Assessment information 

EDUC5934M Assignment 2022


Assessment information 

Choose three of the following six tasks. The tasks are in two groups: Group 1: phonology and grammar and 2 lexis, pragmatics and genre/register. You must choose one task from Group One and two tasks from group Two. Each task is weighted equally. You should write approximately 1000 words for each task.  You should provide a separate list of references for each task.

List of tasks: 

Group One

Phonetics and phonology 


Group Two



Genre and register

Word limit: 3,000 words 

Group one


Produce a phonetic transcription of the following dialogue, assuming both speakers speak RP but are speaking in a casual style. [Note: the transcription does not contribute to the word count]

Identify three words in the dialogue for which a phoneme could be pronounced by a choice of more than one allophone (i.e. there is more than one way to produce the sound). For each phoneme, identify the possible allophones and explain why more than one pronunciation is possible, using one or more of these factors:

a. Complementary distribution & free variation

b. Word stress

c. Connected speech

Specify a group of L2 English learners from a particular L1 background and identify two aspects of pronunciation (i.e. phonemic variation, connected speech, stress or intonation) that might cause them difficulty when speaking this dialogue. Explain why these aspects might be problematic.




Context: Medical consultation. 

Line number Speaker Phonetic Transcription


Speaker 1 gʊd ˈmɔːnɪŋ


Speaker 2 ɪts ən ɪnˈʃʊərəns ʌpˈdeɪtɪd  ˈjɛstədeɪ


Speaker 1 twɛlfθ


Speaker 2 kən  gɪv əs ə prɪsˈkrɪpʃən  ðiːz?


Speaker 1 ʤəst sʌm  mɔːəv ðəʊz? ʃʊə

ðæts ðæt ˈkʌvəd…. ˈtwɛnti ˈsɛkənd …


Speaker 2 ˈtwɛnti sɪksθ aɪv gɒt ən ˈɪntəvjuː


Speaker 1 ɑː ðiːz ˈhɛlpɪŋ?


Speaker 2 jɛs


Speaker 1 gʊd …


Speaker 2 jɛs θɪŋk aɪv ə wiː tʌʧ əv ðə fluː


Speaker 1  məst bi ði ˈəʊnli wʌn


Speaker 2 ɪz ɪt bæk?


Speaker 1 əʊ jɛs.


Speaker 2 jɛs?
15 Speaker 1 əʊɪts ˈnɛvə biːn əˈweɪ.


Speaker 2 əʊ fiːl ˈtɛrəbl ðɪs ˈmɔːnɪŋ.


Speaker 1 ˈnɛvə biːn əˈweɪɪts biːn …. ðə lɑːst mʌnθ […]


Speaker 2 əʊ  ˈnɛvə kɔːt ɪtraɪt ɪˈnʌfbət  fiːl əz ɪf aɪv kɔːt ɪt naʊ






Speaker 1 wɛl lɛts siː ɪf wi kən gɛt θɪŋz ˈkwaɪətnd daʊn   laɪf.

həv ɪt ˈiːzi

ɪn ðə pɑːst mʌnθ ɪn hɪəwɛlɪts biːn laɪk  ðæt ˈɛvri deɪ.

biːn laɪk  ðætˈɛvri deɪðəz ˈnɛvə biːn ə ˈkwaɪət deɪ..
ðeə wi ə ˈʧɑːliˈðætl kiːp  ðæt raɪt  juː.


Speaker 2 . ˈəʊˈkeɪθæŋks


Speaker 1 ˈəʊˈkeɪraɪtˈʧɪərɪˈəʊ naʊ


Speaker 2 ˈʧɪərɪˈəʊ.


Adapted from BNC Text H5R





Task 3: Grammar

Identify the word classes, phrases and grammatical relations in the following sentences, using the terminology introduced in the lecture on grammar. This part of the task does not contribute to the word count.


Sentence: “the woman ate the sandwich”

Subject Predicator Object
Noun Phrase Verb phrase Noun Phrase
Determiner Noun Verb Determiner Noun
The woman ate the sandwich


Sometimes, due to grammatical ambiguity, there is more than one grammatical analysis. Find two examples from the sentences where there is more than one way to analyze the grammar. For each example, explain why they are grammatically ambiguous.

Specify a language other than English that you know well and identify two aspects of grammar in English in the example sentences which are different from that language.


Ending the pandemic is only half the job.

For all the devastation it has caused, the pandemic has taught us some important lessons.

Ministers prioritise working together to tackle the virus and develop vaccines.

We have a fighting chance to bring the world back together in 2021.

The UN climate conference announced in December they would start something new and better.

Climate summits rarely turn out to be the make-or-break, all-or-nothing moment people imagine them to be.

Adapted from Sauven J. (2020). Amid 2020’s gloom, there are reasons to be hopeful about the climate in 2020. The Guardian.





Group two


Discuss the following notions using examples from the text below:

Word formation

paradigmatic relations

syntagmatic relations (also known as collocation)



It was the sweetest, most mysterious-looking place anyone could imagine1. The high walls which shut it in were covered with the leafless stems of climbing roses which were so thick that they were matted together2. Mary Lennox knew they were roses because she had seen a great many roses in India3. All the ground was covered with grass of a wintry brown and out of it grew clumps of bushes which were surely rosebushes if they were alive4. There were numbers of standard roses which had so spread their branches that they were like little trees5. There were other trees in the garden, and one of the things which made the place look strangest and loveliest was that climbing roses had run all over them and swung down long tendrils which made light swaying curtains, and here and there they had caught at each other or at a far-reaching branch and had crept from one tree to another and made lovely bridges of themselves6. There were neither leaves nor roses on them now and Mary did not know whether they were dead or alive, but their thin gray or brown branches and sprays looked like a sort of hazy mantle spreading over everything, walls, and trees, and even brown grass, where they had fallen from their fastenings and run along the ground7. It was this hazy tangle from tree to tree which made it all look so mysterious8. Mary had thought it must be different from other gardens which had not been left all by themselves so long; and indeed it was different from any other place she had ever seen in her life9.

How still it is!” she whispered. “How still!”10

Then she waited a moment and listened at the stillness11. The robin, who had flown to his treetop, was still as all the rest12. He did not even flutter his wings; he sat without stirring, and looked at Mary13.

No wonder it is still,” she whispered again. “I am the first person who has spoken in here for ten years.”14

END OF EXTRACT, adapted from Burnett, F. H. The Secret Garden.




In order to begin with the task, let’s first understand the term “Lexis”. The word lexis is derived from the Greek word for “word” and denotes “all the words in a language,” refers to a language’s entire vocabulary. It is a term used in linguistic to refer to the language’s vocabulary. (The Routledge Handbook of Applied Linguistics, chap 40 pp571). Lexis is a collection of words, phrases,and idioms that are used in language texts and spoken data.

Lexis, or the whole collection of words used by speakers of a language, is referred to in linguistics as the word stock of that language. It contains the names, pronunciations, and definitions of the words. One word may have several different meanings (semantic lexical units), and several different words may communicate one meaning (synonyms). The vocabulary of a person is the collection of terms they are familiar with in that language. The only consideration in vocabulary learning is one’s acquaintance with the target language. One can gain a better understanding of the lexicon by speaking the language. The fundamental characteristic of the language may be the choice of lexis, which may include jargon (specialised terminology),dialect, slang, colloquialisms, taboo terms, clichés, euphemisms, archaisms (reduced definitions),and so on. Language is typically viewed as a collection of words (often packaged in lists), whereas lexis is a more detailed concept that includes chunks, collocations, and formulaic expressions (Godddar,Angel,1954,author Cha44,PP21) As discussed above, it is clear that Lexis is the word stock of language and this word stock of language is being enriched every day by adding new words. The word formation in any language is believed to take place in two ways.

Word formation:

New words are added to the existing language in two fundamental ways either by taking the words from other language or by forming new words from the already existing words from a language’s native source. (Bauer 2008). The two ways of word formation are as follow:

Borrowing: The word that is taken from another language is referred to as a “loan word,” and the process of borrowing a word is called “borrowing.” (Bauer2008). It has been found that borrowed words from other languages are often kept by the borrower and rarely returned to the original language. The vast majority of the time, the speakers don’t mind if the other speakers use their language. (Bauer 2008. Ch-2,PP 15) There can be two types of borrowing. When a term is borrowed in association with the thing it symbolises, this is referred to as the first type of borrowing. In these situations, the borrowed word is always discovered to be closely related to the linguistic region, from whence the object is located. Words connected to food and wildlife, such as tea, curry, chocolate, kangaroos, and jakes, are a few examples of these words.(Bauer2028). In the second instance, people occasionally take terms for prestigious purposes. For instance: English speakers adopted “soupçon” from the French, who were using it to denote “drop,” “touch,” or “suspicion.” Ipso facto is a Latin phrase that English speakers adopted in place of the expression “by the fact itself.”.( discussing the origin of these borrowed terms in the English language, it has been believed that the borrowed words mainly four languages are borrowed in English.These included the Scavandian Language, which was primarily Danish, and included phrases like “sister in law,” “give and take,” etc. Words relating to religion, government, food, and riches, such as battle, prayer, parliament,etc.,are among the French words that have been borrowed into English. Apart from these, a significant portion of terms were appropriated from classical languages like Greek and Latin, particularly those ending in “ion” or “ic,” such as the Greek word admittance and deduction (Latin). (Bauer2008).

Compounding Compounding is another method for creating new words. In this, two previous words are combined to create a brand-new word. Compounding is the process of combining two existing words to form a single new word.(Bauer,1998).The two words’ respective meanings should be combined to form the compound word’s meaning. It can also be seen that the two parts of the compound word have a variety of semantic correlations. The following table contains some of the examples indicating the meaningful relationship.

Compound word

Element a

Element b

Meaning relationship

heat rash



A causes b

Flue virus



A is cuased by B




B is part of A

Words can also be formed by infection and derivation in addition to borrowing and compounding. The process of constructing a new word out of two or more pieces is referred to as inflection or derivation.. (Bauer and Nuan,2020).

Word = stem + affixes (prefixes or suffixes) example: Unfamiliarity

Un Familiar ity
prefix stem suffix

Inflection: the same words are modified by making grammatical forms. Inflection rules for English words vary depending on the grammatical category and part of speech. The list below includes the most typical rules.

Part of Speech Grammatical Category Inflection Examples
Noun Number -s, -es Chair → Chairs

Glass → Glasses

Noun, Pronoun Case (Genitive) -‘s, -‘, -s Ryan → Ryan’s

Student→ Students’

It → Its

Pronoun Case (Reflexive) -self, -selves Him → Himself

Them → Themselves

Verb Aspect (Progressive) -ing go→ going
Verb Aspect (Perfect) -en, -ed sleep→ (Has)slept

Finish → (Has) finished

Verb Tense (Past) -ed close→ closed
Verb Tense (Present) -s close→ closes
Adjective Degree of Comparison (Comparative) -er quick→ quicker
Adjective Degree of Comparison (Superlative) -est quick → quickest

Derivation:  Derivation is process of creating and leading to the formation of new words from two or more parts. It is, in fact, by far the most frequent method used to create new. The core of the derivational process is typically an already existing term to which we add affixes. In dictionaries, these affixes are typically listed together as prefixes and suffixes rather than separately. The majority of the time, these affixes transform words from one lexical category (part of speech) into terms from a different category.

The picture contains typical examples of English derivational pattern and their affixes.

The grammatical classification of the words they are linked to is altered by the derivational suffixes shown above. (

Analysis of word formation in the extract adapted from Burnett, F. H. The Secret Garden.
Examples Borrowed word Analysis of the word
Line 1 …. It was the sweetest, most mysterious-looking place Mysterious

It has been partly derived from the Latin word ‘mysterium’ meaning a secret thing and derived from the French mystérieux ,combined with the English element.

Etymons: French mystérieux ; Latin mystērium  

(Probably of multiple origins)

Evidence source: The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology, edited by T.F. Hoad. (

Line 16…

There were numbers of standard roses ….


It has been borrowed from French. 

Etymons:  French standardeestandart.

Meaning : level or degree of quality or achievement

Evidence source: The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology, edited by T.F. Hoad.


Examples Compounding word

Analysis of the word

Line 1 …. It was the sweetest, most mysterious-looking place anyone… anyone

Anyone= any + one meaning any person or individual.

Line 2 …. The high walls which shut it in were covered with the leafless stems leafless

Leafless = leaf +less

meaning without any leaf

Examples Inflection

Analysis of the word

Line 1….

It was the sweetest, most mysterious-looking place anyone

Sweetest (adj.)

sweet + est = sweetest

sweetest is the superlative degree of the adjective ‘sweet’. It has been used to qualify and describe place, which is being talked about by the narrator.

Line 4….

All the ground was covered with…..

Covered (verb)

cover+ed =covered

covered is the past tense of the verb ‘cover’

Examples Derivative

Analysis of the word

Line 1 …. It was the sweetest, most mysterious-looking place anyone… mysterious

mysterious =myster(y) + ious (n; adj.) The suffix added to the noun mystery is ‘ious’. By adding this suffix the noun mystery is changed into an adjective. It has led to the change in the lexical category of the word i.e from noun to adjective.

Line 4…. All the ground was covered with grass of a wintry brown wintry

wintry =wint(e)r + y (n; adj.) The suffix added to the noun winter is ‘y’. By adding this suffix, the noun winter has changed into an adjective. It has led to the change in the lexical category of the word i.e from noun to adjective.

Line 3 (2nd Para )…. Then she waited a moment and listened at the stillness…. stillness

Stillness = still + ness(adj; n). The suffix added to the adjective still is ‘ness’. By adding this suffix, the adjective still has changed into a noun (abstract noun). It has led to the change in the lexical category of the word i.e from adjective to noun.


Paradigmatic relations:

A set of linguistic objects known as a paradigm constitutes mutually exclusive alternatives for specific purposes (such as grammatical or semantic). Paradigmatic (sense) relations describe the relationships between various terms in which a choice is possible.

The manner that words are arranged into categories, such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc., is referred to as a paradigmatic connection. The dog/cat/monkey bit me is an example of how words from the same word class can be substituted for one another.

It has been seen that humans choose one lexical item over another when using a word or phrase based on how those meanings relate to one another. This creates need for sound paradigmatic relations. (McCarthy,1990).

Paradigmatic relations are of four types. These are synonymy, antonymy, hyponymy and meronymy.

Synonyma word having the same or almost the same meaning as another word in the same language. It can also be described as the words having(nearly) the same meaning or refer to the same referent. According to Leech (1981: 14), hardly any words have both the same conceptual and the same stylistic meaning. Therefore, the definition of “synonymy” must be limited to equivalent to one of the aforementioned meanings. The phrases used by Lyons (1995: 60) to describe the scale’s points vary. He noted the idea of “absolute synonymy” and identifies three requirements that lexical elements must meet in order to be classified as absolute synonyms:

a) Each of their meanings must be the same

b) They must be interchangeable in all contexts, meaning that their collocational ranges must match.

c) They must have semantic parity on all meaning dimensions, including descriptive and non-descriptive.

“Descriptive synonyms” are terms with the same descriptive meaning, such as big and large in the sentence They live in a _____ house. Lyons stated that absolute synonyms are exceedingly rare and that, even when words share a descriptive meaning, they almost always differ in terms of the intensity or range of their expressive meaning.

“Partial synonymy” and “near-synonymy” are the additional types of synonymy that Lyons introduced. The lexical entities that satisfy the identity of meaning requirement but fall short of absolute synonymy are referred to as partial synonyms. As an example of near-synonyms, Lyons provides the pair mistfog.

In the given excerpt, in line no.6 swung down long tendrils which made light swaying curtains,…….. the words swing and swaying form a pair of partial synonyms, as both these words are associated with movement to and fro in case of swung and back and forth or side to side movement. In this exceprt the both these words are related to the movement or motion of the rose stem. However, in first case, the word swung down long tendrils conveys that the rose bushes hung down freely with light movements, whereas word ‘swaying’ indicates the rose bushes making tro and fro movement.

Antonymy: It can be defined as the oppositeness of meaning between the words. (Leech1974, Lyons 1977). According to McArthur et al. (1985), antonymy can be categorised as relational (eg.come/go), complimentary (, or gradable. Gradable antonyms, such as hot-cold, display a more-less relationship based on a spectrum. This pair uses size as the spectrum, which can be changed by adjectives, such as very hot-very cold. [Lyons,1977, p.291)

In pairings of absolute opposites known as complementary antonyms, the affirmation of one implies the denial of the other, as in the phrase could – couldn’t.Antonym:  a word having a meaning opposite to that of another word. Antonymy, the oppositeness of meaning between words (XXXX),

While analysing the given extract we find a pair of gradable anyonyms example thick and thin in line no 2… which were so thick….. and their thin gray or brown branches in line no.7. The explanation of this pair can be that both these words thick and thin have been used for the rose stem/branches. This pair is expressing the contrasting growth of the rose stem, thick indicating healthy growth(eg we say thick forest), and thin indicating not very healthy growth (eg:After keratin treatment her hair got thin).

Another example of the antonyms is daed or alive in line no. 7 whether they were dead or alive… This is an example of ungradable antonyms or binary taxonomies.It implies that one can either be dead or alive,which are two extremes.

Hyponymy: Hyponymy shows the relationship between a generic term (hypernym) and a specific instance of it (hyponym). Specific terms in the vocabulary are covered by more general trems. The word tulips/marigold/rose/ pensy are hyponyms of flower. Flower is the superordinate terms.

Hyponymy can be described according to unilateral implication, for example in the given excerpt the word Place is a superordinate and garden, ground are the hyponyms of the superordinate place, which implies that if it is a garden or ground ,it is a place, but not necessarily the vice versa. (McCarthy & carter,2002). Also, garden and ground are co- hyponyms of superordinate term ‘place’.



Co- hyponyms


Meronymy: It is a type of hierarchy that deals with part–whole relationships. A meronym is a word that refers to a constituent or a member of something in semantics. As an illustration, the words “apple” of an apple tree can be termed as meronym of apple tree. The term “meronymy” refers to this part-to-whole link. Meronymy is not simply one relationship but rather a collection of various part-to-whole relationships.

In the given excerpt leaves, branches, stem are Meronyms of tree. In this we consider tree as a whole and leaves, branches and stems are its parts.

Similarly ,tendrils, leaves, stem are meronyms of branch.

Syntagmatic relation The relationship between the words in a sentence is referred to as a syntagmatic relation. The lexical company a word keeps, or the tendency of co-occurrence of members of several paradigms, are known as syntagmatic relations (collocations). The meaning of the sentence can be altered by changing the word combination: For example

Peter is bathing a dog.

A dog is bathing Peter.

Both sentences have the same components but in a different order. In other words, the syntagmatic relation explains how the word’s position in a sentence determines the meaning of the sentence.

Peter+ is bathing + a dog

A dog + is bathing + Peter

COLlOCATIONS: “Collocation is ‘ an abstraction at the syntagmatic level and is not directly concerned with conceptual or idea approach to the meaning of the words.”(J.R Firth,1951/1957). Colocations are important to demonstrate that vocabulary is more than just a collection of individual words or “linguistic chunks” that are retained in the brain.

These multi-word chunks, which are kept and retrieved in their entirety from memory, are what make up individual choices.

Colllocates of ‘food’ in the British National Corpus (BNC)

Phraseological approach: ‘focuses on establishing thesemantic relationship between two (or more) words and thedegree of noncompositionality of their meaning.’

Frequency-based approach: ‘draws on quantitative evidenceabout word co-occurrence in corpora.’ (Gablasova et al., 2017, p. 158)



Discuss Speech Act Theory and Politeness Theory giving examples from both of the following two extracts of natural speech. You do not have to comment on the whole of the texts. That is, you do not need to analyse each text line by line but you must use examples from both texts.

Text A: Two friends discussing plans for the weekend


A How busy are you?

I was thinking of a meal together.


B Not too bad.


A Well how about this weekend?

What about the Sunday? 


B Yeah, yeah it’s fine by me. 


A Sunday lunch? 


B Er lunchtime, yeah? 


A Yeah. 


B That would be lovely. 


A That’s November the first


I’ll put it on the calendar


Lend me a pen.


B Sure.


A Thanks.


[writes on calendar].


There’s your pen. 


B Thanks.

(Adapted from the BNC Spoken Corpus)

Text B: A job interview


A What are your current responsibilities? 


B  Dealing with current workers and clients. 


Setting up all our records on the computers and Europeople data base. 


Helping to complete the wages. 


I am also in charge of afterhours emergency calls. 


A How long have you worked at Europeople? 


B  From 2005.

I am the longest serving person working for the company. 


A  Why do you want to leave? 

Why work for us?


B  Well, it’s a combination.

I want an adventure a new challenge, meeting new people, and your company has a strong reputation, helping to change people’s lives for the better. 


A Have you researched us? 


B I suppose you could say that. I have done a bit of research.

I like to be prepared.


A It is good to be prepared.

(adapted from English Web 2020)


Register and Genre

Discuss and compare the following three texts in terms of the frameworks of:




Text one from Best ever chocolate brownies recipe | BBC Good Food

Best ever chocolate brownies recipe


185g unsalted butter

185g best dark chocolate

85g plain flour

40g cocoa powder

50g white chocolate

50g milk chocolate

3 large eggs

275g golden caster sugar


STEP 1: Cut 185g unsalted butter into small cubes and tip into a medium bowl. Break 185g dark chocolate into small pieces and drop into the bowl.

STEP 2: Fill a small saucepan about a quarter full with hot water, then sit the bowl on top so it rests on the rim of the pan, not touching the water. Put over a low heat until the butter and chocolate have melted, stirring occasionally to mix them.

STEP 3: Remove the bowl from the pan. Alternatively, cover the bowl loosely with cling film and put in the microwave for 2 minutes on High. Leave the melted mixture to cool to room temperature.

STEP 4: While you wait for the chocolate to cool, position a shelf in the middle of your oven and turn the oven on to 180C/160C fan/gas 4.

STEP 5: Using a shallow 20cm square tin, cut out a square of non-stick baking parchment to line the base. Tip 85g plain flour and 40g cocoa powder into a sieve held over a medium bowl. Tap and shake the sieve so they run through together and you get rid of any lumps.

STEP 6: Chop 50g white chocolate and 50g milk chocolate into chunks on a board.

STEP 7: Break 3 large eggs into a large bowl and tip in 275g golden caster sugar. With an electric mixer on maximum speed, whisk the eggs and sugar. They will look thick and creamy, like a milk shake. This can take 3-8 minutes, depending on how powerful your mixer is. You’ll know it’s ready when the mixture becomes really pale and about double its original volume. Another check is to turn off the mixer, lift out the beaters and wiggle them from side to side. If the mixture that runs off the beaters leaves a trail on the surface of the mixture in the bowl for a second or two, you’re there.

STEP 8: Pour the cooled chocolate mixture over the eggy mousse, then gently fold together with a rubber spatula. Plunge the spatula in at one side, take it underneath and bring it up the opposite side and in again at the middle. Continue going under and over in a figure of eight, moving the bowl round after each folding so you can get at it from all sides, until the two mixtures are one and the colour is a mottled dark brown. The idea is to marry them without knocking out the air, so be as gentle and slow as you like.

STEP 9: Hold the sieve over the bowl of eggy chocolate mixture and resift the cocoa and flour mixture, shaking the sieve from side to side, to cover the top evenly.

STEP 10: Gently fold in this powder using the same figure of eight action as before. The mixture will look dry and dusty at first, and a bit unpromising, but if you keep going very gently and patiently, it will end up looking gungy and fudgy. Stop just before you feel you should, as you don’t want to overdo this mixing.

STEP 11: Finally, stir in the white and milk chocolate chunks until they’re dotted throughout.

STEP 12: Pour the mixture into the prepared tin, scraping every bit out of the bowl with the spatula. Gently ease the mixture into the corners of the tin and paddle the spatula from side to side across the top to level it.

STEP 13: Put in the oven and set your timer for 25 mins. When the buzzer goes, open the oven, pull the shelf out a bit and gently shake the tin. If the brownie wobbles in the middle, it’s not quite done, so slide it back in and bake for another 5 minutes until the top has a shiny, papery crust and the sides are just beginning to come away from the tin. Take out of the oven.

STEP 14: Leave the whole thing in the tin until completely cold, then, if you’re using the brownie tin, lift up the protruding rim slightly and slide the uncut brownie out on its base. If you’re using a normal tin, lift out the brownie with the foil. Cut into quarters, then cut each quarter into four squares and finally into triangles.


Text Two: Chocolate Brownies: History from Chocolate brownie – Wikipedia


One legend about the creation of brownies is that of Bertha Palmer, a prominent Chicago socialite whose husband owned the Palmer House Hotel. In 1893, Palmer asked a pastry chef for a dessert suitable for ladies attending the Chicago World’s Columbian Exposition. She requested a cake-like confection smaller than a piece of cake that could be included in boxed lunches. The result was the Palmer House Brownie with walnuts and an apricot glaze. The modern Palmer House Hotel serves a dessert to patrons made from the same recipe. The name was given to the dessert sometime after 1893, but was not used by cook books or journals at the time.

The first-known printed use of the word “brownie” to describe a dessert appeared in the 1896 version of the Boston Cooking-School Cook Book by Fannie Farmer, in reference to molasses cakes baked individually in tin molds. However, Farmer’s brownies did not contain chocolate.

In 1899, the first-known recipe was published in Machias Cookbook. They were called “Brownie’s Food”. The recipe appears on page 23 in the cake section of the book. Marie Kelley from Whitewater, Wisconsin, created the recipe.

The earliest-known published recipes for a modern style chocolate brownie appeared in the Home Cookery (1904, Laconia, NH), Service Club Cook Book (1904, Chicago, IL), The Boston Globe (April 2, 1905 p. 34), and the 1906 edition of Fannie Farmer’s cookbook. These recipes produced a relatively mild and cake-like brownie.

By 1907, the brownie was well established in a recognizable form, appearing in Lowney’s Cook Book by Maria Willet Howard (published by Walter M. Lowney Company, Boston) as an adaptation of the Boston Cooking School recipe for a “Bangor Brownie”. It added an extra egg and an additional square of chocolate, creating a richer, fudgier dessert.


Text three: Brownie Heaven reviews from Reviews | Brownie Heaven – the brownie delivery service reviewed

Tara Wilson



I didn’t want to share my orgasmic experience 😉

Great friendly service in support of my picky eating to curate a bespoke mixed box. When they finally arrived I made the mistake of opening before breakfast…. eeeeekkkk.

I begrudgingly shared with friends and saw them melt into their chairs with pure heavenly yummy contentment.

Definitely 5* service and products. My only note would be to find a speedier delivery service as you want to enjoy the brownies at their most fresh the next day.

Still drooling

Brownie Heaven replied

Thank you Tara for the wonderful review, I’m really pleased you enjoyed the Brownies that we put together at your request. Melting is definitely an adjective commonly used to describe when anybody has a bite or two.

We do offer fast delivery as an option which can be named day and the brownies are dispatched on the day before delivery. We also offer the no rush delivery which is 1-2 days delivery after dispatch to help keep costs down. The brownies stay really fresh as they are well wrapped and contain so much chocolate they can be treated more like chocolate.