Contributions of Sigmund Freud
To the field of psychology, Sigmund Freud contributed numerous ideas and concepts. While some of his theories have been refuted, others are still often taught and practiced.
To say the least, Sigmund Freud’s upbringing was anything but typical. In Freiberg, Moravia, in 1856, Sigmund was born. Freud’s mother is credited with helping him succeed, according to conventional wisdom. Freud and his mother had a close, powerful, and pleasant connection.
At first, Freud was interested in a career in politics or law (Henley, 2019). He changed directions and became interested in Darwin’s theory, at which point he decided to follow his desire to go to medical school. His major interest had always been psychology, but because he was Jewish, his salary was insufficient to support him. After making another professional move, Sigmund chose to specialize in neuroanatomy. learning to identify many forms of brain injury with precision.
A hypnotist bringing back a patient’s earlier memories caught Freud’s attention while he was still in school. Because of this, he became interested in the concept of asking patients their most recent memory just before the onset of a certain symptom.
During his time with Breuer, Freud developed an increased interest in working with patients to unearth their traumatic experiences. To respond to the situation logically, the patient hopes to reflect on the painful event. Freud realized that all he needed to do was to open the lines of communication with his patients by asking them to describe the first time they had a distressing symptom. The transference and projection processes would be thus.
The main objective is to let people speak about their trauma rather than burying it deeper in their subconscious.
The explanation of the id, ego, and superego is Freud’s most well-known theory. This is how a personality is structured (Segrist, 2009). Different levels of consciousness govern each system. An image of an iceberg in the water serves as a simple metaphor for this idea. The unconscious, underwater portion of the iceberg is where the id is located. The ego is completely exposed in the conscious and preconscious regions of the berg, then it is situated at the center of the conscious and unconscious regions. Only the superego, who is also in the preconscious and conscious realms, is completely immersed in the unconscious. The anxiety and discomfort are stored in this area. It is simple to reach and bring awareness to the conscious mind. Everything that could be introduced into the conscious mind is stored in the preconscious section.
The psychosexual life cycle idea was created by Freud (Sigmund Freud & G Stanley Hall, 2018). In essence, this idea describes how a child’s developmental phases shape who they become as adults. Although this idea is very debatable, it encourages a lot more study to be done. The five steps of this idea are as follows. Between birth and the first year of life is the oral stage. According to Freud’s theory, a kid learns to feel safe and secure through their lips. The trust is a result of the child’s complete reliance on the caregiver for their well-being. According to Freud, if a youngster develops a fixation, they may later struggle with dependency or aggressiveness. The subsequent stage, known as the anal stage, starts during the second year of life. Freud thought that the success or failure of toilet training a kid depended on how the parents handled the situation. The youngster could grow up to be a competent adult if the parents were kind and encouraging throughout toilet training. The youngster could develop into a highly wasteful and destructive person if the parents chastise him or her for mishaps. The phallic stage lasts from the third to sixth years.
According to Freud, all infants have an erotic sensation for their mothers during the phallic stage (Sigmund Freud & G Stanley Hall, 2018). The importance of the mother in their life contributes to the development of this link. Freud thought that the boys would experience these emotions to the point that they would inevitably grow resentful of their dad.
From sixth grade till puberty is the latency stage. The exploration of the environment is more of a priority at this time. The genital stage lasts from puberty to the end of life. People start to become more sexually interested at this time of life. In Freud’s opinion, the psychoanalytic theory had reached its maturity at this time. At this stage, the id, ego, and superego are all in full operation (Sigmund Freud & G Stanley Hall, 2018).
Henley, T. B. (2019). Hergenhahn’s An Introduction to the History of Psychology (8th ed.). Cengage Learning.
Segrist, D. J. (2009). What’s Going on in Your Professor’s Head? Demonstrating the Id, Ego, and Superego. Teaching of Psychology, 36(1), 51–54. https://doi.org/10.1080/00986280802529285
Sigmund Freud, & G Stanley Hall. (2018). A general introduction to psychoanalysis : a history of psychoanalytic theory, treatment and therapy. Adansonia Press.