Assessment of Learning

Approaches to Assessment
Dr Sonia Khan
Three Approaches to
Assessment of Learning
for Learning
as Learning
In groups, think about what each of the
following approaches mean to you
5 minutes
Assessment of Learning
for Learning
as Learning
To measure or to learn; that is
the question.
Broadfoot (1996)
Assessment of Learning
Summative assessment

Summative Assessment or Assessment of Learning
Used to sum up students’ learning at the end of a period
For e.g. once a school term/ end of the semester/ end of the course
Sums up: what the students have achieved
Looks back: indicates what the students have learnt, usually
measured formally against clearly defined standards/ learning

Summative Assessment or Assessment of Learning
Used to sum up students’ learning at the end of a period
For e.g. once a school term/ end of the semester/ end of the course
Sums up: what the students have achieved
Looks back: indicates what the students have learnt, usually
measured formally against clearly defined standards/ learning
Reflect on your experiences and think of the purpose
of such assessments? Write in 1-2 sentences.
What do you think
what’s happening

Norm-referenced Criterion-referenced Ipsative-referenced
Performance in relation to performance;
comparative judgements
Compare a person’s knowledge or skills to the
knowledge or skills of the norm group
Norm group – representative sample of
thousands of students in the same grade –
narrowed by gender, socioeconomic status,
race and other characteristics
Assessment against a criteria; competencies
are put together comprising a skill and
described in terms of criteria
The performance of other students does not
affect student’s scores
An individual selecting between desirable
(a) Assessing your present work with
previous assessment; the scale of worth is
(b) Choose the best option to a
An individual student’s percentile rank
describes their performance in comparison to
the performance of students in the norm
group, but does not indicate whether or not
they met or exceed a specific standard or
Presentation skill: accuracy in grammar and
spellings, clarity of thought, academic
language, word limit
A – exceptional
B – minor errors in grammar and spellings
C – minimal errors, meaning apparent but not
clearly expressed
Your work
Limitations Limitations Limitations
Personal best – subjective
Not necessarily moving forward in learning
Not seeking continual improvement
Negotiating the kind of outcome that might be
rewarded by the tutor – trying to play safe
Choose something that is more socially

Summative assessment: Types

Assessment for Learning
Formative assessment

Formative Assessment or Assessment for Learning
Black and Wiliam (1998) Inside the Black box
the term assessment generally refers to
‘all those activities undertaken by teachers — and by their students in assessing themselves
— that provide information to be used as feedback to modify teaching and learning
activities. Such assessment becomes formative assessment when the evidence is actually
used to adapt the teaching to meet student needs’
(Black & Wiliam, 1998, pp. 1-2)
What key point is highlighted in the above quote?
Formative Assessment or Assessment for Learning
Assessment Reform Group (ARG) (Broadfoot, Daugherty, Gardner, Harlen,
James & Stobart, 2002)
used the term Assessment for Learning
‘the process of seeking and interpreting evidence for use by learners and their
teachers to decide where the learners are in their learning, where they need to go
and how best to get there’ (pp. 2-3).
What key point is highlighted in the above quote?
How do the two statements (from Black and Wiliam, and ARG)
impact the role of teachers?

Diagnostic Assessment
Sub-set of Formative assessment
Identifies what the learner knows or is capable of, perhaps at the start of a new
The focus is on identifying difficulties or misconceptions that the learner might
Helps in planning learning activities
Think of some of the ways in which diagnostic assessment
might help in planning lessons/units?

Authentic (Genuine) Assessment
Refers to the assessment of learning that is conducted through ‘real world’
tasks requiring students to demonstrate their knowledge and skills in
meaningful contexts.
According to Grant Wiggins (1993), authentic measures are: ‘engaging and
worthy problems or questions of importance, in which students must use
knowledge to fashion performances effectively and creatively. The tasks
are either replicas of or analogous to the kinds of problems faced by adult
citizens and consumers or professionals in the field’ (p. 229). For example,
mathematicians, scientists, writers, doctors, teachers, or designers.
For instance, authentic tasks in mathematics need to elicit the kind of
thinking and reasoning used by mathematicians when they solve

Authentic Assessment
Think of a task for your primary school pupils or FE institution
that might replicate a real world situation and how you
might help them navigate the situation.

Holistic Assessment
Sadler (2010)
Allows students to respond – open up appraisal of the whole before
breaking it down into parts to discuss criteria
Reframes writing as an act of communication between the writer and
Helps students in developing an understanding of three interrelated
concepts: task compliance, quality, and criteria.

Holistic Assessment
Task compliance: the extent to which the submission meets the
requirements set out by the teacher/university
Quality: Unitary construct – degree to which a work comes together as a
whole to achieve its purpose
Criteria: recognise/ see quality
How do you think holistic assessment is helpful to students?
What are some of the challenges in implementing holistic

Assessment as Learning
Peer assessment
What is peer assessment (PA)?
an educational arrangement in which students assess the quality of
their fellow students’ work and provide one another with feedback
providing feedback to your peers – oral or written feedback
used for both summative (on the bases of writing product) and
formative purpose (during the process of writing)
(Berg, Admiraal and Pilot, 2006)
Some patterns in the process of PA: How does it look like?
Students’ assessment and then teacher’s assessment stating the reasons for scores
Each student assesses the work of two others
The written work circulates within different groups who write their feedback on the

Assessment as Learning
Think about…
How you learn and assess your learning?
Purpose of Self-assessment
Involves students in identifying standards and/or criteria to apply to
their work and making judgements about the extent to which they
have met these criteria and standards.
Develop learning skills
(Taras, 2010)
Why self-assess?
Important life skill
Professional development
Decision making skill
Integrates teaching and learning
Focus on learners in learning
(Taras, 2010)
Task: Group work – 10 minutes
Compare the two types of assessment: Peer and self
How are the two types personally relevant to you?

Peer-assessment Self-assessment Personal relevance

Task: Group work – 15 minutes
How do you think that your understanding of the two types of
assessment will assist you in reshaping your students’

How do you plan your
lesson that your students
assess each other’s and
their own learning?
How would your
train/instruct them in
using peer- and self
assessing their learning?
How do you think using
peer- and self- assessment
will shape their learning
and classroom

From Chris Slane Cartoons
What has
happened here?
What implications
does this new
situation has on
teachers’ role?
Re-imagining Assessment!
Assessment – Sum up

of for as

Home assignment: Complete the table based on your understanding of different approaches and theories of assessment
Van den Berg, I., Admiraal, W. and Pilot, A. (2006). Design principles and outcomes of
peer assessment in higher education. Studies in Higher education, 31(03), pp.341-356.
Black, P. and Wiliam, D. (1998). Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards through
Classroom Assessment
. London: School of Education, King’s College.
Broadfoot, P. (1996). Educational assessment: the myth of measurement. Contemporary
issues in teaching and learning
, 1, 203.
Brown, S. and Knight, P. (1994). Assessing learners in higher education. Kogan Page
Limited: London.
Sadler, D.R. (2010). Beyond feedback: Developing student capability in complex appraisal.
Assessment & evaluation in higher education, 35(5), pp.535-550.
Taras, M. (2010). Student self-assessment: Processes and consequences. Teaching in
higher education
15(2), pp. 199-209.
Wiggins, G. (1989). A true test: Toward more authentic and equitable assessment. Phi
Delta Kappan
, 70(9), pp.703‒713.