Emotional Intelligence, Cultural Intelligence and Diversity

MBA502
Emotional Intelligence,
Cultural Intelligence and
Diversity
Workshop Week 5
The Emotionally Intelligent Leader
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Learning Objectives
• Define and understand the competencies
of an emotionally intelligent leader
• Consider the impacts of emotionally
unintelligent leaders
• Understand the consequence of toxicity
and the role of emotional contagion

Why Leadership and EQ?
• “Leadership is a process of social interaction.”
• “It is intrinsically an
emotional process,
whereby leaders recognise followers’ emotional
states, attempt to evoke emotions in followers,
and then seek to manage followers’ emotional
states accordingly.”
• “The ability of leaders to influence the
emotional climate can strongly influence
performance.”
(Kerr, Garvin, Heaton and Boyle, 2005)
Leaders’ Feelings
• Prior research has found that a leader’s mood can
have a subsequent impact on a range of
performance-related outcomes, such as the quality
of customer service and the behaviour of employees.
• Feelings therefore “play a much more central role in
the leadership process”.
Activity: In groups, you will be allocated one of the
following emotions. Your task is to identify five ways in
which a leader with that emotion may positively or
negatively influence organisational outcomes as a
result: (i) anger, (ii) joy, (iii) sorrow, (iv) exhaustion, (v)
cynicism, and (vi) frustration.
(George, 2000)
Leaders’ Moods
• Leadership effectiveness can be influenced by both positive
moods and negative moods.
• Negative moods, for example, have been found to be useful
when analysing complex information, when solving difficult
problems and when dealing with urgent matters. Conversely,
some negative moods – such as anger – may damage
relationships and diminish trust.
• Likewise, positive moods aren’t always positive. They, too, have
been found to occasionally have negative consequences, such
as failure to notice performance issues or to avoid confronting
situations.
• Therefore, both positive and negative moods can be functional
and dysfunctional in a leader’s worklife.
(George, 2000)
Leadership Competencies
• There are eight competencies on which senior leaders
are primarily judged:
– Strategic leadership
– Leading capability building
– Leading political / stakeholder interface
– Leading change
– Intellectual leadership
– Leading culture building
– Building relationships and reputation
– Building personal learning
• Which of those activities require a significant amount of
emotional intelligence in order to be successful? The
activity over the next two slides will help you to find out.
(Higgs and Aitken, 2003)
Leadership and EQ Elements
• Over the past three decades, dozens of EQ elements have been
identified by scholars.
• In one particular study, seven of these EQ elements were
specially selected and applied among a number of senior
managers. The EQ elements are:
– Self-awareness
– Resilience
– Motivation
– Interpersonal sensitivity
– Influence
– Intuitiveness
– Conscientiousness
Activity: The next slide presents a matrix. In groups, place a tick in
all the EQ cells that you think were found in the study to have a
significant impact on leadership competency.
(Higgs and Aitken, 2003)

Self
awareness
Resilience Motivatio
n
Interpersonal
sensitivity
Influenc
e
Intuitive
-ness
Conscien
tiousness
Strategic
leadership
Leading
capability
building
Leading
political /
stakeholder
interface
Leading
change
Intellectual
leadership
Leading
culture
building
Building
relationships
and
reputation
Building
personal
learning

 

Self
awareness
Resilience Motivation Interpersonal
sensitivity
Influence Intuitive -ness Conscien tiousness
Strategic
leadership
Leading
capability
building
Leading
political /
stakeholder
interface
Leading
change
Intellectual
leadership
Leading
culture
building
Building
relationships
and
reputation
Building
personal
learning

Activity
• How did you go in that activity? What has it
taught you about leadership?
• Each group will now be allocated one of those
leadership competencies.
• You are required to discuss why you think the
research resulted in the findings related to your
leadership competency.
• Share your thoughts with the class.

Defining the Emotionally
Intelligent Leader
• An emotionally intelligent leader possesses
and displays the hallmarks of the five
components of emotional intelligence i.e.
1. Self-awareness
2. Self-regulation
3. Motivation
4. Empathy
5. Social skills

The Hallmarks of an EI Leader
Activity
• Watch this video
President Obama with hecklers
EI Leader Competencies
Self-Awareness
– The EI leader has emotional self-awareness with
the ability to read his/her own emotions and to
recognise their impact in decision-making.
– The EI leader has an accurate self-assessment,
with an intimate understanding of his/her own
strengths and limitations.
– The EI leader has self-confidence, a sound sense
of his/her self-worth and capabilities.

EI Leader Competencies
Self-Regulation
– The EI leader has emotional self-control, with disruptive
emotions and impulses kept under control.
– The EI leader is transparent, honest and trustworthy.
– The EI leader is adaptable and flexible when confronted
with changing situations and obstacles.
– The EI leader shows initiative, with a readiness to act
and seize opportunities.
– The EI leader displays optimism.

EI Leader Competencies
Motivation
– The EI Leader provides inspiration, guidance and a
compelling vision.
– The EI leader is goal-focused.
– The EI leader expects high standards but understand how
to motivate people to pursues those standards.
– The EI leader is energetic and enthusiastic, and this has a
contagious effect on other with whom the leader interacts.

EI Leader Competencies
Empathy
– The EI leader is understands the emotional reaction
that others are having.
– The EI leader takes an active interest in others’
feelings, motivators, thoughts and ideas.
– The EI leader is able to anticipate the emotional
reaction that others might have and is therefore able
to re-craft his/her message to suit that reaction.

EI Leader Competencies
Social skills
– The EI leader builds networks and relationships and
through those connections exert influence.
– The EI leader carefully read social cues and to respond
accordingly.
– The EI leader acts as a mediator and resolves conflicts
and disagreements.
– The EI leader is a solid communicator in a variety of
communication methods.

Activity
• Each group will be allocated one of the EI
Leader competencies on the previous five
slides. Your task is now to:
– Think of a famous leader who personifies that EI
competency.
– Explain to the class not only why you feel that
way but what you could also do to adopt that
competency as a leader in your own workplace.

Emotional toxicity:
– An “outcome of emotionally insensitive attitudes and actions of
managers
and the practices of their companies … a noxious
substance draining vitality from individuals and [the] entire
organisation.”
(Frost, 1999).
Consequences of low EI
Source of toxicity include: (Frost, 2003)
1. Intention
2. Incompetence
3. Infidelity
4. Insensitivity
5. Intrusion
6. Institutional forces
7. Inevitability
What is it?
– It’s a control mechanism
How does it manifest?
– By leaders who intentionally create pain in others via:
• Coercive behaviour
• Degrading others
• Causing pain
• Undermining self-confidence
Why does it happen?
– A need to control and dominate
– Past experiences of the leader leads to distrust of staff
Intention
What is it?
– Managers with weak or inadequate people skills
How does it manifest?
– Indecisiveness – an inability to make a decision
– Inconsistency (mixed message)
– Control freaks – those who micro-manage employees
Why does it happen?
– Lack of management training on how to create
productive relationships with staff
Incompetence
What is it?
– Acts of betrayal
How does it manifest?
– Repeating something said in confidence
– Leading an employee on by deception
– Taking credit for others’ work
Why does it happen?
– Abuse of power over subordinates
Infidelity
What is it?
– Leaders who cannot gauge the impact of their own actions
How does it manifest?
– Lack of empathy for the feelings of others
– Lack of awareness of how their emotions affect other people
– Regular expressions of rage, disappointment, negativity
Why does it happen?
– Leaders cannot separate work from emotional needs of staff
– Belief that everyone’s emotions should be “checked at the
office door”
Insensitivity
What is it?
– Based on the belief that an employee is irreplaceable or that a task
is so urgent it can’t be delayed
How does it manifest?
– Employee burnout
– Neglect of one’s own health and welfare
Why does it happen?
– The charisma of the leader
– The employees’ desire to be noticed or to get promoted
Intrusion
What is it?
– Company practices that hurt the people carrying them out
How does it manifest?
– Inconsistencies between stated policies and what happens in
practice
– Company policies that are dishonest or misleading
– Unrealistic expectations
Why does it happen?
– Organisations and managers are insensitive to the ways in which
company practices affect the people who try to make the system
work
Institutional Forces
What is it?
– The nature of organisational life – decisions may have unintended
consequences, such as the emotional impacts of significant change
How does it manifest?
– One example of an impact is that of trauma, such as that which
occurs with the death of a co-worker, injury, or downsizing
Why does it happen?
– Unavoidable inevitability of organisational life
Inevitability
Activity
• The previous slides outlined the seven areas
of workplace toxicity.
• The solution in preventing that toxicity, or at
least in overcoming it, is via the practice and
adoption of emotionally intelligent leadership.
• In groups, use Goleman’s five EI leadership
competencies to identify which one would be
most suitable for each of these toxic factors.

Emotional Contagion
• Emotional contagion is one way through
which human beings affect each other
automatically and unconsciously.
• It essentially means the way that people
think, feel and act is infectious.
• Emotional contagion is probably at its
most potent among leaders and
employees.

Contagion: the Ripple Effect
• It doesn’t stop there. When you infect someone with
your own emotional state, they then go on to infect
others. This is otherwise known as the ripple effect.
• If it’s a positive emotion, there’s perhaps no issue. But if
it’s negative, obvious consequences materialise.
• That is why an awareness of your own emotions, and the
effective regulation of them, is so important at work.
Activity: In groups, share the most negative emotion
you’ve experienced today. If you were to feel that emotion
in the workplace, what’s one thing you could do to prevent
others from catching it, too?

Summary
• In this workshop, we defined an emotionally intelligent
leader.
• We analysed the components and competencies of
emotionally intelligent leaders.
• We understood the toxic impact of emotionally
unintelligent leaders.
• We explored the concept of emotional contagion.
• In Week 7 we shall explore Cultural & Social Diversity