Computer Architecture

Computer Architecture
Assignment — RISC-V RV64I ISS — Stage 2
Your task for this assignment is to extend your RV64I ISS from Stage 1 with:
• The Zicsr instruction set extension defined in Chapter 9 of
The RISC-V Instruction Set Manual, Volume I:
Unprivileged ISA
• A subset of the RISC-V privileged architecture for handling exceptions and interrupts. The RISC-V
privileged architecture is described in
The RISC-V Instruction Set Manual, Volume II: Privileged
available on the course web site.
The RISC-V privileged architecture specification defines three privilege levels for execution of instructions: user,
supervisor, and machine modes. For this assignment you should implement features defined for user mode and
machine mode, but not for supervisor mode. The specification also defines some features for debug mode, which
you should also not implement.
You should implement the following machine-mode control and status registers (CSRs), listed in Table 2.4 and described in Section 3.1:

Number Privilege Name Description
0xF11 MRO mvendorid Vendor ID. Fixed value of 0 to indicate non-commercial
0xF12 MRO marchid Architecture ID. Fixed value of 0 to indicated no ID implemented.
0xF13 MRO mimpid Implementation ID. Fixed value of 0x20yy020000000000 to indicate
an implementation in year 20yy, stage 2 (yy represents the last 2
digits of the year).
0xF14 MRO mhartid Hardware thread ID. Fixed value of 0, since this is the only hart in the
simulated processor.
0x300 MRW mstatus Machine status register, formatted as shown in Figure 3.7. Only the
following bits are implemented: mie, mpie, mpp. Other bits are fixed at
0, except for uxl fixed at 2.
0x301 MRW misa ISA and extensions register. Fixed value of 0x8000000000100100
(MXL = 2 for 64-bit XLEN, I and U bits set in Extensions field). While
csr instructions can legally write to this CSR, the CSR value remains
0x304 MRW mie Machine interrupt enable register. Only the following bits are
implemented: usie, msie, utie, mtie, ueie, meie. Other bits are fixed at 0.
0x305 MRW mtvec Machine trap handler base address register. The MODE field can only
be 0 or 1, so bit 1 of mtvec is fixed at 0. If MODE is 1 (Vectored), then
BASE must be 256-byte aligned; in that case, mtvec bits 2 to 7 are fixed
at 0.
0x340 MRW mscratch Scratch register for machine trap handlers.
0x341 MRW mepc Machine exception program counter. Bits 0 and 1 are fixed at 0.
0x342 MRW mcause Machine trap cause. Only Interrupt bit and 4-bit Exception code field
implemented. Other bits are fixed at 0.
0x343 MRW mtval Machine bad address or instruction. For misaligned address exceptions,
mtval is written with the address. For illegal instruction exceptions, the
least-significant word of mtval is written with the instruction word, and
the most-significant word of mtval is set to 0. For other exceptions,
mtval is set to 0.


Number Privilege Name Description
0x344 MRW mip Machine interrupt pending. Only the following bits are implemented:
usip, msip, utip, mtip, ueip, meip. Other bits are fixed at 0.

We will provide an extended command handler that implements the following commands, in addition to those provided for stage 1:

Command Operation performed
csr num Show the content of CSR num (num in hex). The value is displayed as 16 hex digits with leading
csr num = value Set CSR num to value (num and value in hex).
prv Display the current processor privilege level (0 = user, or 3 = machine)
prv = value Set the current processor privilege level to value (0 = user, or 3 = machine)

You should implement the following Zicsr extension instructions:
• csrrw, csrrs, csrrc, csrrwi, csrrsi, csrrci
You should also implement the following privileged instructions defined in Section 3.2:
• ecall: environment call from user mode or from machine mode
• ebreak: breakpoint (Note that this is different from and additional to the b command breakpoint from stage1)
• mret: return from machine trap
You should extend the way your simulated processor executes instructions to check for the exceptions in the table
below. If an exception occurs during execution of an instruction, the instruction is not retired, so it is not included in
the count of executed instructions.

Cause code Exception Instructions that cause exception
0 Instruction address misaligned Any instruction fetch for which the PC is not a multiple of 4.
2 Illegal instruction Any defined instruction that is not implemented.
Any undefined instruction.
An mret instruction executed in user mode.
A csr instruction (not the csr command) that accesses an undefined
or unimplemented CSR.
3 Breakpoint ebreak
4 Load address misaligned ld for which the effective address is not a multiple of 8.
lw/lwu for which the effective address is not a multiple of 4.
lh/lhu or which the effective address is not a multiple of 2.
6 Store address misaligned sd for which the effective address is not a multiple of 8.
sw for which the effective address is not a multiple of 4.
sh or which the effective address is not a multiple of 2.
8 Environment call from U-mode ecall executed in user mode.
11 Environment call from M-mode ecall executed in machine mode.

You should also implement the following interrupts:

Cause code Interrupt Interrupt trigger
0 User software interrupt (mip.usip && mie.usie) && mstatus.mie
3 Machine software interrupt (mip.msip && mie.msie) && mstatus.mie
4 User timer interrupt (mip.utip && mie.utie) && mstatus.mie
7 Machine timer interrupt (mip.mtip && mie.mtie) && mstatus.mie
8 User external interrupt (mip.ueip && mie.ueie) && mstatus.mie
11 Machine external interrupt (mip.meip && mie.meie) && mstatus.mie

In a real processor, the mip CSR bits would be connected to hardware interrupt sources (e.g., a hardware timer for
mip.mtip, or an external interrupt controller for mip.meip). In your simulator, interrupts will be made pending by
setting mip CSR bits using the csr command. Your simulator should check for any enabled pending interrupts before
fetching each instruction.
Your simulator should not implement nonmaskable interrupts, physical memory attributes, or physical memory
protection. Your simulator should implement reset by starting in machine mode, setting mstatus.mie to 0, setting pc
to 0, and setting mcause to 0.
Please keep an eye on the discussion forum on the course web site. We will answer any questions of clarification of
requirements that arise there. We will also announce incremental releases of a test suite for this stage.
You must extend your program from stage 1 and check it into the 20xx/s1/ca/rv64sim
(xx represents the last 2 digits of
the year)
directory in your SVN repository. We will provide a web submission script that will check out this
subdirectory, make your ISS, and run it with several test cases. Compliance with this development process will count
toward the assessment of the assignment. The script will compare your output with our expected output using the
“diff -iw” command (differences ignoring case and white-space).
Your work for Stage 2 will be assessed in the web submission system based on the following criteria, with points
awarded out of 1500:
• Program builds and runs using web submission script — 100 points
• Correct execution, based on the number of test cases that pass — 1400 points
The points for this assignment will comprise 15% of your final assessment for the course.
For the submission deadline please refer to the course page on MyUni.
Postgraduate requirements
If you are enrolled in the postgraduate course (COMP SCI 7026), you should implement the following additional
• Implement the minstret CSR to count the number of instructions retired (ie, instructions whoseexecution
completes without exception)
• Implement the mcycle CSR to count the number of clock cycles using the cycle count values from stage 1.
• If an exception occurs in a load or store instruction, reduce the cycle count for the instruction to1.
• If an exception or interrupt occurs, add a further 2 clock cycles for trap handling.