APA Referencing Guide

This style consists of the different formatting methods with the different types of the term papers, journal and the articles or the books. The user guide has been specific to explain about how one can cite the references based on the APA style. This is set in record to the forms and the citations depending upon:

  • Single author: Use the author’s last name, year.

(Morse, 1996) OR Morse (1996) showed that…

  • Two authors: Use both authors’ last names, separated by an ampersand if in parentheses.

(Ringsven & Bond, 1996) OR In their study, Ringsven and Bond (1996)

  • Three to five authors: Use all authors’ names and year, the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the first author followed by “et al.” and the year.

First citation: (Johnson, Brunn, & Platt, 2002) OR Johnson, Brunn and Platt (2002)
Subsequent citations: (Johnson et al., 2002). Omit the year if the subsequent citation is in the same paragraph.

  • Six or more authors: Use only the first author followed by et al. and the year.

(Arpin et al., 2001) OR Arpin et al. (2001)
If two references with the same year shorten to the same form, cite the name of the first authors and as many of the subsequent authors as necessary to distinguish the two references, followed by a comma and et al.

  • Groups as authors: Corporation, association, and government names are given in full in the first citation, and may be abbreviated thereafter if the name is long.

(The Michener Institute, 2002) OR The Michener Institute (2002) reported that…

Avoiding the Plagiarism

The standards are based on how one is able to submit the thoughts, writings and the other notes to acknowledge the sources. Types of concepts that require a reference include: discoveries, theories, controversies and opinions. Don’t forget to acknowledge the source of illustrations, charts, and tables of data.

There are several reasons for including a reference:

  • it is ethical to credit others for their contributions to your writing;
  • it may be a legal obligation in the case of copyright;
  • to protect you in the case of questionable allegations;
  • to reflect your prior reading effort;
  • to show the sequence of events involved in the resolution of a scientific problem, as part of your argument.


The check is on how to handle the concepts or theory based on the different sentenceswhich are based on the different concepts. The forms are based on the use of paraphrasing rather than any type of the direct quotes.

Quotations: Direct quotations are to be used very sparingly. The chief drawback is that the text becomes choppy and difficult to read. Using the author’s own words in a direct quote is usually justified for only the following reasons:

  • credibility, an argument gains credibility by quoting a known authority;
  • power, an argument gains power by the skillful weaving-in of knowledge into the text;
  • eloquence, an argument gains eloquence by using a direct quote that illuminates the concept.

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