Cultural & Social Diversity

Emotional Intelligence,
Cultural Intelligence and
Workshop Week 7
Cultural & Social Diversity
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Learning Objectives
• Define culture and subculture in the context of
organisations in a global world.
• Understand the experience of cultural diversity through
the process of acculturation.
• Explore the relationship between emotional intelligence,
social intelligence and cultural intelligence.
• Understand how cultural intelligence can be developed.

Defining Culture and Subculture
An understanding of cultural diversity must begin with a definition
of culture…
• The definition of
culture has long been a controversy and the
term is used in a variety of ways. One commonly used definition
“[Culture] is that complex whole which includes knowledge,
beliefs, arts, morals, laws, customs, and any other
capabilities and habits acquired by [a human] as a member
of society.

The term subculture is used to refer to minority cultures within a
larger dominant culture.
(UNESCO Declaration on Cultural Diversity, Paris 2001)
Cultural Concepts
• “…a pattern of deep level values and
assumptions concerning societal functioning
which is shared by an interacting group of
(Adler, 2002)
• “Cultural values are learnt very early in life as
people are socialised into their respective
environments within particular societies and
are very difficult to learn or change.”
(Hofstede, 2001)
Organisational Definitions of
• “The way we do things around here and the
manner in which those norms and values are
(Burke, 2002, p.205)
• “A pattern of shared basic assumptions that was
learned by a group as it shared its problems of
external adaptation and internal integration that
has worked well enough to be considered valid,
and therefore taught to new members as a correct
way to perceive, think and feel in relation to those
(Schein, 2004, p.207)
In one minute, write down 1-3 words that come to
mind if you were asked to define this term:
Cultural Diversity
In one minute, write down 1-3 words that come to
mind if you were asked to define this term:

Cultural Diversity is Diverse
UNESCO Declaration on Cultural
Diversity 2001
• Describes cultural diversity as the common
heritage of humanity
, as necessary for
humankind as biodiversity is for nature.

Reaffirms that culture should be regarded as
the set of distinctive spiritual, material,
intellectual and emotional features of society
or a social group, and that it encompasses, in
addition to art and literature, lifestyles, ways of
living together, value systems, traditions and

Cultural & Social Diversity
Diversity: The inclusion of individuals representing more than
one national origin, colour, religion, socio-economic stratum,
sexual orientation etc.
Cultural Diversity: Culture takes diverse forms across time
and space. This diversity is embodied in the uniqueness and
plurality of the identities of the groups and societies making
up humankind.
Social Diversity: “Variety, or the opposite of
homogeneity…refers to range of people, who more accurately
represent minority population and people from varied
backgrounds, cultures, ethnicities and viewpoints…”
(Barker, 2003,p.126)

Cultural Diversity and Globalisation
• The process of globalisation, facilitated by
the rapid development of new information
and communication technologies, though
representing a challenge for cultural
diversity, creates the conditions for
renewed dialogue among cultures and
civilisations in multicultural societies.

Experience of Cultural and Social
• The experience of social and cultural diversity is not
the same for everyone, and it can lead to both
positive and negative outcomes.
• Although societies may be diverse in an objective
sense, only under some circumstances do individuals
psychologically engage with this social reality.
• Understanding the different reactions to diversity is
the focus of theory and research on
Activity: Part I
• How diverse is your group in class?
• In your own group, there’ll be many demographic factors that you
have in common … but also many that set you apart.
• In groups, develop a list that’s as exhaustive as possible. For
– Nationality: what are all the different nationalities in your group?
– Religion: what are all the different religions in your group?
– Age: what are all the different age ranges in your group?
– And so on with other demographics, such as gender, sexual
orientation, language, etc.

Activity: Part II
• Now that you’ve identified the rich diversity of
your group, your task is now to select just
one of those areas of diversity and then
answer the following questions:
– What are some potential areas of conflict that
might arise as you’re working together?
– How might this conflict be mitigated?

• The first definition of acculturation emerged in the
– “when groups of individuals having different cultures
come into continuous first-hand contact, with subsequent
changes in the original cultural patterns of either or both
groups” (Redfield et al, 1936)
• That definition has stood the test of time. From a
workplace perspective, it is reflected in the changes
that occur to a team or a project group when a
diverse range of cultures combine to form one.

Acculturation Strategies
1. Assimilation
2. Separation
3. Marginalisation
4. Integration
5. Bi-cultural or Multicultural

Acculturation Strategies
Assimilation: For example, a Pakistani Australian person
identifying themselves only as Australian.
Separation: For example, a Pakistani Australian person
identifying themselves only as Pakistani.
Marginalisation: For example, a Pakistani Australian person
identifying themselves as neither Pakistani nor Australian.
Integration: For example, a Pakistani Australian person
identifying themselves as both Pakistani and Australian.
Bi-cultural/Multicultural: For example, an individual who
views himself or herself as a Pakistani Australian, an
Australian Pakistani, or even just a Global Citizen.

• You will now be split up into five groups.
• Each group will be allocated one of the
acculturation strategies from the previous slide.
• Your task is to develop a 2-minute presentation
on why your allocated strategy is the most
appropriate in the workplace.
• Your presentation should include work-related
examples to justify your argument.

• Adaptation has typically been described as the
resulting psychological well-being, health,
sociocultural prowess, low stress, and cultural
skills arising from the successful negotiation of the
challenges posed by acculturation.
Psychological adaptation is an individual’s
emotional and psychological well-being, such as their
levels of depression and anxiety.
Sociocultural adaptation is how successfully the
individual acquires the appropriate interpersonal skills
for living effectively in the new culture, such as their
behaviour, social competence and achievement.

Cultural Intelligence
• In previous workshops we’ve looked at
Gardner (MI) and Goleman (EI) and other
contributors who have done a great service in
legitimising the Multiple Intelligence concept.
Cultural Intelligence (CI) is another piece of
the puzzle, another dimension of advancing
the intelligence model for working in a
globalised economy.

Defining Cultural Intelligence
• A person’s capability for successful adaptation to
new cultural settings.
(Earley & Ang, 2003, p. 9)
• A person’s aptitude to use skills and abilities
appropriately in a cross-cultural environment.
(Peterson, 2004 )
• The ability to make sense of unfamiliar contexts
and then blend in.
(Earley & Mosakowski, 2004)
• The ability to interpret ambiguous cross-cultural
situations accurately.
(Kreitner and Kinicki, 2007)
What is Cultural Quotient (CQ)?
• A term used interchangeably with cultural
• Cultural Quotient helps us understand and
communicate with people from other cultures
• It is ones ability to recognise cultural differences
via knowledge and mindfulness, and to behave
appropriately when facing people from other

• Let’s assess your own level of CQ.
• Working individually, complete the following
CQ Test:
• How did you go?
EQ Versus CQ
• Emotional intelligence may not transfer across borders if the
ability to respond to the affective states of others carries
different interpretations across cultures.
• Emotional intelligence (EI or EQ) presumes a degree of
familiarity within a culture and context that may not exist
across many cultures for a given individual.
• Although researchers dealing with emotional intelligence do
not purposely limit their models to a single culture, they do
not provide an adequate discussion of cross-cultural context
and how the concept might be expanded to include it.
• Cultural intelligence bridges the gap in the transference of
(Earley & Ang, 2003)
Social Intelligence Versus
Cultural Intelligence
• Cultural intelligence also differs from social intelligence (SI) –
defined as the ability to get along with others and get others to
cooperate well with oneself.
• Albrecht classifies behaviour toward others as falling
somewhere on a spectrum between toxic and “nourishing:
– Toxic behaviour makes people feel devalued, angry, frustrated,
guilty or otherwise inadequate.
– Nourishing behaviour makes people feel valued, respected,
affirmed, encouraged or competent.
(Albecht, 2006)
• Similar to EI, the formulation of SI is relatively void of
multicultural richness.
(Earley & Peterson, 2004)
Components of CI/CQ
According to Earley & Peterson, 2004, CQ/CI consists of four
fundamental elements:
1. Metacognition (awareness and understanding of one’s
thinking and cognitive processes; thinking about thinking);
2. Cognition (perception, process of knowing, learning, and
3. Motivation (efficacy and confidence, persistence, value
congruence and affect for the new culture); and
4. Behaviour (social mimicry, and behavioural repertoire).

• Watch this video:
• In groups, discuss how you see the four
components of CI/CQ materialise, or rather how
they do
not materialise:
• Metacognition
• Cognition
• Motivation
• Behaviour
• What would you have done differently?
Cross-Cultural Training
Earley & Peterson, 2004
Cross-Cultural Training
• The challenge facing a global manager is
daunting from a cultural perspective, and it
is critical to provide interventions tailored to
the individual and the context.
• Individuals wishing to increase cultural
intelligence learn to break out of old habits
by adjusting their metacognition/cognition
and motivational facets.

Developing Cultural Intelligence
• The Head / Cognitive
• The Body / Physical Behaviour
• The Heart / Emotional / Motivational

CI – Cognitive
The Head / Cognitive involves rote learning about the
beliefs, customs, and taboos of foreign cultures.
• Corporate training programs tend to favour such
cross-cultural training but generally will never prepare
a person for every situation that arises but may help
prevent terrible gaffes.
• Cross-cultural skills are best developed through
experiential learning, e.g. through studying or working
in a foreign culture where you can practise these skills
through trial-and-error.

CI – Physical
Body / Physical Behaviour: This involves an intention to charm
foreign hosts, guests, or colleagues simply by showing that you
understand and appreciate their culture.
• Your actions and demeanor must prove that you have already
entered “their world” to some extent.
• For example, knowing that in certain cultures time is flexible, which
means an appointment that starts several minutes late is not
considered “late” for the locals.
– In that instance, you can adjust your demeanor and project verbal and
non-verbal cues that are more relaxed and at ease when a colleague
from that culture does not turn up exactly on time.
• Such perceptual acuity helps you to understand and tolerate
uncertainties, ambiguities and unexpected changes with relative
ease and stride.

CI – Emotional
The Heart / Emotional / Motivational component
involves having the emotional motivation (resilience) to
overcome obstacles and setbacks. People can do that
only if they believe in their own efficacy.
• Being culturally mindful means you are more aware of
the cultural context thus you are better able to analyse
the situation and to then respond accordingly without
becoming distraught or anxious.
• It requires a high level of adaptability to change your
behaviour according to the cultural demands of the

• The previous slides introduced you to the three components
of developing cultural intelligence:
– The Head / Cognitive
– The Body / Physical Behaviour
– The Heart / Emotional / Motivational
• Your task now is to put all three together by imagining
you’re a manager in a workplace. You overhear an
employee telling a racist joke. The others laugh.
• In groups:
– Determine what you would do in that situation.
– Then create an outline of how you would prevent that event from
happening again. Make sure you address all three components
outlined above.

In this workshop we:
• Defined culture
• Described cultural and social diversity
• Understood acculturation strategies in responding to
• Explored cultural intelligence for global leadership
Next week we will discover the challenges and
opportunities that come with cultural diversity for
global business.