Emotional Intelligence

MBA502
Emotional Intelligence,
Cultural Intelligence and
Diversity
Workshop Week 4
Emotional Intelligence
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2
Learning Objectives
• Understand that beyond cognitive IQ, emotions
influence attitude and behaviour for success at
work
• Understand what is emotional intelligence and
its role in the workplace
• Appreciate the importance of emotional
intelligence in the new realities of work in
contemporary society

Emotions
• Emotions are physiological, behavioural
and psychological episodes experienced
towards an object, person or event that
create a state of readiness.
(Ashkanasy, Zerbe & Hartel,2002)
Types of Emotions
• All emotions have dual dimensions that evaluate conditions as
either:
– Good or bad
– Helpful or unhelpful
– Beneficial or harmful
– And so on…
• Emotions are experiences. They represent changes in our:
– Physiological state (e.g. blood pressure, heart-rate)
– Psychological state (e.g. thought processes)
– Behaviour (e.g. action, expression)
Activity: Each group will be allocated one of the following
emotions. Your task is to identify the physiological, psychological
and behavioural changes that might ensue as a result of
experiencing your allocated emotion at work:
(i) anger, (ii) joy, (iii) fear, (iv) hope, (v) sorrow, (vi) surprise

Neuroscience of Emotion and
Cognition
• Ground-breaking discoveries in neuroscience
reveal that our perceptions, attitudes,
decisions and behaviour are influenced by
both cognition and emotion.
(Martin, 2011)
• Areas of the brain associated with rational
thought and decision-making have direct
connections to areas associated with
feelings. They do not exist in separate
psychological compartments and they
interact in complex ways.
(Amabile and Kramer, 2007)
Emotions, Attitude and
Behaviour
Attitude = Judgement (cluster of beliefs,
assessed feelings and behavioural intentions
towards a person, object or event)
Emotions = Experiences (conscious or
unconscious awareness)
Behaviour = Actions you choose as an
intentional response

A Clip From Inside Out
An amygdala hijack is an emotional
over-reaction to a particular stimulus.
It arises when your amygdala – the
part of the brain that regulates
emotion – is triggered by an
unfavourable event of some sort.
As a result, you “have a sudden,
intense emotional reaction, and when
it’s over you think, ‘I wish I hadn’t said
that’.” (Goleman 1998)
Activity: The main character in this
Inside Out clip had an amygdala
hijack. What workplace-related
examples can you think of that could
result in a similar reaction?

Emotions in the Workplace
• When something happens at work (any event,
interaction, announcement, email correspondence,
conflict etc.) – it immediately triggers cognitive,
emotional and motivational processes.
• This results in sense-making or perception (to figure
out what happened, why it happened, what’s the
implication etc.)
• These perceptions feed the emotions evoked by the
event, and the emotions in turn feed the perception,
which then shifts the behaviour and affects how
people perform their work.
(Amabile and Kramer, 2007)
Positive and Negative Emotions
at Work
• Emotions shape employee attitudes. Attitudes then
influence various forms of work-related behaviour.
• Therefore emotions (without conscious thinking)
influence a person’s behaviour.
• Emotions also relate to a person’s innate personality.
Some people experience positive emotions as a
natural trait. Others do not.
• Positive and negative emotional traits affect a person’s
attitude at work.
(Brotheridge & Grandey, 2002)
Definition of Emotional
Intelligence
• Mayer and Salovey (1997) conceptualised emotional intelligence
as comprising four dimensions and defined emotional intelligence
as follows:
Emotional intelligence involves the ability to
perceive accurately, appraise, and express emotion;
the ability to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate
thought;
the ability to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and
the ability to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual
growth.
‘….lies at the intersection between emotion and cognition’
(Mayer, Salovey and Caruso, 2000)
Activity
The definition of emotional intelligence
on the previous slide contained four key
dimensions.
Each group will now be allocated one of
those dimensions.
Your task is to find a quotation, much like
this one by Aristotle, that you feel best
encapsulates your allocated dimension.
Share your quotation with the class but,
most importantly, explain how it relates to
the dimension you’ve been allocated.

Emotional Intelligence
• Emotional intelligence was first proposed by
Mayer and Salovey (1990) as a type of
social
intelligence’.
• Goleman’s (1995) research claimed the
possession of such an attribute was a greater
predictor of success than IQ.
Activity: Why is that? In groups, discuss the way
in which EQ may be a more valuable attribute than
IQ in relation to workplace success.

Goleman’s EQ Model (2002)
One of the most
respected and widely
cited conceptualisations
of EQ is this model by
Daniel Goleman,
illustrated here by the
Global Leadership
Foundation.
On the following slides,
we will explore each of
these four quadrants in
much more detail.

Self-Awareness
Emotional self-awareness: “I recognise my emotions and their effects on
others.”
Accurate self-assessment: “I accurately understand my strengths and my
limitations.”
Self-confidence: “I have a strong sense of my self-worth and my
capabilities.”
(Richardson 2006)
Activity: Each group will be allocated one of the abovenamed components of
self-awareness. Your task is to use your smartphone device to research the
simple question:
How?
More specifically:
How can you recognise your emotions and their effect on others?
How can you accurately understand your strengths and limitations?
How can you develop a strong sense of your self-worth and capabilities?
Self-Management
Self-control: Staying “calm and clear-headed in a highly stressful situation
or during crisis”.
Transparency: “An authentic openness to others about one’s feelings,
beliefs, and actions.”
Adaptability: Juggling “multiple demands without losing one’s focus or
energy”.
Achievement drive: Constantly seeking performance improvements and
high standards.
Initiative: Evident in those who “seize opportunities, or create them, rather
than simply waiting”.
(Nwokah and Ahiauzu 2009)
Activity: In groups, discuss which of those self-management practices would
be most useful to you as an MBA student. Why did you choose that practice?
How could you make it a reality?

Social Awareness
Empathy: “Sensing others’ feelings and perspectives,
and taking an active interest in their concerns.”
Organisational awareness: “Reading a group’s
emotional currents and power relationships.”
Service orientation: “Anticipating, recognising, and
meeting customers’ needs.”
(Boyatzis and Sala 2004)
Activity: Here’s another clip from Inside Out. In groups
see if you can identify each of the three social
awareness components outlined above.

Relationship Management
Inspirational leadership: “Inspiring and guiding individuals and groups.”
Developing others: “Sensing others’ development needs and bolstering their
abilities.”
Influence: “Wielding effective tactics for persuasion.”
Change catalyst: “Initiating or managing change.”
Conflict management: “Negotiating and resolving disagreements.”
Teamwork and collaboration: “Working with others toward shared goals.
Creating group synergy in pursuing collective goals.”
(Boyatzis and Sala 2004)
Activity: Working individually, your task is to select one of these strategies that
you feel is a strong attribute of yours – but also select one that you honestly feel is
one of your weakest. Share, if you’re brave enough to be vulnerable in front of the
class, why you chose those two attributes.

Emotional Intelligence and
Cultural Diversity
• Cultural norms on emotional display vary
across cultural dimensions.
• Some cultures discourage emotional
expression whereas other cultures expect
people to act consistently with their true
emotions.
• In which category does your culture
belong?

Emotional Intelligence
Competency
• At a neurological level, cultivating a competency means
extinguishing the old habit as the brain’s automatic response
and replacing it with a new one.
• Mastering EI, just like mastery of any other competency,
requires practice and occurs when you come to a point when
an old habit loses its status as the default response and the
new one takes its place.
• So let’s test your emotional intelligence by completing this
questionnaire:
https://globalleadershipfoundation.com/geit/eitest.html
• How did you go? What did you learn about yourself?
Summary
In this workshop we’ve:
• Explored the role of emotions and its link to cognition
and behaviour in the workplace.
• Recognised the four dimensions of Emotional
Intelligence and their value in enhancing workplace
performance and satisfaction.
Next week we’ll explore:
“The Emotionally Intelligent Leader”