Augmented reality

Dissertation title: augmented reality book




According to (Mekni, 2019), Augmented reality is a technology that has the following features: Combine both physical and virtual environment, Interactive in actual time, and Recorded in 3D. in simple word, Augmented reality is the technology that combines both real and virtual environment together. This technology is used to enhance the real physical world. Computer inputs such as , sound, video, graphics etc are used in real environment to change user experience. (The Interaction Design Foundation. 2020) Morton Hailing was the first person to achieve augmented reality. In 1957, he designed augmented reality application ‘Sensoroma’ to deliver sound, video, and smell to the viewer. It was not a big application but it was the first ever attempt to provide computer generated input data to the user experience.(The Franklin Institute. 2020) Nowadays, it is one of the biggest technology craze and its getting bigger. One of the notable example of the Augmented reality application is Pokémon go. It was launched in 2016 and now it is among one of top played game. in this game player, player trace and catch Pokémon’s in real environment. (The Franklin Institute. 2020) Not only for games but augmented reality is also used for many other purposes such as medical for practicing surgery, navigation, sightseeing for tourism industry, military use and many other.


In this research proposal, the topic and background of the research is clearly described. Furthermore, it include the literature review to show the research prior knowledge about the topic. To complete the project within the given time project is planned. The project plan is also briefly described in this proposal.



I came across augmented reality in 2021. I used to play Pokémon go which is one of the most played mobile game (IQBAL, 2022). I was really interested to know that such technology actually exist. Since then there is tremendous growth in Augmented reality technology. I started researching various platforms that are used for augmented reality. and I found unity engine and Vuforia very promising for developing AR mobile app.

In this study, the researcher will build Augmented reality book. (Medium. 2020) This book can be useful for schools to teach the complicated module in a easier and fun way. Such book place the character from the book on the real environment. This technology allow kids to experience the character in real-time. this make children participate in the action of the character. children may forget the taught lesson if they do not relate to the character. AR bring children into the book. This help them to understand the lesson in an effective way. Augmented reality add some extra creativity and entertainment into the book. (Rohaya, Rambli, Sulaiman,2013) study shows that AR book increase the capability to memorize the taught lesson.


Furthermore, Augmented reality is one of the rapidly growing technology. It is the difficult technology to implement. (Kurkovsky, Szul, Koshy and Novak, 2012) one of main problem of implementing augmented reality is technology limitation. Designing augmented reality and developing 3D object is the considered the critical part of AR design. In this study, the researcher will simplify the method to implement AR in mobile app. researcher will show the method to build augmented reality app without using advanced and high budget tools. This will be useful for mobile app developers and game developers who wants to integrate augmented reality into their app.

This research will explore the working and used of AR technology and it help us to understand the AR. It will then explain various augmented reality applications and their applications. This study will provide the core details of different technique used for identifying and localizing the virtual object in the real environment.


Aim of the research:

The primary purpose of this research is to find the way combine real and virtual environment to improve user experience. The secondary aim of the tool is to identify the tools and techniques that are used for augmented reality as well as to understand the application of augmented reality

Research question:

Main research question: how to implement AR technology in mobile application?


to understand application of augmented reality and its different form

To identify the tools necessary for building AR app

To identify the limitations of augmented reality


Literature review


In this section, various related studies are reviewed.

(Wu, Xiao and Guo, 2013) the author have developed augmented reality system for agriculture using D’fusion framework. The authors use 3 dimensional data to create digital model of strawberry for providing lifelike training experience. In this study, diffusion framework was used for navigating, data arrangement ,and combining virtual object. sound and the video are the information of the virtual object used in this study. the interactive operation of this system shows the farming process of the strawberry.


(HORII and MIYAJIMA, 2013) the researchers have developed AR support system for tutoring hand-drawn machine sketching. Using this AR system user can experience apparent objects from various aspect. The researchers used AR tool kit to build this system. This AR tool kit place 3D virtual object in the real environment. This 3D virtual object is recognized by 3D augmented reality marker on the display. The localization of the virtual object is determined by the localization of the AR marker. The AR system calculates the point and the length of the digital object from the camera during the registration process. For this operation, AR system identify the edges of the AR marker. Rotating the AR marker, users can watch the virtual object from different tendency: front, back, top, right, and left.

(Govilkar and Amin, 2022) the various augmented reality application development kits are investigated in this paper. It also shows how the AR system work and different tracking types used in AR. According to (Govilkar and Amin, 2022) the working of augmented reality follows three steps: identifying, tracking, and mix. The first stage of AR is identification of the object or the environment on which virtual image are placed. In tracking, the identified object or the environment is localized in actual time. finally, the virtual object are placed on it once it is localized.

(Kurkovsky, Szul, Koshy and Novak, 2012) this study investigate the difficulties , issues and possible solution while implementing the portable augmented reality applications. They found that content management issues is linked with the issue where point of interest (POI) data are operated. The possible augmented reality solution for this problem is achieved by using augmented reality markup language (ARML) and supporting linked open data concept. Because of the limitation in technology it is difficult to achieve rational navigation execution. In their study they found that, computer vison can perform better for navigation in both indoor and indoor. To achieve this computer vision needs to understand the existing point of interest and the features of either of the environments. However, for achieving such way of solving problem ether considerable computational effort or the lower latency broadband connection (continuous availability) to the server where computer vision models are operating is required.

(Billinghurst, A and G, 2015) this study has outlined the 50 years of study and evolution of the augmented reality. According to (Mekni, 2019), there are some limitation in this technology. one of the limitation of augmented reality is that the hardware need to be light, small , and portable to display graphic quickly because AR technology delas with large amount of data. another is the battery life of the device. This technology also need access to the GPS service of the device for accurate navigation. Before using AR it is important to solve such challenges. For better performance augment reality needs the software that can filter data to help this technology to remove the unnecessary data and retain the useful data. They have also discussed the area that require further study. (Mekni, 2019) found that Head-mounted displays (HMD) that are used for image guidance and augmented reality are uncoordinated and it has bounded the field of resolution and contrast, sight. HMD is one of the limitation of the user. Such device need to lighter and smaller so it will be easier for users to use. The researcher has also shown that issues like delay in response time and system failure are also the important topic that need to be focused during further study.


(Woodward and Pasman, 2003) shows the execution of the client and server to run the augmented reality application on a personal assistant digital assistant. They found that technology limitations such as processing power, and limitation of the 3-dimensional hardware support are the challenges of implementing augmented reality. their study resolved these problems by implementing client and server AR. Since a personal digital assistant is mainly used as the display device, the operation such as tracing and rendering are conducted on the server. This makes the AR system constrained to a 3-dimensional model size. they wanted to use the solution with WLAN and GSM phone links. To scale the solution they have investigated finding a way to make the amount of communicated data between client and server minimum. Furthermore, they measured the performance with WLAN and GSM. With WLAN the quality of the video was 30kb/frame. It is a high quality video image. And for the refresh rate the display (320* 240 handheld device screen) was able to refresh at the rate of 800 ms per image. On the other hand, with GSM the quality of the image was moderate (4kb/frame). And with GSM the refresh rate of the display was 600 ms per image.

(SHIKODA and MIZUNO, 2018) the researchers have developed e-learning environment using FlarToolkit. The prototype of this study is built with web based instruction manual. Illustrations are used to do the description of the experiment. The illustrations were of flash movie supported by FlarTookKit. In this environment students can watch real things and can understand contents of the experiment. the instruction images are placed on different objects of the experiment using more than one marker.


(Ferrer-Torregrosa et al., 2015) the author developed augmented reality book on the basis of TC and MRN illustrations , dissections and sketches. The author conducted 3 blocks of questionnaire for evaluating the AR book. Delphi method was used to check the validity of the questionnaire. According to the result of the questionnaire, researcher found that AR book fit best for the anatomical purposes. The author found out that the augmented technology can improve student motivation and autonomous task.


(Rohaya, Rambli, Sulaiman,2013 )This study evaluate the augmented reality book which is used for teaching school has also described the design of the augmented reality book. They found that teaching in a fun way helps children to increase their ability to memorize the taught lesson. With the help of the computer device and camera, children can visualize and experience the contents of the book in a better way. Pattern market helps to interact with the virtual object place in the real environment. According to the informal study performed by the research, it is concluded that children liked and enjoyed the augmented reality book. Most of the children wanted to use the AR book again and again. This study shows the potential of AR book in education system.



Research methodology

Research approach: the researcher will use qualitative approach. The researcher picked qualitative approach because this research doesn’t require quantality of data to complete this study. This research will explore the augmented reality to understand it deeply. It will hep to ensure that the outcome of the research is consistent.

Data collection method: This research will follow secondary method of data gathering process in which already available data will be collected. Research will collect this data using internet (google scholar) and the library of university of Wolverhampton.

Project plan:

Objective: build mobile app

Action required:

Planning the feature of the mobile app

Planning the UI

Analyse the resource required

Build AR experience

Test the app

Timeframe: around 2-3 weeks required for this task

Objective: image recognition and tracing

Action required:

Research the tools required

Understand how it works

Image training and detection

Timeframe: around 2 weeks required for this task


Objective: final report

Action required:

Explain the design of mobile app

Show the implementation of the AR in mobile app

Show the result

Provide recommendation and conclusion

Timeframe: around 2 weeks is required for this task


Resource required:


Unity Engine: Unity Engine is created by Unity Technologies in 2005. It is a kind of engine which is used to develop games on different platforms. Mainly, unity is developed for creating both 2D and 3D games.

Vuforia: It is most widely used software development kit for doing AR development for eyewear, mobile phones, and tablets. Developer can simply build advanced computer vision service to UWP, android, and iOS apps for creating AR experience.

C# lanugae: C# is an object-oriented programming language which is built by the Microsoft. It runs on the .NET Framework. This language is mostly used for developing mobile applications, desktop applications, web applications, games, etc. [iii]

Visual Studio Code: It is a powerful code editor which simple to use. This source code editor is developed by the Microsoft for the different operating system like; Windows, macOS, and Linux. [iv]

System (windows 8 or above, minimum 8GB RAM ) to run unity engine


The research will build AR app using the unity engine. the app will be tested in the real environment to check if it can combine real and virtual environment or not and make computer generated input interactive in real time or not . based on this factor the result of this project will be evaluated. During this test features such as object recognition and tracking will be tested.


Mobile application will be developed in this study using unity engine. this app will use augmented technology and will be able to combine real and virtual environment and the user will be able to experience computer generated environment in real time. The name of the application will be X. apart from this, this study will be based on getting deep insight of augmented technology and the way to implement it in mobile application. The research will produce report to show the design of the application and the technique to develop AR mobile app using unity engine and Vuforia. Furthermore, this research will provide ethical consideration, project plan.


Ethical consideration:

This research does not require participation of anyone for collection information. All the necessary data will be collected from google scholar and the books from the library of university of Wolverhampton. To avoid committing plagiarism, all the source that will be used in this study will be properly referenced in the final report as per the guideline of our university. This research doesn’t involve human subjects. Ethics will not be compromised throughout this research. If researcher realize that ethics being compromised then will be addressed quickly and satisfactorily.




In conclusion, augmented reality is the trending technology and is used in many sectors. It helps to change the user experience by combining the real and virtual environment together and by making computer generated input interactive in real time. this proposal has explained goal of this study and the studies related to this field are reviewed. Furthermore, outcomes of this research along with the project plan are also briefly explained in this proposal.



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HORII, H. and MIYAJIMA, Y., 2013. Augmented Reality-based Support System for Teaching Hand-drawn Mechanical Drawing. [online] research gate. Available at: <> [Accessed 12 February 2022].

Govilkar, S. and Amin, D., 2022. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF AUGMENTED REALITY SDK’S. [online] research gate. Available at: <’s/links/57c5993908ae6db2cc769c36/Comparative-Study-of-Augmented-Reality-Sdks.pdf> [Accessed 17 February 2022].

Ferrer-Torregrosa, J., Torralba, J., Jimenez, M., García, S. and Barcia, J., 2015. ARBOOK: Development and Assessment of a Tool Based on Augmented Reality for Anatomy. [online] springer. Available at: <> [Accessed 15 February 2022].

Wu, S., Xiao, B. and Guo, X., 2013. An Interactive Virtual Training System Based on Augmented Reality. [online] atlantis. Available at: <> [Accessed 20 February 2022].

SHIKODA, A. and MIZUNO, K., 2018. Build a prototype of new e-Learning contents by using the AR technology. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 10 February 2022].

Rohaya, Rambli, Sulaiman,2013 Fun learning with AR alphabet book for preschool children[online] scince direct. Available at: <Fun Learning with AR Alphabet Book for Preschool Children – ScienceDirect>[Accessed 05 February 2022].