summary, each responding script will do the following.
. The script that responds to the monitorHeartBeats message will
detect a certain number of heartbeats. The user will specify the number
of heartbeats and will then simulate each heartbeat by pressing the
SenseBoard button. The script will calculate the time interval between
each successive pair of heartbeats and record each interval in a list.

. The script that responds to the calculateMaxInterval message will
calculate the maximum of all the time intervals in the list.


. The script that responds to the recordData message will record the
current time and the maximum time interval in the text
file EMAfile.
The script that responds to the
display message will display a flashing

sign on the Stage, the colour of which will depend on the value of the
maximum time interval.
After all four messages have been broadcast, the program waits for 5
seconds before returning to the top of the loop and sending the sequence of
messages again.
Part 1 (8 marks)
Creating the script
First create a script for the Stage to handle displaying a sign on the Stage.
The script must respond when a message
display is broadcast, so start by
creating a hat block
when_I_receive[display] for this script.
This script will use a variable
maxInterval which you need to create.
Assume that when your script is run as part of the overall program, the
value of
maxInterval will already have been set to the maximum time
interval. This time interval will be a positive decimal number.
In response to the message
display, your script must display a sign which
is a circle on the Stage that
flashes three times, coloured according to the
value of
maxInterval as follows.

. A value for maxInterval greater than 4 indicates a possible significant
health problem and, in this case, the
flashing circle needs to be red.

. A value for maxInterval greater than 2 but not greater than 4 indicates
a possible moderate health problem and, in this case, the
flashing circle
needs to be amber.

. A value for maxInterval no greater than 2 indicates no health problem
and, in this case, the
flashing circle needs to be green.

Save your project as TU100_EMA_1_OUCU.sb, where OUCU is the OU
computer username you use to log in to StudentHome e.g. (abc123).
End-of-module assignment (EMA)
Note: these parameters
To test your script use set[maxInterval]to[]blocks to set
maxInterval to different positive decimal numbers. Run your
when_I_receive[display] script each time by double-clicking on
it and observe the Stage display.
Submitting Task 2 Part 1
Ensure that your answer includes:
1 a screenshot of your
when_I_receive[display] script,
created using the
save picture of scriptsfacility of Sense, pasted
into your word-processed answer document
2 your Sense project
file TU100_EMA_1_OUCU.sb in a zip file with
the rest of your EMA.
Part 2 (8 marks)
Save your existing project under the new name TU100_EMA_2_OUCU.sb.
Creating the script
Now create a script for the Stage to handle recording the current time (in
hours, minutes and seconds) and the maximum time interval in the text
EMAfile.txt. The script must respond when a message recordData
is broadcast so start with a suitable hat block. It must respond by writing
the current time and the value of
maxInterval to the text file, as a single
line, as in the example below.
12:43:27 maximum time interval is 0.955
Use the variable maxInterval and assume that when your new script is
run as part of the overall program
maxInterval will be already have been
set to the maximum time interval.
Your script must not delete
EMAFile.txt as this is done in another part of
the program.
Save your project.
Useful information
Recall that the Operators palette contains a block which evaluates to the
current date and time. You may
find it helpful to revisit Programming
Exercise 42 in the Sense Programing Guide which introduces this block.
Section 7.4 of the Sense Programing Guide introduces working with text
files in Sense and in particular explains where such text files are located.
The tasks

To test your script use set[maxInterval]to[]blocks to set
maxInterval to different positive decimal numbers. Run your new
script each time by double-clicking on it and check a new, correct, line has
been added to
Submitting Task 2 Part 2
Ensure that your answer includes
1 a screenshot of your new script, created using the
save picture of
facility of Sense, pasted into your word-processed answer
2 your Sense project
file TU100_EMA_2_OUCU.sb in a zip file with
the rest of your EMA.
Part 3 (14 marks)
Save your existing project under the new name TU100_EMA_3_OUCU.sb.
Creating the script
First, create the list intervalList. When your completed program runs, it
will store time interval values in this list.
Then create a script for the Stage which determines the maximum of all the
numbers in the list
intervalList, storing this number in the variable
maxInterval. The script must respond when a message
calculateMaxInterval is broadcast, so start with a suitable hat
Assume that when your new script is run as part of the overall program,
intervalList will already contain some time interval values as
positive decimal numbers.
To test your script first populate intervalList with positive decimal
numbers using
add[]to[intervalList] blocks. Run your new script by
double-clicking on it, checking the contents of
intervalList and the
value of
maxInterval via watchers on the Stage. Do this several times
with different contents for
intervalList, deleting the contents when
necessary using a block
Submitting Task 2 Part 3
Ensure that your answer includes:
End-of-module assignment (EMA)

1 a screenshot of your new script, created using the save picture of
facility of Sense, pasted into your word-processed answer
2 your Sense project
file TU100_EMA_3_OUCU.sb in a zip file with
the rest of your EMA.
Part 4 (20 marks)
Save your existing project under the new name TU100_EMA_4_OUCU.sb.
Creating the script
In this part you will complete your program by creating a script for the
Stage that will respond to the message
monitorHeartBeats. Start with a
suitable hat block.
(a) The program must store the number of heart beats to be monitored in a
numberOfHeartBeats. Create this variable now.
How is the number of intervals to be recorded related to the value of
numberOfHeartBeats? (Hint: consider the situation illustrated
below where the number of heart beats to be monitored is 5.)

3rd 4th 5th

1st interval 2nd 3rd 4th interval
(b) This script must do the following.
Start by emptying the list intervalList.
Ask the user, via a dialogue box such as in Figure 1, how many
heartbeats they want to monitor, storing the response in the
Wait for the first heartbeat, i.e. button press and then reset the
Sense timer.
Then use a repeat[]{} loop to repeatedly wait for the required
number of subsequent presses of the SenseBoard button, i.e. the
required number of intervals, responding each time by:
adding the length of the time interval between the previous button
press and the current one to
resetting the timer.
Include a wait of 0.25 seconds at a suitable point, to avoid a
single press of the SenseBoard button being counted more than
Assume the user enters an integer greater than 1 in response to the dialogue
Save your project.
The tasks

Figure 1
Useful information
Ideas from TMA 05 about measuring time intervals between button presses
are relevant here.
Test your script by double-clicking on it, entering an integer greater than 1
as the number of heart beats, then pressing the SenseBoard button, varying
the time interval between presses. Observe the contents of
via a watcher on the Stage. Do this several times.
Run your completed program by clicking on the
green flag button at the top
of the Sense window and responding as the user, checking that the program
does the following repeatedly, until it is stopped (by clicking on the red
stop button at the top of the Sense window). Whilst your program is
running you should respond as the user, checking that the program does the
following repeatedly:
. asks the user how many heartbeats they want to monitor

. detects the required number of button presses, storing the intervals
between successive button presses in
intervalList as described above

. calculates the maximum time interval as in Part 3

. records the current time and the maximum time interval in the file
EMAfile.txt as in Part 2
sets the Stage display according to the maximum time interval as in Part

Submitting Task 2 Part 4 (a) and (b)
Ensure that your answer includes:
1 a screenshot of your new script, created using the
save picture of
facility of Sense, pasted into your word-processed answer
2 your Sense project
file TU100_EMA_4_OUCU.sb in a zip file with
the rest of your EMA.
(c) Your program in (b) involves a repeat[]{} block. Explain briefly how
your program could be amended to use a
repeat_until<>{} block
End-of-module assignment (EMA)

Note: you are not expected to provide code or a screenshot, just an
Task 3 (40 marks)
Part 1 (21 marks)
OpenInnovations is currently testing a number of different types of WBAN
sensor nodes using volunteers from all over the UK. They use a spreadsheet
(which is stored on a computer in their Birmingham, UK of
fice) to keep
track of who is testing what.
Table 3 shows a representative sample of the data kept in a much larger
spreadsheet containing thousands of rows and more columns.
Table 3
FirstName LastName

Email NodeId
[email protected] ECG
[email protected] BP
[email protected] O2
[email protected] BP
[email protected] ECG
[email protected] O2


NodeName Power DataRate(bps)
Electrocardiograph Low 3000
Blood pressure High 10
Oxygen saturation Low 32000
Blood pressure High 10
Electrocardiograph Low 3000
Oxygen saturation Low 32000


Iroda Karaji
David Byers
Anita Komilova
Francois Roubert
Francois Roubert
David Byers

(i) If necessary, revisit the section on databases in Block 5 Part 1. Explain
why the storage of data as a
flat databaseas in Table 3 above could
lead to inconsistencies and why it is inef
ficient. Include in your answer
an example drawn from Table 3 that supports your explanation.
(ii) Given the downsides of storing the data in a spreadsheet,
OpenInnovations is looking for advice on how to store the data in a
relational database.
Identify two entities in Table 3 for which we can store information.
Give the entity table for each of these entities (include sample data
taken from Table 3).
fly explain how you identified the two entities. If you added any
new column(s) to the entity tables (which were not present in Table 3)
explain this as well.
Create one joining table that captures the relationship between the two
entities you that you have identi
Your answer (excluding tables) to Part 1 of Task 3 must be no more than
300 words.
Part 2 (19 marks)
The data discussed in Task 3 Part 1 (illustrated by Table 3) is stored by
OpenInnovations on a computer in their Birmingham of

(i) Explain how OpenInnovations should take account of the Data
Protection Act (DPA). Do this by:

(a) explaining in your own words what personal data is;
(b) saying whether, according to the Data Protection Act, the data in
Table 3 constitutes ‘personal data’ and explaining why;
The tasks

(c) stating whether the use as described above constitutes ‘processing’
and explaining why.
(ii) Using the Vigenère cipher (see Figure 10 in Block 5 Part 3) and the
key NODE, produce the cipher text for the following plaintext:
Explain your working for the
first letter in the above plaintext.
(iii) Explain the principal difference between the Vigenère cipher and
asymmetric ciphers. Use the following scenario in your explanation:
Helen holds the original database (which is not enciphered) and
has provided Munira with an enciphered copy of the database.
Munira is going to use the database and needs a key for
deciphering it.
To answer this question, you do not need to consider the technical
details of how a cipher is precisely applied to a database (or its parts)
the item that has been provided by Helen to Munira could just as
well have been a text document for the purpose of this question. Focus
on the principal difference between a symmetric cipher and an
asymmetric cipher.
Your answer to Part 2 of Task 3 must be no more than 350 words.
Task 4 (40 marks)
Part 1 (20 marks)
(i) Solar panels are a useful source of energy to charge batteries in places
such as the town of Tokmak in Uzbekistan. In a test, it is found that a
rechargeable battery can be used for 120 hours supplying a current of
148 milliamps (mA).
What is the capacity of the battery in amp-hours Ah?
(ii) A VSAT satellite connection provides the community in Tokmak with a
download speed of up to 1.0 Mbps and an upload speed of up to 512
kbps. How much time (in minutes) will it take to
(a) download
(b) upload
a 3.2 MB photograph?
Give all your answers to 3 signi
ficant figures.
Part 2 (20 marks)
UzComm (one of OpenInnovations partners in Central Asia) is keen to
promote the bene
fits of solar energy to power long range wireless sensor
networks in remote rural areas. A report is being prepared which will
contain charts of readings from various rural and remote regions around the
world. A data
file called TU100_EMA_Task4.csv is provided in the
file for EMA section on the Assessment resourcespage of the
End-of-module assignment (EMA)

module website. This file contains a sample of data collected from a
weather station near the town of Tokmak.
. Use either the spreadsheet tool in Google Drive, or any other
spreadsheet application of your choice to produce a line chart to show
the maximum and minimum temperature readings plotted against the
. Find the formulae available in your chosen spreadsheet tool to calculate
mean and standard deviation. Insert those formulae into cells in the
spreadsheet so they calculate the mean and standard deviation of the
minimum temperature values.
. Paste an image of the line chart into your word-processed solution
document. Also include in the document the mean and standard
deviation of the minimum temperature values presented to 3 signi
. Save your completed spreadsheet as a new Excel-compatible .xls or .xslx
file called TU100_EMA_Task4_OUCU.xls or
TU100_EMA_Task4_OUCU.xlsx, where OUCU is the OU computer
username you use to log in to StudentHome (e.g. abc123), and submit it
in a zip
file with the rest of your EMA.
Task 5 (40 marks)
You are required to use the argument mapping technique described in detail
in Block 5 Part 5 to explore some of the arguments in the survey paper on
wireless body area networks (Movassaghi et al., 2014
this is the article in
Appendix A). In preparation for this task, you may also want to revisit
Question 17 of iCMA 56 which will allow you to practise your argument
mapping skills.
Part 1 (30 marks)
In Part 1 you are going to analyse three brief argumentative texts on
WBAN. The texts are edited extracts from several sources including
Movassaghi et al. (2014). The original source materials are
not provided
since they are
not needed to complete this task.
Each of your analyses of the three texts
must follow the following format:
. A copy of the text that you are going to analyse.
. Underline any connecting words or phrases in your copy of the text.

. An analysis of the text using the Algorithm for constructing argument
, as found in Block 5 Part 5. Describe your analysis level by level.

As in Activities 28 and 33 of Block 5 Part 5, your analysis must consist
of sections with the titles Level 0, Level 1, etc. (using as many sections
as required for the analysis).
There is no single correct answer: focus on demonstrating your
understanding of the points that the author of the text is trying to make.
The tasks

. The argument map for the text. You must use one of the following
methods to create your map:
using Freemind, as in Block 5 Part 5
using other argument mapping software to produce equivalent
producing a text-based map similar to that demonstrated in the
long description of Figure 4 in Block 5 Part 5, Section 2.1
producing a hand drawn map scanned in.
Whichever method you use, the map must be legible and follow the
conventions you were introduced to in Block 5 Part 5. Also, append, in
brackets, to each claim in your map the letter (A, B, C,
) that identifies
that claim. The letters for each claim are given below.
You must submit each of your three argument maps as an image or as a
textual description and you must include each image as a .png or .jpg
file in
your zip
file of answers, as well as pasting it into your word-processed
solution document.
If you prefer to produce text-based maps instead of diagrams, then you must
paste the textual descriptions into your word-processed solution document.
Each of the three texts has already been divided into claims
you must not
divide it into any further or different claims
. The beginning and the end of a
claim are marked by
[and ]Xrespectively. You can use the subscript to
refer to the claim. For example, if the text contains [Bla bla bla]
C, You may
want to write
C is the main claim.
(i) [WBANs in conjunction with sensors and other devices on the human
body can provide real time health monitoring.]
A [For instance, a
Gluecocellphone which is a mobile phone with a glucose module can
be used for patients with diabetes. It receives up-to-date glucose level
data which may then be stored or sent to a doctor for analysis.]
(ii) [WBANs may interact with the Internet and other existing wireless
technologies like ZigBee, WSNs, Bluetooth, Wireless Local Area
Networks (WLAN), Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN), video
surveillance systems and cellular networks.]
A [Hence, marketing
opportunities for services and advanced consumer electronics will
thoroughly expand.]
B [As a result, a new generation of more intelligent
and autonomous applications necessary for improving one
s quality of
life may emerge.]
(iii) [Future health care systems should provide proactive wellness
management and concentrate on early detection and prevention of
A [because research has shown that most diseases can be
prevented if they are detected in their early stages.]
B [Also, health care
costs will be reduced,]
C [because preventing non-fatal diseases will
lead to health care savings, ]
D [even though the prevention of diseases
that reduce longevity increases health care costs.]
End-of-module assignment (EMA)

Part 2 (10 marks)
In Block 5 Part 3, you learned about three guiding principles behind
information security: con
fidentiality, integrity and accessibility. Read
Section VIII
Security in WBANsof Movassaghi et al. (2014), up to but
not including the paragraph with the heading
6. Data Freshness. Then
answer the following questions.
When answering these questions, make sure that you explain how the
principles of con
fidentiality, integrity and accessibility apply to WBANs.
Address your explanation to someone who is not familiar with these

(i) What are the roles of the people that are involved and what is the
nature of the information?

(ii) What approach is proposed for maintaining confidentiality?
(iii) What approach is proposed to achieve integrity?
(iv) Who requires accessibility and how can this be achieved?
Your answer to Task 5 (Part 2) must be no more than 200 words.
What to submit
As a reminder, here is a list of the files you need to submit for your EMA:
. your word-processed solution document, containing:
your written answers to Tasks 15
pictures of the relevant scripts, as mentioned in Task 2, produced
by the ‘save picture of scripts’ facility built into Sense and pasted
into your word-processed solution document
an image of the chart for Task 4 pasted into your word-processed
solution document
images or text (depending on how you produced them) of the
three argument maps for Task 5, pasted into your word-processed
solution document.
. the four Sense project files you completed for Task 2
OUCU.sb to TU100_EMA_4_OUCU.sb) where the
OUCU is your OU computer username (e.g. abc123)
. the spreadsheet file you completed for Task 4
OUCU.xls or TU100_EMA_Task4_OUCU.xlsx)
where the OUCU is your OU computer username (e.g. abc123)
. if you’ve used software such as Freemind or scanned drawings to
produce the three argument maps for Task 5, submit those as .jpg or .
png image
files as well as pasting them into your word-processed
solution document.
All these
files must be contained within the single zip file that you submit
via the online TMA/EMA service.
The tasks

Appendix A
The extract in this appendix is taken from:
Movassaghi, S., Abolhasan, M., Lipman, J., Smith, D. and Jamalipour, A.
Wireless Body Area Networks: A Survey, Communications Surveys
and Tutorials
, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 165886.
© 2014 IEEE
Recent developments and technological advancements in wireless
communication, MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) technology and
integrated circuits has enabled low-power, intelligent, miniaturized,
invasive/non-invasive micro and nano-technology sensor nodes strategically
placed in or around the human body to be used in various applications, such
as personal health monitoring. This exciting new area of research is called
Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) and leverages the emerging IEEE
802.15.6 and IEEE 802.15.4j standards, speci
fically standardized for
medical WBANs. The aim of WBANs is to simplify and improve speed,
accuracy, and reliability of communication of sensors/actuators within, on,
and in the immediate proximity of a human body. […] In this paper, we
survey the current state-of-art of WBANs based on the latest standards and
Section I
World population growth is facing three major challenges: demographic
peak of baby boomers, increase of life expectancy leading to aging
population and rise in health care costs. In Australia, life expectancy has
increased signi
ficantly from 70.8 years in 1960 to 81.7 years in 2010 and in
the United States from 69.8 years in 1960 to 78.2 years in 2010, an average
increase of 13.5%
the number of [US] adults ranging from 60 to 80 years
old in 2050 is expected to be double that of the year 2000 (from 33 million
to 81 million people) due to retirement of baby boomers. It is expected that
this increase will overload health care systems, signi
ficantly affecting the
quality of life. Further, current trends in total health care expenditure are
expected to reach 20% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2022,
which is a big threat to the US economy. Moreover, the overall health care
expenditures in the U.S. has signi
ficantly increased from 250 billion in 1980
to 1.85 trillion in 2004, even though 45 million Americans were uninsured.
These statistics necessitate a dramatic shift in current health care systems
towards more affordable and scalable solutions.
On the other hand, millions of people die from cancer, cardiovascular
disease, Parkinson’s, asthma, obesity, diabetes and many more chronic or
fatal diseases every year. The common problem with all current fatal
diseases is that many people experience the symptoms and have disease
diagnosed when it is too late. Research has shown that most diseases can be
prevented if they are detected in their early stages. Therefore, future health
care systems should provide proactive wellness management and
concentrate on early detection and prevention of diseases. One key solution
End-of-module assignment (EMA)

to more affordable and proactive health care systems is through wearable
monitoring systems capable of early detection of abnormal conditions
resulting in major improvements in the quality of life. In this case, even
monitoring vital signals such as the heart rate allows patients to engage in
their normal activities instead of staying at home or close to a specialized
medical service. This can only be achieved through a network consisting of
intelligent, low-power, micro and nano-technology sensors and actuators,
which can be placed on the body, or implanted in the human body (or even
in the blood stream), providing timely data. Such networks are commonly
referred to as Wireless Body Area Networks. In addition to saving lives,
prevalent use of WBANs will reduce health care costs by removing the
need for costly in-hospital monitoring of patients.
The latest standardization of WBANs, IEEE 802.15.6, aims to provide an
international standard for low power, short range (within the human body)
and extremely reliable wireless communication within the surrounding area
of the human body, supporting a vast range of data rates from 75.9 Kbps
(narrowband) up to 15.6 Mbps ultra wide band; for different sets of
applications. This standard will be introduced in more detail in Section III.
WBANs may interact with the Internet and other existing wireless
technologies like ZigBee, WSNs, Bluetooth, Wireless Local Area Networks
(WLAN), Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN), video surveillance
systems and cellular networks. Hence, marketing opportunities for services
and advanced consumer electronics will thoroughly expand, allowing for a
new generation of more intelligent and autonomous applications necessary
for improving one’s quality of life. WBANs are expected to cause a
dramatic shift in how people manage and think about their health, similar to
the way the Internet has changed the way people look for information and
communicate with each other. WBANs are capable of transforming how
people interact with and bene
fit from information technology. WBAN
sensors are capable of sampling, monitoring, processing and communicating
various vital signs as well as providing real time feedback to the user and
medical personnel without causing any discomfort. The use of a WBAN
allows continuous monitoring of one’s physiological parameters thereby
providing greater mobility and
flexibility to patients. Importantly, as
WBANs provide large time intervals of data from a patient’s natural
environment, doctors will have a clearer view of the patient’s status.
However, formidable technical and social challenges must be dealt with to
allow for their practical adoption. These challenges offer various system
design and implementation opportunities with the major objectives of
minimum delay, maximum throughput, maximum network lifetime and and
reducing unnecessary communication related energy consumption
(e.g. control frame overhead, idle listening and frame collisions).The useroriented requirements of WBANs are equally challenging and have been
fined as: ease of use, security, privacy, compatibility, value and safety.
Appendix A

Section II
Applications of WBANs
WBAN applications span a wide area such as military, ubiquitous health
care, sport, entertainment and many other areas. IEEE 802.15.6 categorizes
WBAN applications into medical and non-medical (Consumer Electronics)
as can be seen in Table I. The main characteristic in all WBAN applications
is improving the user’s quality of life. However, the technological
requirements of WBANs are application-speci
fic. Some in-body and onbody applications are shown in Table II.
Medical Applications
WBANs have a huge potential to revolutionize the future of health care
monitoring by diagnosing many life threatening diseases and providing real
time patient monitoring. Demographers have predicted that the worldwide
population over 65 will have doubled in 2025 to 761 million from the 1990
population of 357 million. This implies that by 2050 medical aged care will
become a major issue. By 2009, the health care expenditure in the United
States was about 2.9 trillion and is estimated to reach 4 trillion by 2015,
almost 20% of the gross domestic product. Also, one of the leading causes
of death is related to cardiovascular disease, which is estimated to be as
much as 30 percent of deaths worldwide. Based on advances in technology
(in micro-electronic miniaturization and integration, sensors, the Internet
and wireless networking) the deployment and servicing of health care
services will be fundamentally changed and modernized. The use of
WBANs is expected to augment health care systems to enable more
effective management and detection of illnesses, and reaction to crisis rather
than just wellness.
End-of-module assignment (EMA)

Table I Applications of WBANs

Medical Wearable WBAN Assessing soldier
Sleep staging
Wearable health
Implant WBAN Cardiovascular
Cancer Detection
Remote control of medical
Ambient assisted
Patient monitoring
Non-medical Real time streaming
Emergency (non

Aiding sport training
Using WBANs in medical applications allows for continuous monitoring of
one’s physiological attributes such as blood pressure, heart beat and body
temperature. In cases where abnormal conditions are detected, data being
collected by the sensors can be sent to a gateway such as a cell phone. The
gateway then delivers its data via a cellular network or the Internet to a
remote location such as an emergency center or a doctor’s room based on
which an action can be taken. Additionally, WBANs will be a key solution
in early diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of patients with possibly fatal
diseases of many types, including diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular
related diseases. Medical applications of WBANs [include the following]:
Sleep Staging
[…] A large population is suffering from sleep disorders – an average of
27% of the world population. The consequences of such disorders can be
quite severe and lead to cardiovascular diseases, sleepiness at work place
and drowsy driving
Sleep disorders can be realized through a
polysomnography […] However, these measurements require a lot of cables
that run from the head to a box connected to the patient’s belt and interrupt
the patient from falling sleep […] WBANs are capable of delocalization of
the intelligence and instruments in their sensor nodes and removal of all
Appendix A

A WBAN and accompanying sensors are capable of monitoring allergic
agents in the air and providing real time feedback to a physician, which can
help millions of patients suffering from asthma.
Wearable Health Monitoring
WBANs in conjunction with sensors and other devices on the human body
can provide real time health monitoring. For instance, a Gluecocellphone
which is a cell phone with a glucose module can be used for patients with
diabetes. The cellphone receives glucose diagnoses from the glucose module
which may then be stored or sent to a doctor for analysis.
Implant WBAN
This class of applications is relative to nodes implanted in the human body
either underneath the skin or in the blood stream.
[…] 6.4% of the world’s adult population, which represent 285 million
people, suffered from diabetes in 2010. This number is estimated to reach
438 million by 2030, 7.8% of the adult population. Research has shown
Diabetes to result in long-term medical issues if not carefully monitored and
treated. Frequent monitoring provided by WBANs is capable of reducing
the risk of fainting, enables proper dosing, and eliminates risks of loss of
circulation, later life blindness and more complications.
Cardiovascular Diseases
Cardiovascular diseases are known as the major cause of death for 17
million people annually, which can be signi
ficantly reduced or prevented
with appropriate health care strategies. Myocardial Infarction (MI) can be
greatly reduced by monitoring episodic events and other abnormal
conditions through WBAN technology.
End-of-module assignment (EMA)

Table II Characteristics of in/on-body applications

Application Type Sensor Node Date
In-body application Glucose Few Kps Extremely Low High
Pacemaker Few Kps Low High
Endoscope >2 Mbps Low
On-body medical
ECG 3 Kps Low High
SpO2 32 Kbps Low High
< 10
High Medium
On-body non-medical
Music –
Relatively High Low
Low Low
< 200

Cancer Detection
Cancer death rates are estimated to increase by 50%, reaching up to 15
million by 2020. WBAN based sensors capable of monitoring cancer cells
in the human body will enable physicians to continually diagnose tumors
without biopsy providing more timely analysis and treatment.
Remote Control of Medical Devices
The ubiquitous Internet connectivity of WBANs allows for networking of
the devices and services in home care known as Ambient Assisted Living
(AAL), where each WBAN wirelessly communicates with a back-end
medical network
AAL aims to prolong the self-conducted care of
patients that are assisted in their home, minimizing the dependency on
intensive personal care, increasing quality of life and decreasing society
costs. […]
One key application of WBANs is its use in monitoring vital signals, as
well as providing real time feedback and information on the recovery
process in health monitoring applications. More speci
fically, they sense and
wirelessly transmit vital signal measurements such as heart rate, body
temperature, respiration rate, blood pressure, body implant parameters and
chest sounds. WBANs are also capable of adminstration of drugs in
hospitals, remote monitoring of human physiological data, aid rehabilitation
and provide an interface for diagnostics. Continuous patient monitoring, and
providing necessary medication when required, are considered as important
development areas for WBANs. As WBANs can provide interconnection
amongst various devices in or around the body such as hearing aids, digital
spectacles and so on, their application could go beyond patient monitoring
and also include post-treatment follow-up, pharmaceutical research, trauma
care, remote assistance in accidents and research in chronic diseases.
Telemedicine Systems
Appendix A

Available telemedicine systems either use a power demanding protocol like
Bluetooth, which is open to interference from other devices working in a
similar frequency, or dedicated wireless channels for transferring
information to remote stations. Therefore, they restrict prolonged
monitoring. Whereas integrating WBANs in a telemedicine system allows
for long periods of unobtrusive ambulatory health monitoring. […]
Section III
History of the IEEE 802.15.6 Standard
Early developments in Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) were
first made in the 90s by different groups working at MIT (Massachusetts
Institute of Technology). Their initial aim was to interconnect information
devices attached to the human body. […]
Recent developments in wireless technologies has a major focus on
increasing network throughput which shifts the focus of WPANs to short
range, low power and low cost technologies. Network lifetime has a greater
importance in WBANs as devices are expected to perform over longer
periods of time. Also, WPANs do not satisfy the medical communication
requirements because of close proximity to the human body tissue. Thus, a
standard model was required for the successful implementation of Body
Area Networks addressing both its consumer electronics and medical
applications. […]
The approved version of the IEEE 802.15.6 standard was rati
fied in
February 2012 and describes its aim as follows:
To develop a
communication standard for low power devices and operation on, in or
around the human body (but not limited to humans) to serve a variety of
applications including medical, consumer electronics, personal entertainment
and other.

Section IV
Requirements of WBANS in IEEE 802.15.6
The main requirements of IEEE 802.15.6 standard are listed below:

. WBAN links should support bit rates in the range of 10 Kb/s to 10 Mb/s

. Nodes should be capable of reliable communication even when the
person is on the move. Although it is acceptable for network capacity to
be reduced, data should not be lost due to unstable channel conditions.
The considered applications include postural body movements relative to
sitting, walking, twisting, turning, running, waving arms and dancing
among others which result in the shadowing effect and channel fading
. All devices should be capable of transmitting at 0.1 mW (-10 dBm) and
the maximum radiated transmission power should be less than 1 mW (0
dBm). This complies with the Speci
fic Absorption Rate (SAR) of the
Federal Communications Commission’s 1.6 W/Kg in l g of body tissue.
End-of-module assignment (EMA)

. WBANs should be capable of operating in a heterogenous environment
where networks of different standards cooperate amongst each other to
receive information […]
Section V
Characteristics of WBANs
Types of Nodes in a WBAN
A node in a WBAN is defined as an independent device with
communication capability. Nodes can be classi
fied into three different
groups based on their
functionality, implementation and role in the network.
The classi
fication of nodes in WBANs based on functionality is as follows:
Personal Device (PD)
This device is in charge of collecting all the information received from
sensors and actuators and handles interaction with other users. The PD then
informs the user through an external gateway, a display/LEDs on the device
or an actuator

Sensors in WBANs measure certain parameters in one’s body either
internally or externally. These nodes gather and respond to data on a
physical stimuli, process necessary data and provide wireless response to
information. These sensors are either physiological sensors, ambient sensors
or biokinetics. Some existing types of these sensors could be used in one’s
wrist watch, mobile, or earphone and consequently, allow wireless
monitoring of a person anywhere, anytime and with anybody. A list of
different types of commercially available sensors used in WBANs are as
follows: EMG, EEG, ECG, Temperature, Humidity, Blood pressure, Blood

The actuator interacts with the user upon receiving data from the sensors.
Its role is to provide feedback in the network by acting on sensor data, for
example pumping the correct dose of medicine into the body in ubiquitous
health care applications.
IEEE 802.15.6 has proposed another classi
fication for nodes in a WBAN
based on the way they are
implemented within the body, which is provided
as follows:
Implant Node
This type of node is planted in the human body, either immediately
underneath the skin or inside the body tissue.
Body Surface Node
This type of node is either placed on the surface of the human body or 2
centimeters away from it.
External Node
Appendix A

This type of node is not in contact with the human body and rather a few
centimeters to 5 meters away from the human body.
The classi
fication of nodes in WBANs based on their role in the network is
as follows:
The coordinator node is like a gateway to the outside world, another
WBAN, a trust center or an access coordinator. The coordinator of a
WBAN is the PDA, through which all other nodes communicate.
End Nodes
The end nodes in WBANs are limited to performing their embedded
application. However, they are not capable of relaying messages from other
The intermediate nodes are called relays. They have a parent node, possess
a child node and relay messages. In essence if a node is at an extremity
(e.g. a foot), any data sent is required to be relayed by other nodes before
reaching the PDA. The relay nodes may also be capable of sensing data.
Number of Nodes in a WBAN
In […] drafts of IEEE standards related to technical requirements of
WBANs, the number of nodes in a WBAN is stated to range from a few
actuators or sensors communicating with a portable handset reaching up to
tens to hundreds of actuators or sensors communicating with a gateway to
the Internet. A typical medical network based on WBANs is stated to have
6 nodes with a scalable con
figuration that supports up to 256 nodes. […]
Although the number of nodes in a WBAN is not generally limited, due to
limitations in the nature of the network in terms of communication
protocols, network architecture and transmission techniques the numbers can
be limited in real application scenarios.
Communication Architecture of WBANs
The communication architecture of WBANs can be separated into three
different tiers as follows:

Tier-1: Intra-Wban communication
Tier-2: Inter-WBAN communication

. Tier-3: Beyond-WBAN communication
Fig. 2 illustrates these communication tiers in an ef
ficient, component-based
system for WBANs. In Fig. 2, the devices are scattered all over the body in
a centralized network architecture where the exact location of a device is
fic. However, as the body may be in motion (e.g. running,
walking) the ideal body location of sensor nodes is not always the same;
hence, WBANs are not regarded as being static.
End-of-module assignment (EMA)

Intra-Wban communication – Tier-1 depicts the network interaction of nodes
and their respective transmission ranges (~ 2 meters) in and around the
human body. Fig. 2 illustrates WBAN communication within a WBAN and
between the WBAN and its multiple tiers. In Tier-1 variable sensors are
used to forward body signals to a Personal Server (PS), located in Tier-1.
The processed physiological data is then transmitted to an access point in
Figure 2 Communication tiers in a wireless body area network
Tier 2
Inter-Wban communication – This communication tier is between the PS and
one or more access points (APs). The APs can be considered as part of the
infrastructure, or even be placed strategically in a dynamic environment to
handle emergency situations.Tier-2 communication aims to interconnect
WBANs with various networks, which can easily be accessed in daily life
as well as cellular networks and the Internet. The more technologies
supported by a WBAN, the easier for them to be integrated within
applications. The paradigms of inter-Wban communication are divided into
two subcategories as follows:
Infrastructure based architecture
The architecture shown in Fig. 3 is used in most WBAN applications as it
facilitates dynamic deployment in a limited space such as a hospital as well
as providing centralized management and security control. The AP can act
as a database server related to its application.
Appendix A

Figure 3 Inter-WBAN communication: Infrastructure-Based mode
Ad-hoc based architecture
In this architecture, multiple APs transmit information inside medical
centers as shown in Fig. 4. The APs in this architecture form a mesh
construction that enables
flexible and fast deployment, allowing for the
network to easily expand, provide larger radio coverage due to multi-hop
dissemination and support patient mobility. The coverage range of this
figuration is much larger compared to the infrastructure based
architecture, and therefore facilitates movement around larger areas. In fact,
this interconnection extends the coverage area of WBANs from 2 meters to
100 meters, which is suitable for both short and long term setups.
Beyond-Wban Communication – The design of this communication tier is
for use in metropolitan areas. A gateway such as a PDA can be used to
bridge the connection between Tier-2 and this tier; in essence from the
Internet to the Medical Server (MS) in a speci
fic application. However, the
design of Tier-3 for communication is application-speci
fic. In essence, in a
medical environment a database is one of the most important components of
Tier-3 as it includes the medical history and pro
file of the user. Thus,
doctors or patients can be noti
fied of an emergency status through either the
Internet or a Short Message Service (SMS).Additionally, Tier-3 allows
restoring all necessary information of a patient which can be used for their
treatment. However, depending on the application, the PS in Tier-l can use
GPRS/3G/4G instead of talking to an AP.
End-of-module assignment (EMA)

Figure 4 Inter-WBAN Communication: Ad-Hoc based mode
Section VI
Section VII
Channel Model
Date Rates and Power Requirements
One of the main constraints in WBANs is their limited power supply. Fig. 5
shows a comparison between power requirements and data rates in WBANs
compared to other wireless technologies. Accordingly, WBAN protocols
require higher power ef
ficiency when compared to the other existing
protocols. The sensors in WBANs are capable of transmitting data in a wide
range of data rates from 1 Kbit/s to 10 Mbit/s. In essence, the data rate of
in-body nodes vary from few Kbps in a pacemaker to quite a few Mbps in a
capsular endoscope. Fig. 5 shows that the current technologies meet the
speed requirement of IEEE 802.15.6 in terms of data rates but not the
power requirements of less than 10mW in WBANs. Currently, most devices
used in WBANs store their recorded data or transmit them to a monitoring
station that uses IEEE 802.15.4 (Bluetooth) or 802.15.1 (Zig-Bee), which do
not meet the power requirements for WBANs. […]
Appendix A

Figure 5 Power requirements and data rates in WBANs
Section VIII
Security in WBANs
Even though security issues are made a high priority in most networks, little
study has been done in this area for WBANs. Additionally, due to stringent
resource constraints in terms of power, memory, communication rate and
computational capability as well as inherent security vulnerabilities, the
security speci
fications proposed for other networks are not applicable to
WBANs. The practical deployment of WBANs and the integration of
convenient security mechanisms requires knowledge of the security
requirements of WBANs which are provided as follows:
Secure Management – The decryption and encryption operation requires
secure management at the coordinator in order to provide key
distribution to wireless body area networks. The WBAN coordinator
adds and removes WBAN nodes in a secure manner during association
and disassociation.
Availability – The availability of the patient’s information to the
physician needs to be ensured at all times. An attack towards availability
in WBANs could be capturing and disabling an ECG node leading to
loss of life. Therefore, the operation, maintenance and capability to
switch to another WBAN in case of availability loss is essential.
Data Authentication – Medical and non-medical applications require data
authentication. Both WBAN nodes and the coordinator node require
fication that data is being sent from the trust center and not a false
adversary. Network nodes in a WBAN and the coordinator node compute
End-of-module assignment (EMA)

a Message Authentication Code (MAC) for all data by sharing a secret
key. When the correct MAC is calculated, the network coordinator will
realize that the received message is being sent by a trusted node.
Data integrity – When data is transmitted to an insecure WBAN, its
information can be altered. An adversary will then be capable of
modifying a patient’s information prior to reaching the network
coordinator, thus endangering the patient’s health and maybe even their
life. Therefore, the received data needs to be assured of not being altered
by an adversary through proper data integrity by using data
authentication protocols.
Data confidentiality – Protection of data from disclosure is achievable
through data con
fidentiality. WBAN nodes in medical applications
transmit sensitive information regarding the status of a patient’s health.
Critical information can be overheard and eavesdropping is possible in
communication, which may cause a considerable amount of damage
towards a patient as the data can be issued for illegal purposes. Data
fidentiality can be achieved through encryption of a patient’s data via
a shared key on a communication channel secured among the WBAN
nodes and their coordinator.
Data freshness[…]
One of the key techniques for secure communication in WBANs is known
to be via biometrics […] a novel biometrics technique has been proposed
that uses the timing information of heartbeat as an intrinsic characteristic of
the human body for authentication identity or as a method to secure cipher
key distribution for inter-Wban communication as well as an identity for
entity authentication […]. The proposed security approach has less memory
and computational requirements compared to the traditional cryptosystems
and therefore is convenient for use in e-health and telemedicine applications
of WBANs […].
[…] A traditional approach to security in most networks is based on the
public key cryptography. However, this method consumes much more
resources and cannot be directly deployed for sensors in WBANs due to
their considerable limitation of resources and computational capabilities. […]
Section X1 & Section X
Section XI
Radio Technologies used in WBANs
Given the complexities associated with implementing WBANs, an
appropriate wireless technology is required. In essence, data being sent from
a patient to a central health care system needs to have continuous awareness
of the patient’s vital functions to provide suitable solutions in case of alerts.
Therefore, communication of WBANs with other wireless networks
becomes crucial. Accordingly, the central node of a WBAN is capable of
Appendix A

communicating with the outside world using a standard telecommunication
structure such as Bluetooth, WLANs or
2G/3G/4G cellular networks in
different projects.
One important factor in the choice of a wireless technology is its power
usage, which is tied with the design of a power ef
ficient WBAN. Existing
wireless technologies have a huge peak current and usually reduce the
average current drawn by duty cycling the radio between sleep and active
modes. Technically, WBANs in IEEE 802.15.6 have to be scalable and have
a peak power consumption up to 30 mW in fully active mode and between
0.1 mW in stand-by mode.
Even though WBAN devices are low-power and there is not enough power
available for the whole-body SAR to be a concern, the device may be in
close proximity to, or inside a human body or the localized SAR could be
quite large if all the available power is concentrated in a small volume.
Therefore, the localized SAR into the body must be at its minimum. Based
on the IEEE 802.15.6 standard, WBAN devices must follow local or
international SAR regulations. In Europe, the European Council
519/1999/EC for exposure guidelines has complied with
the recommendations made by the International Commission on NonIonising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP Guidelines 1998). In the US, the
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has set the safety guidelines of
the radio frequency which is required from all phones before being sold in
the US. This interprets that SAR has set certain limits for local exposure
(Head); which is 2
W/kg in 10 gram in EU and 1.6 W/kg in 1 gram in US.
This limits the TX power in EU to m Wand in US to mW.
Section XII
Comparison with other Wireless Networks
Fig. 6 shows the realm of WBANs when compared with other wireless
networks such as Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN), Wireless
Local Area Networks (WLAN), Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks
(WMAN) and Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWAN). As shown in Fig. 6,
wireless networks can be categorized based on their geographical coverage.
A WBAN operates close to the human body with a restricted
communication range of up to 1
2 meters. It primarily deals with the
interconnection of one’s wearable devices, whereas a WPAN is a broader
network environment that surrounds the person. Even the WPAN
communication range reaches over several tens of meters for low data rate
applications and up to 10 meters for high data rate applications. However,
previous WPANs do not ful
fill medical (within close vicinity of the human
tissue) and communication regulations for speci
fic applications.
Additionally, they do not support the combination of data rate and reliability
required for the broad range of WBAN applications. A WLAN has a
communication range of up to 100 meters. WWANs cover the largest
geographical region such as in mobile telephone systems and satellite
communication. In summary, IEEE 802.15.6 overcomes the constraints of
End-of-module assignment (EMA)

the aforementioned wireless technologies as its focus is specifically on
networking within and around the body.
Figure 6 WBANs vs other ‘wireless’ technologies
In summary, even though WBANs will provide major enhancements in
human life style through the use of ubiquitous networking, various
challenges remain in this area that need to be taken into account before
being widely deployed such as interoperability of WBANs and other
wireless technologies, energy ef
ficient and high bandwidth communication
protocols, privacy and security, biosensor design, QoS, power scavenging
issues, mobility and scalability, standardization of interfaces and design of
successful applications.
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[Online]. Available at http://www.who.int/gho/countries/gbr.pdf?ua=1
(Accessed 8 June 2015).
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(Accessed 8 June 2015).
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Countries: United Kingdom [Online].
Available at
http://www.who.int/countries/gbr/en/ (Accessed 8
June 2015).
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Countries: Uzbekistan [Online].
Available at
http://www.who.int/countries/uzb/en/ (Accessed 8
June 2015).

UNDP (2014) UNDP Human Development Reports [Online]. Available at
(Accessed 8 June 2015).
End-of-module assignment (EMA)