basics of Harvard referencing

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ICON College Referencing Style Guide 2e
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1
ICON College
REFERENCING
STYLE GUIDE
2
ND EDITION
ICON College of Technology and Management
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ICON College Referencing Style Guide 2e
ICON College, February 2022©
2
Introduction: The basics of Harvard referencing
Welcome to the second edition of the ICON College Referencing Style Guide. The examples
given in this guide follow the
Harvard referencing system. It should be noted that there are
several variations of referencing including those of Harvard referencing. The correct style will
depend on a University or College faculty/department’s ‘House style’ as well as individual
preferences.
The
ICON College Referencing Style Guide is based on the ‘Harvard’ style of referencing.
What is referencing?
Referencing is the process of acknowledging the sources you have used in writing your
assignment, dissertation or piece of work. It allows the reader to access your source documents
as quickly and easily as possible in order to verify, if necessary, the validity of your arguments
and the evidence upon which they are based. You identify these sources by citing them in the
text of your assignment (called
citations or in-text citations) and referencing them at the end of
your assignment (called the ‘
List of Referencesor References’).
Why should you reference?
There are several reasons why it is essential to reference your work:
To avoid plagiarism by acknowledging all the sources you have used. Plagiarism is the
term used to describe taking other peoples’ ideas or writing and using them as your own.
To allow the reader to locate cited references easily and thus evaluate your interpretation
of those ideas. Anyone marking or reading your work can follow up references or check
whether you have understood the authors’ views/perspectives and the works you have
cited.
To show the reader or marker that you have selected relevant and respected information
sources for your research into the topic.
To show that you have read widely in your subject area and gives your own writing
authority.
To support an argument, to make a claim or to provide evidence.
To avoid losing marks!
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Plagiarism
ICON College defines plagiarism as “The unacknowledged use of someone’s work. This includes
material or ideas from any (published or unpublished) sources, whether print, Internet-based or
audio-visual”.
Using the words or ideas of others without referencing your source would be classified as
plagiarism and is a very serious academic offence. It is regarded as stealing intellectual property.
Six important things to remember when referencing
Six points are important when referencing:
1. Full credit must be given to the author or originator when quoting or citing others;’ work.
2. Adequate information must be provided in the List of references (or ‘References’) to
enable that work to be located.
3. References must be consistent, complete, and accurate.
4. References must be recorded using precisely the style required by your university and
are often part of the marking criteria.
5. Whenever you directly quote and author you should use ‘quotation marks’ to show this
also and also record the precise location (normally page number when referencing from a
book).
6. If you fail to reference fully, you are likely to be accused of plagiarism.
How should you reference?
There are two stages of referencing sources for a piece of academic writing using the Harvard
system
. The Harvard system is an author-date system, a variation of which is used in this guide
and should be used in all of your course work and Power Point presentations. .
Refer to the source in your text (the citation).
Give full details of the source in your List of references (or ‘Reference list’) or
Bibliography at the end of your work (the
reference).
When you are searching the literature on your chosen subject, save or note down all the
required details of the
sources that you find at that time. If you don’t do this, you might not be
able to accurately describe the sources you have used, and you will have additional work when
you need to list these in your list of references or bibliography.

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Variations of the Harvard system of referencing
There is NO definite benchmark for Harvard referencing and variations exist. The most common
variations (and rules) within the Harvard system include:
Where there are more than two authors, the names of the second and subsequent
authors may or may not be replaced in the text (a citation/in-text reference) by
et al.
The year of publication may or may not be enclosed (in brackets) in the List of
references.
Capitalisation of words (such as the name of the author/s or the book/journal title) in
citations or the List of references should NOT be used.
Generally, the title of the publication (book or journal) should be in italics and NOT
underlined in the List of references.
Students should not cite figures, models, or diagrams as ‘Created by the researcher’.
An ampersand (&) should be used when citing more than one author in an in-text
reference (e.g., Smith & Jones, 2020: 34). When citing authors in the text ‘and’ can be
used (e.g. According to Smith and Jones (2020) ….).
You do NOT need to state that the book is a first (1st) edition in the List of references.
Only for books second edition (2
nd edn.) or thereafter.
Citing within your work
The citation within the text of your work is a brief acknowledgement to a source you have used. If
you are using a direct quotation or are referring to a specific idea or assertion by an author, you
need to let the reader know where you found this information by giving the author’s surname, the
year and the page number (for book sources). The page number is important, as one of the main
functions of referencing is to enable the reader to quickly locate the information you have used
and to verify the conclusions you have drawn.
If you are not referring to a specific idea or assertion, but are referring to work by an author in its
entirety or to a more general agreement you only need to include the author’s surname and the
year, for example, (surname, year).
Paraphrasing or citing a specific idea
…Research has shown a direct relationship between crime and tourist numbers to a destination
(Pizam, 2020: 34).
If you have named the author in the flow of your text, you only need to provide the year and page
number (if applicable), for example (year, page).

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Paraphrasing or citing a specific idea
…Pizam’s research has shown a direct relationship between crime and tourist numbers to a
destination (2020: 34)….
It is best to paraphrase the sources you have used in your work, outing the author’s words
into your own and crediting them with the idea through the citation.
Citing a short quotation
…whilst it is possible that “mental health issues affect young people from dysfunctional
backgrounds, it has a profound effect on an individual’s social relationship” (Heath, 2012: 4).
Citing a long quotation
The methodology required for a through literature review requires an understanding of a number
of different sources:
…it is important to be familiar with the
tertiary sources, which will help you to identify the
secondary sources (such as bibliographies, indexes and abstracts), which will then lead you to
the primary sources for your review (Saunders, 2019: 27).
There is no need to use quotation marks for long citations. Instead, start a new line and
indent the quotation (for quotations longer than three sentences).
If you are citing more than one source, you can separate them with a semi-colon.
Citing more than one source
…there are many factors that affect tourist numbers to a destination. Smith (2019: 84) has
suggested that value for money is the main factor; others believe a more complex relationship
exists (Pizam, 2020; Walters & Brice, 2021).

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Referencing figures/tables
When including figures and/or tables (even if they have been adapted) as part of your text, make
sure that you provide a full reference source below the figure/table. For example:
Table 2.2
Challenges for DMOs
Source: Adapted from Gronroos, G. (2015). Searching for the future: Challenges faced by destination marketing
organisations.
Journal of Travel Marketing, 22(4): 116-127.

 

Challenges Factors
Adapting to technological change Lack of human and financial resources
Competition Fight for market share
Managing expectations Need for community relations
Finding new measures of success Increased need for accountability

List of references and the Bibliography
What is the difference between a references list and a bibliography?
The List of references (or ‘References’) includes all of the sources cited within your work. It is not
the same thing as a
bibliography. A bibliography uses the same referencing style, but also
includes all material, for example background readings, used in the preparation of your work, (it
is not referred to in the text).
In your reference list, you only include details of the sources you have read and directly
consulted.
List or references: a list of all sources that you have cited within your work
Bibliography: a list of everything that you have cited and everything that you have consulted to
help improve your understanding of the topic.
References must be listed in alphabetical order by the author’s surname or the name of the
creator/company.

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Remember to note down the complete reference details for any source that you use, whether it is
a book, journal, website, newspaper article or a source that you have photocopied.
Elements of a reference

Author An individual or organisation responsible for creating the source.
Year of
publication
The year the source was published, for example, the edition year or the
copyright © date on a website.
Title of
article/chapter
When you are referring to a section of a bigger piece of work, you may need to
give the title of the section that you are looking at, for example a book chapter.
Publication title The name of the source, for example, book title or journal name.
Place of
publication
Location listed on the source, for example the office address of the book
publisher. This should be a town or city, not a country. Use the first place listed.
Publisher Normally a company who has produced the information and made it publicly
available.
Edition or
volume
information
This is to indicate if it is a part of a series or if a source replaces an earlier copy.
A second edition of a book is an update to the first. For example, it may include
more or different information to the earlier version. A journal will produce a
number of issues a year, so you need to include the volume and issue number
to demonstrate where in the series this source comes from.
Page span If you are referring to something within a larger piece of work, you should
include the first and last page of that section, for example, of the book chapter.
URL or web
address
If you have accessed something from the Internet, you will need to include the
full web address for that information. You can copy and paste this from your
browser bar, into your reference.

What do you do if publication details are not given?
Occasionally, you will come across documents that lack basic details. In these cases it is
necessary to indicate to the reader that these are not available. A series of abbreviations can be
used and are generally accepted for this purpose.

Missing publication Abbreviation
Author not given use [Anon.]
no date use [n.d.]
no place [sine loco] use [s.l.]
no publisher [sine nomine] use [s.n.]
not known use [n.k.]

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Examples of sources (citations and referencing) using the Harvard style
1. Books (including eBooks and Online books)
1.1 Printed books
Different types of books
There are different types of printed book that you may want to reference in your assignment or
dissertation. These can be broadly described as:
i. books where all of the chapters are written by the same author (or authors); and
ii. books with an editor (or editors) – chapters are written by different authors.
Looking at the front cover of the book will give you an indication of whether the book is an
authored book (number i. above) or an edited book (number ii. above). It will state ‘Editor’ after
the author’s name(s). In addition, you will be able to see from the ‘Contents page’ of the (Edited’
book) that there are different authors for each chapter.
Citation order:
In-text:
Author (Family name, year)
Example
(Smith, 2020)
In the List of references:
Family name, Initials (Author/s/editor/s)
Year of publication (in round brackets)
Title (in italics)
Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition)
Place of publication: Publisher
Examples
1.1.1 Book with one author
Jones, P. (2016). Internet Marketing. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
1.1.2 Book with two or more authors
Kotler, P., Armstrong, G., Wong, V. & Saunders, T. (2015). Principles of Marketing, 15th edn.
New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
1.1.3 Books with an Editor
Groonroos, R. (2016). (Ed.). Services Marketing, 3rd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
1.1.4 Chapter(s)/sections of edited books (this is known as a ‘secondary reference’)
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Parker, R. (2015). ‘Management of the problem’. In: D. Butcher. (Ed.). The Definitive Guide to
Management
. London: Butterworth-Heinemann, pp. 23-25.
A secondary reference is when you refer to someone cited with another source, i.e. you have not
read the original work.
1.2 eBooks (or E-books)
The content of an eBook is identical to the content of a print book with the same author, title, and
publication date; but includes details about when it was accessed and where from.
Citation order:
author/s (Family name, Initials)
(year) (in round brackets)
Title (in italics)
# edn
name of e-book reader/collection in italics (e.g. Netlibrary)
Place of publication: Publisher
Example
(as for ‘Book (first edition)’
Saunders, J. (2019).
The History of the East End of London: History in an Hour [Kindle e-book].
London: William Collins.
1.3 Online books
author/s (Family name, Initials)
(year) (in round brackets)
Title (in italics)
# edn
Place of publication: Publisher.
[Accessed: day month year from database name].
Example
(as for ‘Book (1st edition)’ or ‘Edited book’.
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Burns, A., Smith, C. & Rush, D. (2020). Marketing Research (Global edn.). Harlow: Pearson.
[Accessed 6 Apr. 2022 from MyLibrary.com].
In-text citations
Examples (for both printed and eBooks/Online books)
book with one author
According to Saunders (2019: 23), the most important component of research is…
book with two or three authors
Jones and Brown (2020: 114) suggested that…
book with three or more authors
This was supported by Burns
et al.(2020: 74)…. (N.B. et al. should be written in italics followed
by a full-stop).
et al. is from the Latin abbreviation for et (“and”) and alii (“others”). It should be used when
you are citing the work of three or more authors (3>). Usually all authors are listed in the first
citation and then
et al. thereafter. et al. should be written in italics and followed by a full-stop. In
the List of references all authors should be listed regardless of the number.
2 Journal articles
Citation order:
Author/editor
Year of publication (in round brackets)
Title of article
Title of journal (in italics)
Volume (in italics), issue, page numbers
Available at: URL or VLE (for e-journals)
(Accessed: date) (for e-journals)
2.1 Journal
Example
Holt, D. (2020). Branding in the age of social media. Harvard Business Review, 94(3): 11- 23.
2.2 Journal articles (Online)
2.2.1 Journal article which is forthcoming but published online, prior to appearing in the
journal
Citation order:
Example ‘Book (first edition)’
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In-text: (Walker et al., 2019)
List of references:
Citation order:
Family name
Initials
And Family name
Initials
Year (in brackets)
Title of article
Journal name
Available at full doi or Internet address
[Accessed day month year].
Walker, P., Zhang, J. & Ni, Z. (2019). The Mirror Effect: Corporate Social Responsibility and Firm
Performance in Emerging Markets.
British Journal of Management. Available at DOI:
10.1111/1467-85551.12771 [Accessed 2 Feb, 2021].
Example
Holt, D. (2020). Branding in the age of social media. Harvard Business Review [Online], 94(3):
11- 23. Available at: http://iconcollege.ac.uk/ [Accessed: 21
st August, 2018].
3 Newspaper articles (Inc. Online)
Citation order:
Author/byline
Year of publication (in round brackets)
Title of article (in single quotation marks)
Title of newspaper (in italics – capitalise first letter of each word in title, except for linking
words such as and, of, the, for)
Edition if required (in round brackets)
Day of month
Page reference (for printed version)
3.1 Printed newspapers
Example
In-text citation:
Financial incentives were offered to scientists…. (Mansell & Bloom, 2020).
List of references:
Mansell, W. & Bloom, A. (2020). ‘£10,000 carrot to tempt science experts’,
The Guardian, 20
June, p. 5.
3.2 Online version of a newspaper (without pagination)
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Example
In-text citation:
South Africa miners’ strike affects global economy (Roberts, 2018).
List of references:
Citation order:
Family name
Initials
Title of article
Newspaper name
Day month year
Available at http://www.fullInternetaddress/
[Accessed day month year].
Roberts, P. South African mining companies seek resolution with striking miners.
The
Independent,
10 May. 2019 Available at
http//www.independent.co.uk/world/2016/may/07/southafricstrikes_draft_resolution_90_days
[Accessed: 7 Sept. 2021].
3.3 Newspaper from electronic database
Example
In-text citation:
(Anderson, 2020)
List of references:
Citation order:
Family name
Initials
Title of article
Newspaper name
Day month year
P. # # (if known)
[Accessed day month year from Database name].
Anderson, K. How to choose an MBA.
Financial Times, 23 Jan. 2020. [Accessed 20 Mar 2022
from ft.com].
4 Online/website (internet site or specific site pages)
Example
In-text citation:
(United Nations World Tourism Organization, 2022)
List of references:
Citation order:
Source organisation
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(year)
Title of site or page within site.
Available at http://www.remainderoffullIntrenetaddress/
[Accessed day month year].
United Nations World Tourism Organization (2022).
UNWTO Tourism Data Dashboard. Available
at
https://www.unwto.org/unwto-tourism-dashboard [Accessed 2 Apr. 2022].
5 Blog (weblogs, web forums, Wikis)
5.1 Blog (weblog)
Example
In-text citation
Owner’s family name
year of posting
(Kitces, 2022)
List of references:
Citation order:
Owner’s family name
Owner’s Initials
year of posting
Specific subject
Title of blog.
day month year (of posting).
[Blog]
Available at http://www.remainderoffullIntrenetaddress/
[Accessed day month year].
5.2 Web forum (Usenet group, bulletin board, etc.)
Example
In-text citation
Author’s family name
year of posting
(MagicFajita, 2020)
List of references:
Citation order:
Author’s family name
Author’s Initials
year of posting
Title of posting
Name of forum
Posted day month year (of posting).
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[Web forum]
Available at http://www.remainderoffullIntrenetaddress/
[Accessed day month year].
MagicFajita. (2020). Adult and child foods? A British thing?
Mumsnet. Posted 27 Jan. 2020. [Web
forum] Available at
http://www.mumsnet.com/Talk/am_i_being_unreasonable/315157265-adultand-child-foods-a-british-thing?dod=1 [Accessed 3 Oct 2022].
5.3 Wiki
Example
In-text citation
Originator’s name or Wiki
title
year of posting
(Microformats Wiki, 2022)
List of references:
Citation order:
Originator’s name or Wiki title
Title of Wiki
day month year (of posting).
[Wiki article]
Available at http://www.remainderoffullIntrenetaddress/
[Accessed day month year].
Mircoformats Wiki.
Chat: brainstorming. 5 Jan. 2022. [Wiki article] Available at
http://mircoformats.org/wiki/chat-brainstroming [Accessed 3 June. 2022].
5.4 Discussion list email (where email sender known)
Example
In-text citation
Author’s family name
year of posting
(Grealish, 2022)
List of references:
Citation order:
Sender’s Family name
Sender’s Initials
year of posting
Re. Subject of discussion
Posted day month year
Sender’s email address
[Accessed day month year].
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Grealish, (2022). Future Sustainability. Posted 3 Mar. 2022. fion. . . @mail.com [Accessed 2 Nov.
2022].
6 Course materials and online materials from VLE
6.1 Lecture
In-text citation
Lecturer’s name
year
(Kumar, 2022)
In-text citation
According to Kumar (2022) research should be….
List of references:
Citation order:
Lecturer family name
Initials
(year)
Lecture on or title of lecture
Module title
Year (if appropriate)
Place of lecture: Institution.
day month year
Example
List of references:
Kumar, R. (2022).
Lecture on referencing and plagiarism. Research Project. BA (Hons)
Business. ICON College: Falmouth University. 30 May. 2022.
6.2 Module and course notes
In-text citation
Lecturer’s name
year
(Bell, 2022)
List of references:
Citation order:
Lecturer family name
Initials
(year)
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Title of material.
Module title
Level (if appropriate) and course title
Institution, Department or School.
Example
List of references:
Bell, J. (2022).
Introduction to Qualitative Research. Research Project Module Handbook 2022-
2023. BA (Hons) Tourism & Hospitality Management. ICON College: Falmouth University.
Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management.
Example
In-text citation
According to Bradshaw (2021) research should be….
List of references:
Bradshaw, R. (2021). Week 2. ‘Lecture on referencing and plagiarism’ [Online], BA (Hons)
Business Programme Moodle site. Available at:
http://iconcollege.ac.uk/ [Accessed: 22 August,
2021].
6.3 Materials available on the VLE
In-text citation
Author’s family name
year
(Chanderpaul, 2022)
List of references:
Citation order:
Author’s family name
Initials
(year of production)
Title of material [Nature of material].
Module title
Level (if appropriate) and course title
Institution
Name of VLE [online]
Available at http://www.remainderoffullIntrenetaddress/
[Accessed day month year].
Chanderpaul, K. (2022).
History of tourism in East London [PowerPoint slides]. Introduction to
Tourism Concepts: Tourism development and evolution. ICON College/Falmouth University
[online]. Available at https://icon.moodle.webanywhere.co.uk/mod/assign/view.php?id=69042
[Accessed 11 Oct. 2022).

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When constructing PowerPoint presentations make sure that you source materials
correctly in the actual slides. This includes material such as quotes, paraphrases, statistics,
tables, and figures.
7 Conferences
6.1 Full conference proceedings
Citation order:
Author/editor
Year of publication (in round brackets)
Title of conference: subtitle (in italics)
Location and date of conference
Place of publication: publisher
Example
In-text citation
The conference (Institute for Small Business Affairs, 2019)….
List of references:
Institute for Small Business Affairs. (2019).
Small firms: Adding the spark: The 23rd ISBA National
small firm, policy and research conference
. Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, 15-17
November. Leeds: Institute for Small Business Affairs.
6.2 Individual conference papers
Citation order:
Author of paper
Year of publication (in round brackets)
Title of paper (in single quotation marks)
Title of conference: subtitle (in italics)
Place of publication: publisher
Page references for the paper
Example
In-text citation
Cook (2020) highlighted examples….
List of references:
Cook, P. (2020). ‘Developing franchised businesses in East London’,
Small firms: Adding the
spark: The 23
rd ISBA national small firms, policy and research conference. Robert Gordon
University, Aberdeen, 15-17 November. Leeds: Institute for Small Business Affairs, pp. 127-136.

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Make sure that the entries listed in the References list are cited in the text (citations) and
vice-verse (i.e. what is cited in the text should be listed in the References list).
Top Ten Tips for referencing
1. Be aware: use this ICON College Referencing Style Guide and check with your tutor.
2. Be positive: used properly, references strengthen your writing, demonstrating that you have
spent time researching and digesting material and produced your own opinions and
arguments.
3. Be decisive about the best way to cite your sources and how you balance your use of direct
quotations, paraphrasing and summarising.
4. Be willing to ask for help: library or your tutor offer support with referencing and academic
skills.
5. Be organised: prepare well and keep a record of all potentially useful sources as you find
them
6. Make sure that the entries listed in the References list are cited in the text (citations) and
vice-verse (i.e. what is cited in the text should be listed in the References list).
7. Be consistent: use the
ICON College Referencing Style consistently throughout your work.
8. Be patient: make time and take your time to ensure that your referencing is accurate.
9. Be clear: clarify the type of source you are referencing and check
ICON College Referencing
Style Guide
for examples.
10. Be thorough: check through your work and your references before submitting your
assignment, ensuring that your citations all match with a full reference and vice versa. Read
it through to check several times!
Bibliography
Leeds Beckett University. (2014). Quote, Unquote: A Guide to Harvard Referencing, 2nd edn.
Leeds: Leeds Beckett University.
Pears, R. & Shields, G. (2013).
Cite Them Right: The Essential Referencing Guide, 9th edn.
London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Saunders, M., Lewis, P. & Thornhill, A. (2019).
Research Methods for Business Students, 8th
edn. Harlow, Essex: Pearson.
Williams, K. & Carroll, J. (2009).
Referencing & Understanding Plagiarism. London: Palgrave
Macmillan.