and acknowledge toST Patrick’s International College

Migrating From IPv4 to IPv6 Name of the Student Meledje Akpro Joseph Name of the University ST PATRICK’S INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE Author’s Note   Acknowledgement I predominantly obliged to express my gratitude and acknowledge toST Patrick’s International College, and our tutors for providing us valuable resources that helped us to gain more knowledge in network engineering course. This project helped us to research on the new available technology and protocol that helped us to gain practical knowledge. The access of the college library helped us to solve the problem that we faced during the development of the project. I am thankful to our project supervisor Kamran Ali, and want to thank them heartily for guiding us at every stage of development and helping us providing valuable resources and inspiration for the final term. I would also like to thank the principal of our college and for providing us the opportunity to continue with the project and encourage us for the last two years of, ‘Person’s HND Diploma’. By Meledje Akpro Joseph College Name: ST Patrick’s International College Year 2  Table of Contents CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION 4 CHAPTER 2 – LITERATURE REVIEW 6 CHAPTER 3 – ANALYSIS AND DESIGN 7 3.1. Discussion of the analysis 7 3.2. Discussion of the design 7 3.3. Development Methodology 8 CHAPTER 4 – IMPLEMENTATION 9 4.1. Introduction 9 4.2. Challenges faced during the implementation 9 4.3. Demonstration of the Artifacts 9 4.4. Summary 10 CHAPTER 5 – TESTING 10 5.1. Testing techniques 10 5.2. Testing plan 10 5.3. Discussion 10 CHAPTER 6 – EVALUATION AND CONCLUSION 11 OVERALL CONCLUSION SUMMARY 11 Future development 12 References 13   List of Figures Figure 1: Gantt chart prepared for the project planning 6   CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION The report is prepared for configuring the IP address in a network and identification of the problem that can be found while configuring the network with both the addressing scheme i.e. IPv4 and IPv6. The main problem found while configuring the IPv6 address on a router is that the old routers does not supports the IPv6 address and thus the new router is required to be used. When the network traffic comes from a multiple broadcast domain server the data packets competes with each other to reach the destination source and reaching the device which is not configured properly the packets are lost. If the connection between the router and the switch is configured with trunk protocol the possibility of data loss decreases and the data packets can be transferred from each of the devices configured with the IPv4 and IPv6 address. The solution for transformation of the IPv4 to IPv6 address is using different schemes like tunneling, dual stacking method and NAT proxy translation for communicating with the devices configured with IPv4 address. The dual stacking method defines that the routers and the switches are needed to be configured with both the IPv4 and the IPv6 address and the data packets when sent to the device compares the IP address and forwards it to the destination host or the next hop address. The tunneling is use for converting the IPv4 address to IPv6 address or vice versa. With the implementation of the IPv6 address scheme the security of the network increases because it is difficult for the hackers to crack the 128 bit address. 1.1. Aim and Objectives The aim of this project is to understand crucial implementation steps required when migrating from IPV4 to IPV6 to ensure an effective approach and successful outcome. There is no doubt that migrating from IPV4 to IPV6 present many benefits but equally many challenges and issues causing delay and reluctance. Therefore, this project aim to help elaborate and explore effective planning to overcome those challenges to deliver seamless integration and transition as possible. Additionally although IPV6 protocol has been around for sometimes now, there are still knowledge gap of it, lack of skills and effective communication channel to allow businesses and users to fully embrace it. In this project, relevant details information of IPV6 will be provided to enhance the knowledge of it. And overviewfew practical deployment scenarios and solutions to reduce misconception. Finally, at the end of this project the audience would have gain greater confidence, substantial information, and tailored solutions to specific cases to carry out IPV6 migration. The main objective of the project are as follows: 1. Analyse the difference between IPV4 and IPV6 2. Understand IPV6 Protocols and standards 3. Explore potential challenges and issues during migration 4. Understand crucial implementation steps 5. Elaborate appropriate strategies and planning approach 6. Provide deployment scenario and practical tailored solutions Brief Description: The project of ‘IPV6 – Migration Study from IPv4 and IPv6’ started with the creation of the project proposal and the project plan. A literature review is done for understanding the working principle of IPV6 protocol and standards to allow the implementation IPV6 address in a network. The use of the hardware devices, software version, as well as license are essential for configuring the IPV6 and implement its full benefits. Layer 2 and the layer 3 switches are also analyzed for creation of the report and performing the practical operation. Cisco packet tracer is used for configuring the devices and finding the flaws in the network when more data is generated in the network. The routers and the switches are configured with the tunneling protocol such that the old devices that are configured with IPv4 configuration can operate with the IPv6 configured devices. The IPv6 uses 128 bit addressing whereas IPv4 uses 32 bit address and thus have the limitation to accommodate the growing number of devices in the network. Different protocols and techniques are used for the transformation of the Ipv4 with the IPv6 address without affecting the network and for increasing the efficiency of the network. The proper configuration of the router and the end devices are necessary for the implementation of the IPv6 address scheme in an old network currently running using the IPv4 addressing. The implementation of the IPv6 helps to increase the address space of the network but there is as requirement of proper subnetting for reducing the wastage of the IP address. A verification must be done on the network where the IPv6 addressing is required to be implemented because all the devices are not capable to run using the IPv6 address as they were designed for IPv4 address. The objectives of the project are aligned during the development of the project. The different network components are analyzed and the network design is created using the cisco packet tracer. The devices are configured with appropriate protocol and all the devices are connected with a central server and the IPs are provided to the hosts connected to it. The network is tested and the more devices are added with IPv6 address without changing the structure of the network or changing the cabling plan. A power point poster and slides are created for the demonstration of the proper working of the project. 1.2. Project Plan For the preparation of a project plan a gnat chart is prepared that describes the phases of the project and its estimated completion dates. Figure 1: Gantt chart prepared for the project planning (Source: Created by author) CHAPTER 2 – LITERATURE REVIEW The router for broadcasting the address requires more time and thus the implementation of the VLAN becomes the alternative solution for the segmentation of the network and increases the performance. The switch and the bridge faster than the router send the broadcast message and this is the main reason for the deployment of the VLAN network (Feldkamp, Bergmann and Strassburger 2015). For example, in case of a network with LAN configuration, the broadcast message is sent to all the connected nodes and the network configured with VLAN connection sends broadcast
message to the specified broadcast domain and thus generating less network traffic in the network. There are different VLAN configuration for the intranet such as inter-VLAN used for sending the data packets from a layer of the VLAN to another layer of the router (Goransson, Black and Culver 2016). The VLAN can be distinguished from their IP address and the sub net mask and it also facilitates the routing process for the connected VLAN. VLAN tagging protocol 802.1q can be used for the aggregation of the link. This are specially used in the trunk lines and the closed frame is tagged with the crossing of the data frames. The tag consists of the ID of the VLAN and other information that can be used to detect the source VLAN from where the data is sent (Hanuliak and Hanuliak 2013). The trunk line is used for tunneling of the data and the data can be sent from any address using the VPN service and would not check the configuration of the host either configured with IPv4 or IPv6 address scheme. On passing the trunk the data frame is tagged and on reaching the next hop address the tag is removed and packet is forwarded to the destination address. The devices that are configured with VLAN can only process the tag. If there is more than one switch in the network the switches are required to be configured with trunk. CHAPTER 3 – ANALYSIS AND DESIGN 3.1. Discussion of the analysis The VLAN architecture is analyzed for understanding the networking principles and create an appropriate technique to transform the IPv4 address to IPv6 address scheme in the proposed network design. The functional and the non- functional requirement of the project is analyzed that consists of the functional characteristics and the behavior of the network components on different situations (Safari 2017). The hardware used in the network and the device that creates problem and waste time during sending and receiving the data packetsare analyzed. The requirement of the organization is required to be analyzed and the solution that is deployed should also be analyzed depending and aligned with the requirement (Services et al.2017). Layer 2 switches should be used by the organization to avoid deadlock situations, the switches must be configured with appropriate protocol to permit flex stacking, VLAN support and inter VLAN layer 3 routing capability, and the router must have the option of VPN service and gigabit Ethernet for the creation of the VLAN. 3.2. Discussion of the design The network is required to be designed to protect the inner components from external attacks like virus or hackers. A firewall should be installed at the entry and the exit point of the network to block the unknown data packets. The VLAN is required to be configured properly to handle the request and the different layers such as physical and data link layer must be secured (Services, Routers and Routers 2017). A VPN service is required to be configured for the VLAN works using the web server, the name of the website should be linked with the IP address, and the permission must be set for the user accessing the libraries of the web server. The email server must be configured with the file transfer protocol and the DHCP server should be able to provide IP address to the dissimilar VLANs and static IP address configured with IPv6 address scheme must be provided to the hosts connected to the network. 3.3. Development Methodology The network cabling plan is also required to be analyzed and find that the appropriate cable is used for connecting the devices. The same devices such as the connection between two switches should be done using a straight copper cable and the connection between the router and the switch should be done using a cross copper cable (Webopedia.com 2017). The problem that is causing the IP address translation and causing problem for the communication with the IPv4 address can be eliminated with the configuration of the network devices with the dual stacking method and configuring NAT (network address translation) to the router for sending and receiving the data packets in the network (YouTube 2017). Thus, there is a requirement of configuring the other hardware devices and there is no requirement to change the hardware device, the layers of the devices must be configured to prevent the bottleneck condition. CHAPTER 4 – IMPLEMENTATION 4.1. Introduction It is the phase of the creating the design and it requires different software like the Cisco packet tracer for configuration of the network devices. Different challenges were faced during the implementation of the VLAN configured with IPv6 in the proposed network solution. The routers and the layer 3 switches must be configured with tunneling to allow the devices to remove the tag when passing the packets forward. 4.2. Challenges faced during the implementation The firewalls have no option for the allocation of multiple VLAN in a single interface connected with the trunk protocol. However different alternative solution were analyzed to overcome this problem and it is connecting one physical trunk line with the router and configuration of the sub interface for all the respective hosts connected with the router. The configuration of the router with the ACL can reduce the problem of transmission of data packets through different devices in the network configured with IPv4 and IPv6 protocol and allowing the specific traffic on the trunk line to communicate and blocking the other traffic to not cross the trunk line. During the configuration of the switch another problem was found that the network switch cannot be configured with the VTP therefore there is a need to find another technique and implement it for getting an appropriate solution. 4.3. Demonstration of the Artifacts The alternative of tunneling method is pruning and permitting the necessary traffic via the VLAN, which also reduces the number of broadcast message, and thus flooding of the switch is eliminated. The Central router is required to be configured with the ACL and amplifying the network security. It should be configured with dual stacking for the connecting the IPv4 and the Ipv6 devices. 4.4. Summary The DHCP and DNS server is required to be configured and a pool should be allocated for each of the configured VLAN with IPv6. The web server must be configured with an IP address and the Email server is required to be configured with FTP, SMTP services and different ports must be blocked and allowed for communicate with the different VLANs connected with the network. CHAPTER 5 – TESTING 5.1. Testing techniques For the testing of the network and proper working of the VLAN the servers configured with the IPv6 addressand the network must be tested. The testing can be done following the white box testing methodology. 5.2. Testing plan Different code is used for testing the network and the errors occurring during the test must be mitigated for preventing hacking and loss of data. 5.3. Discussion The network can be tested pinging from different layers of the switch to all the hosts configured with IPv4 and IPv6 addressing schemes. The host connected with the network should be pinged with the router and the loss of the data packets must be noted. The VLANs must also be pinged with each other to find the proper working of the VLANs. The loopback command can also be used for the testing the working of the DHCP address.   CHAPTER 6 – EVALUATION AND CONCLUSION Evaluation against objectives- The components in the report are properly reviewed and some problems were identified in the implementation part of the report. This describes the challenges faced during the configuration of the router and the switches connected in the network. End user perspective- The network must not face any lag while transmitting the data packets from the source to the destination. The broadcast message can be reduced with the configuration of the switch with ACL protocol. Project Managers perspective- There is a requirement found at the end of the configuration that the routers and the switches must be configured with dual stacking and tunneling method and thus priorities are not
required to be set. Some of the STP are used for blocking the port for the DHCP client and the firewall is not configured because it does not support multiple host connection. Developer’s perspective- The testing of the network is done without any problems and thus the project completed successfully. It can be concluded that the problem occurs in the network due to mismatch of the IP address configuration and generation of traffic from broadcasting message from the switches. OVERALL CONCLUSION SUMMARY The report is prepared analyzing the different methodology and configuration techniques used for configuring anInternet protocol address. The project is developed after a proper planning and preparation of a gnat chart. A literature review of the project is prepared for understanding the working principle of Internet protocol. Then the analysis and the design of the network are done. After the preparation of the design the solution is required to be tested multiple time for finding errors in the system and mitigate it immediately. The whole project has been developed on Cisco Packet Tracer and minor complication was faced for running the commands and different resources were studied for configuring the router and the switches with IPv6 protocol. Future development The configured network with IPv6 has eliminated the risk of data loss in the current network from the study on the networking concept it has been found that the configuration of the router with ACL command can be used for removing the bottleneck. Thus there is scope of future development of the project. I have a keen interest on the network and security the security in the proposed network can be improved with configuring the firewall and allowing and blocking request from different terminals. The intrusion attack on the network is required to be eliminated for increasing the efficiency of the network. Different authentication methods are required to be applied in the hardware devices for the proper working of the system.   References Feldkamp, N., Bergmann, S. and Strassburger, S., 2015, December. Visual analytics of manufacturing simulation data. In Proceedings of the 2015 Winter Simulation Conference (pp. 779-790). IEEE Press. Goransson, P., Black, C. and Culver, T., 2016. Software Defined Networks: A Comprehensive Approach. Morgan Kaufmann. Grama, C., 2016. Adapting Lean User Experience Process for Enterprise Environment. Hanuliak, P. and Hanuliak, M., 2013. Performance modeling of parallel computers NOW and Grid. American Journal of Networks and Communications, 2(5), pp.112-124. Murray, J., Wettin, P., Pande, P.P. and Shirazi, B., 2016. Sustainable Wireless Network-on-Chip Architectures. Morgan Kaufmann. Safari. (2017). Todd Lammle’s CCNA/CCENT IOS Commands Survival Guide: Exams 100-101, 200-101, and 200-120 [Book]. [online] Available at: https://www.safaribooksonline.com/library/view/todd-lammles-ccnaccent/9781118820070/ [Accessed 25 Feb. 2017]. Services, P., Management, C., (APIC), C., Literature, D. and Papers, W. (2017). Application Centric Infrastructure Overview: Implement a Robust Transport Network for Dynamic Workloads. [online] Cisco. Available at: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/cloud-systems-management/aci-fabric-controller/white-paper-c11-729587.html [Accessed 25 Feb. 2017]. Services, P., Routers, B. and Routers, C. (2017). Cisco 2911 Integrated Services Router. [online] Cisco. Available at: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/routers/2911-integrated-services-router-isr/index.html [Accessed 25 Feb. 2017]. Webopedia.com. (2017). What is Black Box Testing? Webopedia Definition. [online] Available at: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/B/Black_Box_Testing.html [Accessed 25 Feb. 2017]. Webopedia.com. (2017). What is White Box Testing? Webopedia Definition. [online] Available at: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/W/White_Box_Testing.html [Accessed 25 Feb. 2017]. YouTube. (2017). danscourses. [online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/user/danscourses [Accessed 25 Feb. 2017]. HND PROJECT PRESENTATION

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