academic year) and the ability of the.

HND Project When you choose a project, you should do so carefully, to reflect the focus of the degree programme you are enrolled in, your personal interests (the project needs to keep you interested in the whole the academic year) and the ability of the academic staff to support you throughout your project. Projects vary widely in the problem they address and the products they deliver at the end. While the main product of some projects is a piece of software or hardware, other projects produce a systems model or design. This means not every project produces a piece of software. In brief, the better defined the problem that your project addresses, the further through the systems lifecycle you should expect to progress during your project. Arranging Material and Structuring the Project You should consider, at the beginning of your project, what you need to do to solve the problem you have chosen to address. This will then inform choices about the structure of your report; your written report needs to be both a “narrative” (telling the story of your project) and an “argument” (providing a logical justification of the steps you have undertaken to solve your chosen problem). Once you have started to gather material you can begin to arrange it in a form which can then be refined into the final project report, though the outline chapter headings shown below will serve as a good guide in the early stages of your work. Title Page Abstract Acknowledgements Table of Contents Table of Figures 1. Introduction 2. Background 3. Selection of Approach 4. Application of Selected Approach 5.Deliverables from Selected Approach 6. Results and Evaluation 7. Future Work 8. Conclusions Introduction: The “Introduction” A good introduction should tell the reader what the project is about without assuming special knowledge and without introducing any specific material that might obscure the overview. It should anticipate and combine main points described in more detail in the rest of the project report. Also, importantly, it should enthuse the reader about the project, to encourage them to read the whole report. Normally it should include such things as: • The aim(s) or goal(s) of the project • The scope of the project • The approach used in carrying out the project • A broad summary of important outcomes. Background The purpose of the Background section is to provide the typical reader with information that they cannot be expected to know, but which they will need to know in order to fully understand and appreciate the rest of the report. This section may describe such things as: • The wider context of the project • The problem that has been identified • Existing solutions relevant to the problem area, and why these are unsuitable or insufficient in this case. • Methods and tools that your solution may be based on or use to solve the problem and so on….. Specification & Design The purpose of the Specification and Design sections is to give the reader a clear picture of the system you plan to create, in terms of the capability required. A specification should tell the reader what are the design system requirement. We strongly recommend that you make extensive use of diagrams, such as block diagrams, network diagrams with or other pictorial techniques. Implementation The Implementation section is similar to the Specification and Design section in that it describes the system, but it does so at a finer level of detail, down to the implementation on software (e.g. Packet tracer, OpNet. GNS3) or code level. This section is about the realization of the concepts and ideas developed earlier. It can also describe any problems that may have arisen during implementation and how you dealt with them. Results and Evaluation In this section, you should describe to what extent you achieved your goals. You should describe how you demonstrated that the system works as intended (or not, as the case may be). Include comprehensible summaries of the results of all critical tests that were carried out. You might not have had the time to carry out any full rigorous tests – you may not even have got as far as producing a testable system. However, you should try to indicate how confident you are about whatever you have produced, and also suggest what tests would be required to gain further confidence. Future Work It is quite likely that by the end of your project you will not have achieved all that you planned at the start; and in any case, your ideas will have grown during the project beyond what you could hope to do within the available time. The Future Work section is for expressing your unrealized ideas. It is a way of recording that „I have thought about this‟, and it is also a way of stating what you would like to have done if only you had not run out of time. Conclusions The Conclusions section should be a summary of the aims of project and a restatement of its main results, i.e. what has been learnt and what it has achieved. An effective set of conclusions should not introduce new material. Instead it should briefly draw out, summaries, combine and reiterate the main points that have been made in the body of the project report and present opinions based on them. The Conclusions section marks the end of the project report proper. Be honest and objective in your conclusions.

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