Cloud technology






Jerry L. Quarles

School of Engineering & Computer Science, Liberty University









Author Note

Jerry L. Quarles

I have no known conflict of interest to disclose.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Jerry L. Quarles.

Email[email protected]



Table of Contents


Cloud technology has undergone many evolutions and several phases in the history of its adoption by companies. From 2010 to 2015, the private cloud exploded, and its primary goal was to secure existing infrastructures. We were then on an essentially technological model with little impact on the way companies and their employees work. From 2015 to 2020, the adoption of the public cloud has accelerated for different uses, ranging from hybridization (especially in the event of disaster recovery or capacity overflow) to the renovation of application assets through the modernization of infrastructures. . It was also during this period that container technologies appeared. Our inspiration for making another plan of a crossbreed engineering utilizing key cloud advancements assemble another private cloud stage for Amazon Inc. that requires high data accessibility for a minimal price.

Enormous data approaches in conventional data stockrooms frequently present inactivity problems, making them unsatisfactory for new data use cases (Mahalakshmi & Suseendran, 2019). Buyers may not be aware of the subtleties of security arrangements, weaknesses, and malware information when data is stored in remote storage; the cloud service allows complete access to the data; buyers might not always be aware of the fine details of countermeasures, weaknesses, and spyware information when data is stored in remote storage (Singh and Chatterjee, 2017). For example, an attacker could gain access to cloud data by launching a straight attack and removing a piece of malware. The personnel group is also familiar with actual-level attacks, such as looking through cloud-stored data. Screening for failure faults and security-related issues is essential for asset checking for cloud computing systems (Chandra and Neelanarayanan, 2017). This research paper presents a new hybrid cloud that will provide it with computing and monitoring of the software architecture, designed to meet the potential requirements. The project is named Ultihub Networks, which can be implemented at the company-level scale termed “Ultihub AWS Cloud Core Service.” It represents the CSP where there is a need for the Ultihub services are planning the set-up. These both can be interchangeable. A gateway identifier is used in the operating system to segregate the software from the implementation of the cloud services. The network should be able to monitor the system both in actual time and after the fact.

Problem Statement

In addition, security and governance are the two main reasons for not putting core applications on a public cloud. With these advancements, we no longer think about a customer problem with the cloud approach alone but with a real strategy linking cloud, data, and artificial intelligence. The real future challenge will be integrating these bricks into a multi-cloud environment. We are no longer talking only about DevOps but also about DataOps. This issue must be addressed as well. Another debate is on the use of the “top-down” strategy for architecture and business provides an overview of what remains to be established (including technologies, processes, teams) and ensures consistency across all phases of planning and implementation (De Domenico et al., 2020). To prevent the breakdown of communication and interaction between applications and ensure greater security and scalability, design patterns are needed for application integration that provides resources for consumption or data sharing and leverage external computing processes.

As a result of cloud computing’s rapid acceptance and cloud services (Sun et al., 2014), Cloud customers face the difficult task of selecting the best service from various options. It’s important to realize that such software and services differ significantly in terms of several quantifiable quality of service (QoS) characteristics, such as reliability and pricing (Kumar et al., 2020). Ultimately, this problem has prompted some service discovery research in cloud technology, which has employed various analytical methods based on multiple variables. Furthermore, the key hurdles in virtualization development include various processes such as online services, Web-based technologies, and cloud computing approaches (Mavridis and Karatza, 2019). Arrangements are required that give later observation of log documents to identify problems. When these difficulties aren’t addressed, issues arise, including data leakage, data breach, unauthorized data adjustments, inaccurate data, and the theft of sensitive client records by individuals with nefarious motives. Thus, this paper aims to resolve the problems like price issues, choice of the right cloud, and awareness about the services.

Research Questions

The adaption of cloud computing and the cloud-based changes have been part of the organizations for decades now. As described above, the services and operations in cloud computing are essential. Typical IDSs aren’t adaptive to safeguarding the infrastructure due to the distributed virtualized environment (Liu, Xu, Cheng, Hu, Darbandi, 2021). The activities across the hybrid-cloud environment with the capacity are needed to ensure the operations can be operated seamlessly. At the same time, they occur on and off-premises components of the system. This research focuses on the following questions:

What types of technologies are involved in cloud computing and its multiple uses?

It will aim to address and promote different cloud technologies and processes based on the metrics of the specific cloud environment.

How can the enhanced security and privacy of the data help maintain an efficient cloud computing environment?

This question will help address the main issues of privacy and security within the systems.

How can migration/backup/recovery support be provided from already existing solutions?

This question helps understand the technical support with the cloud infrastructure.

What challenges can affect the security policies across the cloud infrastructure?

This question aims at the challenges of the security policies and their implementation for effective processes.

What are the plans for operations and monitoring to provide the expected incident response, which may be equitable to on-premises support for your program?

The SaaS solution is hosted on the Oracle cloud. Hence organization will not be able to install any operations and monitoring services or agents. Aternity will be used to capture or monitor the assistor’s performance.

Literature Review

The hybrid cloud allows teams to develop and adopt new applications while taking advantage of existing systems. However, managing disparate IT environments can pose unexpected challenges for technical and process groups. By adopting a hybrid cloud strategy implemented with a trusted partner, the customers can optimize their infrastructure and use the best practices the teams need always to meet new business objectives. Virtualized computing’s capacity to link the physical environment, the digital domain, and modern civilization is a crucial aspect that has helped it become trendy. Improving vulnerabilities that affect the practicality and credibility of cloud services is a significant roadblock. A primary goal will be to modify the agile methodology using certified programs based on practices.

By reviewing the data gathered, analytics can simplify the linkage of records for notification. Finally, the design has the potential to reduce the frequency of alerts in the long term significantly. Information systems, on either side, were used to address challenges; however, there is no specific article regarding using complex systems in the virtualized IDS. Furthermore, the intrusion has traditionally been thought to be a capacity limiting factor in wireless communication technology that can be minimized or removed. (Li, Spano, Krivochiza, 2020). It is a significant challenge to select from the many cloud computing providers available for businesses today and select the optimal one that is tailored to their specific requirements

This research aimed to address such issues by developing a system that will help businesses choose the most suitable cloud provider for their needs. Our hybrid cloud software is built on Red Hat’s open-source development model, but that doesn’t mean the hybrid cloud is all about code. Red Hat consultants combine technical expertise with an understanding of proven patterns, such as DevOps, integration, and deployment (CI/CD) (Li et al., 2004). Cloud computing services are a rapidly expanding sector of the modern technology industry. In addition to storage, extensive data analysis, disaster recovery, and platform usage, it has been used for various purposes worldwide, so it has been able to sustain itself, grow, and diversify its technology in many directions for several years.

Within a multi-cloud approach, there are several different levels of security. As a result, a security architecture that aligns systems overall with cloud service providers is required. When it comes to cloud environments, data integrity must be considered from the beginning — this is referred to as protection by architecture. This part is particularly complex because it must meet several technological, human, and even legislative conditions. The hybrid cloud can help overcome barriers and other security constraints (Hurwitz, 2012). Cloud computing may bridge the gap between the latest designs and objectives as the industry grows. However, many companies have difficulty filling this gap (Jede and Teuteberg, 2016) since they are not equipped with a trustworthy or reliable IT system with all the necessary functions in place. Like other computer systems environments, Cloud computing requires a high level of security.

New levels of data security arise when businesses go to the cloud, which is prone to be affected by development (Ali et al., 2020). Privacy and security are vital and relevant issues in the deployment of cloud technologies. At the service supplier’s side, insight into cloud services security practices and availability to the system is limited. Findings from the analysis and investigative inspection of storage could be complex since this CSP may exchange data from several clients. Virtualized cloud computing’s main aspects of elastic modulus, inter, and third-party monitoring could elevate apprehensions about network security, including stealing information, global backup and recovery positions, widely different authentication and authorization, and random targeted activities related to third parties.

Data and security are critical in the cloud, and they may make or ruin a company.

Researchers (Chiregi & Navimipour, 2018) similarly discuss cloud computing evaluation. Nevertheless, even though businesses face confusion in choosing the best cloud computing services, the problem of trusting them is equally apparent, regardless of the strong security policies offered by the service providers. Selecting a “top-down” strategy for architecture and business and a “bottom-up” approach for everything, in terms of planning and execution of the implementation, is one of the most critical criteria in successfully designing and delivering cloud services. This will naturally prepare organizations to use and provide Cloud services in strategic business communication and information related to change management and training circuits (Kumar & Samalia, 2016). While cloud services include a significant impact on IDS, there is no detailed IDS methodology evaluation in the cloud. They provide helpful information on using IDS in the network (This project discusses how IDS works in virtualization and its advantages, disadvantages, and compliance.) (Zhiqiang, Bo Xu, Bo Cheng, Xiaomei, Mehdi, 2021). To ensure cloud security against all types of attacks and threats, organizations must understand how critical it is to utilize IDS techniques in cloud environments.

The hypervisor provides a framework for controlling and point of analysis data to discover unusual occurrences and actions (Chiba, Abghour, Moussaid, El Omri, Rida, 2016). A zero-day weakness in virtual machines (VMs) entices an intruder to get entry to the hypervisor. Nikolai and Wang developed an approach for assisting the cloud center’s underlying infrastructure. Intrusion ID security was accomplished using 53 Virtualization measurement systems. The suggested VMware platform IDS doesn’t necessitate the installation of additional programs on virtual machines. It has more significant advantages than external software and host-based IDS, which could help ID these old perspectives. Most CIOs start their Cloud from a technology assessment to eventually lead to service delivery. It’s a practical and logical way to know what technology is capable of.

While it is essential to understand technology fully, it is also necessary to understand its impacts on organizations and the development of appropriate business processes. Training teams to use the right technology also plays a crucial role in providing efficient and agile Cloud services, reducing Opex ( operational expenditure) (Al-Sharafi, Arshah, & Abu-Shanab, 2017). Recent network fraud instances have harmed clients’ and service providers’ faith in each other (Sun, 2020). As a result, to re-establish trust between the two parties, the project creates a model that expresses the nature of the trust relationship by providing feedback with risks, obligation feedback, and reward-punishment. Secondly, the authors propose a weighted algorithm and trust evaluation through information entropy.

The cloud computing business has experienced an exponential expansion in a short period, and it has equally diversified its technologies over the years, according to the words of (Papadopoulos et al.,2019). However, having so many technologies in hand and so many providers ready to provide the services, the customers sometimes fail to evaluate their performances against each other. For this reason, the study investigates and reports the implementation of various cloud computing services and ultimately proposes eight principles, best practices, and concepts applicable to the cloud computing field. Consumers are served by a single cloud provider that offers pre-existing services. Software packages can shift workflow duties to the cloud provider to expand the number of hosts in a shared cloud environment. Several cloud providers are engaged in a multi-cloud system to handle process job specifications. To achieve optimal and excellent system reliability, the multi-cloud approach spreads application services throughout cloud service providers (Motlagh, Movaghar, Rahmani, 2019). The wireless cloud infrastructure makes it possible to deploy software technologies to mobile and automotive equipment and software. The virtualization framework enables mobility and ease of handling to improve the performance of information collection and sharing by expanding the number of tablets and smartphones.

There has been an increase in cloud computing services available over the internet, and clients are unsure which one to choose based on their needs (Simmon, 2018). Customers choose the wrong technology or service provider for their needs due to a lack of evaluation standards. The goal of this initiative is to give people a better understanding of cloud computing standards and how it works within the NIST environment services according to the various needs of the customers. As a result, they strive to develop precise frameworks and processes through which clients may assess the performance of their service providers and select the best technology for their needs (Jiao, Wang & Ding, 2020). The cloud platform library could help with the challenge of finding associated cloud software information. It can also help customers find parallel cloud computing in the cloud industry. A database like this might make it much easier for customers to see cloud computing (Alghamdi, Hussain, Alharthi, Almusheqah, 2017). Instead, people are now turning to widely used search sites for help. Cloud companies such as Microsoft have provided some proprietary archives, but these are not open to the public. Instead, these registers are solely accessible to customers of specific suppliers (Hussain, Sohaib, Naderpour, Gao, 2020). Since online services have various properties, many of the suggested web content must be adapted for each website, requiring time. As a result, enterprises see an urgent need to establish a cloud system that safeguards the network’s security while bearing in mind content configurations.

Innovations are expanding the industry in emerging markets. The assessment uncovered some significant organizational and institutional problems that impede the speedier benefits of cloud systems (such as SLA guidelines and requirements and network security in the cloud). Emerging economies require federal involvement in formulating appropriate regulations and legal structures. For instance, in many emerging economies, including India (Gupta and Jain, 2014), China, and Brazil, cellular telephone adoption occurred following government engagement with proper legislation.

According to a recent study conducted by PAC (Pierre Audoin Consultants), security is the main obstacle to adopting the cloud in France. A certain mistrust, therefore, still exists. Yet hosts and data center owners are taking many steps to provide companies with a level of security similar to what they can have on-site within their premises—the company and its service provider: necessary support and transparency. When adopting a cloud architecture, it is critical to explicitly describe the business need because different security regulations will result. A host must know his client and provide real personalized support to help him make the best choices. The definition of the project will lead the host and the client to turn to the public, private or hybrid cloud – depending on the performance needs and the critical and sensitive nature of the data.

According to the authors, several advantages and security issues have been associated with cloud computing (Kumar, Raj, & Jelciana, 2018). As the authors state, Cloud technology is a fast-expanding sector that offers advantages and some assurance. As well as looking at a few cloud options, this paper seeks to determine the different security issues and methods to overcome them. Different safety rules apply depending on the structures chosen. Hosting providers implement strict isolation between the other customers for public and hybrid cloud infrastructures. Thus, a user present on the same server cannot, by an indirect means, access the virtual machine of another user. In the case of the private cloud, this problem does not arise because the server is dedicated. Still, different access rights to the physical servers are put in place to guarantee data security. Therefore, data security depends on the quality of the relationship and administrative transparency with its service provider and the purely technical quality of its offer (Sevis & Seker, 2016). Data is vulnerable while in motion. This is why trusted hosts highly secure the streams. The host ensures data integrity by using an encryption system, an arsenal of firewalls, and dedicated links between content creation points and the cloud. 100% of transfers to and from the Cloud thus ensure that data is not modified via various protocols while in transit. These can also be monitored and archived in the form of a log, a third-party monitoring tool. Several parameters can thus be verified, such as the exact moment of the transmission of the stream, if the data has been modified, and by whom. Data governance is also an essential aspect of securing.

Access policies must be stringent so that encryption keys are not in everyone’s hands. In addition, the hosts set up a protocol for the right of access to the physical servers, backed up by numerous anti-intrusion measures, to assure their customers that only certain people will have access to the servers (Mahalakshmi, & Suseendran, 2019). Cloud platform security and modernization at the regional and global levels aid in regulating this young sector and improve service dependability. The characteristics and correlations found and rules will help emerging economies adopt CC in various sectors, closing the technology gap across emerging economies. (Sharma, Mahak, Gupta, Ruchita, Acharya, Padmanav, 2021). Furthermore, the senior leadership of businesses must employ and include systems for training individuals with the knowledge and talents necessary to implement cloud-based services/products and purchase and transform cloud packages by vendors. Artificial intelligence remains a vague concept for many, whose definitions vary greatly depending on the sector.

AI, the fruit of the intersection of the three major digital trends of big data, cloud computing, and machine learning, can be defined as an innovative technological base, allowing humans to perceive vast sources of information from various sources, to analyze this information from a knowledge base or personal assistance, to understand this information and finally to make the right decisions according to the context. AI is particularly of great help when it is used in the service of customer relations. From HR management (analysis of CVs, selection of candidates according to the profile sought, etc.) to law and accounting (automation of accounting acts, automatic proofreading of contracts, etc.), the contributions of artificial intelligence in the entrepreneurial field are numerous. Artificial intelligence has improved and modernized customer relations (Elshawi et al., 2018). Without artificial intelligence, the management of infrastructures and public services is complex and time-consuming.

Training an artificial intelligence (AI) to capture, process, and analyze the available data makes it possible to establish more accurate projections. This also offers the possibility of developing decision trees specifying the costs and contributions of each option. These predictions then serve as decision support tools (business intelligence). AI is a solution of choice in operations planning. And this is for all the administrations and public services (Calatrava et al., 2016). Each decision requires the consideration of many parameters. Deciding to renovate a station, for example, involves dealing with issues as diverse as the prioritization of work to be carried out according to the estimated budget, the study of traffic flows to propose alternative routes, the optimization of replacement transport, etc. Artificial intelligence is critical in cloud computing and will aid in the success of businesses.

This project will provide the migration of on-premises databases and applications to the cloud to align with the organization in the cloud target state. Leveraging the appropriate design pattern provided within this infrastructure will help enable this migration and ensure greater application functionality, cost savings, and faster workload delivery. To determine whether cloud technology is a success, consider whether it will be capable of building and managing computer platforms. It has been made from cloud services (or sources) that can arbitrarily vary based on customers’ needs.

Literature review findings and gaps

Based on the literature review, there is a lot of data; the focus of these studies has been the data integrity, its security, evaluation process, demands of customers, and factors affecting the process. There is also research on the role of AI and its evolution in cloud computing and system infrastructure development. Kuma & Samalia (2016) and Al-Sharafi, Arshah, & Abu-Shanab, (2017) looked at the factors that influence cloud system selection, while Sevis & Seker (2016) discussed data integrity principles and concerns. However, the gap lies in the customer awareness and motivation for cloud computing and visualization. As in any industry, customers are the end-users of the products, and their role is also crucial to the development process. Thus, the research focusing on this subject matter meets these goals. Researcher (Kumar, Raj, & Jelciana,2018) works on data security and explains its need, consequences, and the various issues it might lead to if not taken care of properly.

With the help of the data from the public clouds, there can be multiple challenges. Some of these challenges include leveraging the cloud users; moreover, distributing workloads between public and private clouds to provide a cost-effective and efficient solution is complex. (Guo et al., 2021). Others include the update or breakdown of the cloud computing platforms, which may cause service unavailability or performance degradation. These monitoring protocols make it difficult to drive a cost-effective solution. Another issue is the prices changes of the cloud computing services, which become a bother to the clients. Thus, an alternative solution is the potential best option.

Cloud technology combines IT operations and cloud services with computing services (not with simple data centers, which rely on cloud technology to manage their infrastructure) (Ghribi, Makhlouf, Zarai, Guizani, 2019). Cloud computing integrates the underlying processing and storage services supplying on now and services to customers. Users and organizations can use the cloud service provider’s network and resources to acquire memory, software, and application improvement systems (El Sibai, Gemayel, Bou Abdo, Demerjian, 2020). The IaaS (infrastructure as a service) level of the cloud system is where the preliminary designs of cloud services are located. This layer contains the virtualization hosts and services. PaaS includes hybrid network services and software. The application layer is the top level of the design. (Meng, Wang, Jiao, Miao, Sun, 2019). The article provides an efficient and price solution for mixed cloud services to address the concerns, including picking the best cloud service for simplifying and adjusting to price fluctuations. It also covers the provision of global load balancing. The properties of the system are simple. “It employs a two-tier load balancing system that balances virtualization and cloud workload.” The latter issue for mixed cloud platforms is distinct from virtualization selection. To achieve the objectives, the asynchronous message-driven paradigm guides the design and development of the system. It employs a Runtime Environment to decrease the correlated linked interfaces” (Mavridis and Karatza, 2019). In most cases, it reduces the integration’s difficulty. The technology gives cloud users the option of choosing how their apps are deployed. It helps connect several systems like internet technologies, AI, web services, hardware structure, etc. The design will aim to provide a brief review of the multi-cloud technology, and the related prototypes developed to minimize the gap between the service provided by the vendors.


Overall, the project will provide the data in the cloud. Therefore, it is subject to different rules to ensure confidentiality, integrity, and availability. As a result, personalized support and a trusting connection with a host, together with quality offers, provide data protection in the cloud and remove the main barrier stopping certain businesses from adopting this IT architecture. This approach induces impacts to be taken into account with the primary goal of reducing Capex ( capital expenditure or capital expenditure) while providing sound advice to give services and specific characteristics and thus, build an appropriate model. To make the future, it is necessary to carry out a mapping of applications, infrastructures, and business processes to plan the Cloud services supporting them and ensure that organizations will thus be ready to maintain them. Cloud solutions are widely accepted as requiring no significant capital investments, lowering product expenses through installations, reducing IT maintenance costs, and increasing economic sustainability (Wang et al., 2019). As a result, enterprises with perceived high systems integration expenditures could even welcome cloud solutions.


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Zhiqiang Liu, Bo Xu, Bo Cheng, Xiaomei Hu, Mehdi Darbandi Intrusion detection systems in the cloud computing: A comprehensive and deep literature review

It was first published: on 27 October 2021