4The Comprehensive Critique • The comprehensive critique uses

Dr Jia (Jackie) Rong [email protected] NIT6130 Introduction to Research Week 4: Comprehensive Critique, Citation and ReferenceConduct a Comprehensive Critique NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 4The Comprehensive Critique • The comprehensive critique uses all available sources to locate any research that has a direct bearing on the research problem. • It involves the use of the critical judgment in assessing the quality of the research. • The comprehensive critique will help to identify the most useful sources for literature review. NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 5Conduct the Comprehensive Critique • To conduct the comprehensive critique, you need to – Maintain your search record – Keep your research journal – Have a copy of all sources – Be sure that your copy has full bibliographic information – Check the reference list of every source you have located – Back up your files if you store information in a computer file – Get expert help whenever you need it – Keep your supervisor informed about your progress and problems NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 6Develop a Focused Outline of the Search • Before undertaking the comprehensive critique, you should develop an outline for the search. • The search outline should be sufficiently broad in scope to include all the issues that you will need to deal with in the literature, but not so broad that you sacrifice depth for coverage. • Try to avoid a common mistake of writing a review that is broad but superficial. NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 7Develop a Focused Outline of the Search 1. List all the topics that might be covered, without worrying about the order. 2. Refine the list by eliminating those that seem peripheral and adding any that you might have overlooked. 3. Reorganize the refined list so that the order seems clear and logical. NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 8Define the Parameters of Search 1. Type of article. 2. Language and national source. 3. What time period should the search cover? 4. Should the review include theories and conceptual frameworks? NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 9Conduct a Comprehensive Search • Your goal is to locate all existing sources that related to your research problem. • Completeness is not important in the broad scan or the focused review, but it is for the comprehensive critique. • Update your search keywords after every search – If the number of the returned articles is too big, then try to specify the keywords and narrow down the topic – If the number of the returned articles is too small, then extend your search from primary sources to secondary sources NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 10Lab 4 – Task 4.1 • Conduct a comprehensive search – Employ a comprehensive search to retrieve all the sources that seem to be relevant to your research topic – Update your filing system – Update your reference information file NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 11Lab 4 – Task 4.1 • Conduct a comprehensive search – Employ a comprehensive search to retrieve all the sources that seem to be relevant to your research topic – Update your filing system – Update your reference information file NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 11Narrow Your Focus • If you retrieved a large number of sources, you cannot finish reading all of them. You need to narrow your focus. • Start from new sources, then move to the old ones. • Start with the general topic, then focus on the specific areas of interest. • Read the sources from good journals, then extend your reading to their reference list or the ones cited their work. • Discuss with your supervisor or experienced researchers in the field to seek their feedback and suggestions. NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 13Perform Careful Reading • After narrowing your focus, you will have the most important sources that you need to read in details. • Read these sources from beginning to the end carefully to get a comprehensive understanding of the content. • Evaluate each reading source to identify the current achievement and potential problem to be solved in your own research project. NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 14Questions to Ask Yourself while Reading • Which specific issues have been most often studied? Which seem to warrant further research? • Which authors and which studies are most often citied? • What instruments are available? • Which methods are frequently used? • When were the major studies completed? Does the number of research studies seem to be increasing or decreasing? • Which theories are used as a foundation? NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 19Evaluate the Reading Sources 5. Data collection, presentation, and analysis • Is the data collection method described clearly, free of bias? • Are the data reduced appropriately? • Are the data presented clearly? • Is the data analysis clearly explained, supported by data presented? 6. Summary and discussion • Is the summary accurate, sufficiently detailed without distortion? • Are the findings interpreted appropriately? • Are the conclusions warranted by findings? • Are the interpretations clearly identified? NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 22Evaluate the Reading Sources 7. Research type • Experimental and quasi-experimental • Causal-comparative • Correlational • Descriptive • Evaluation • Case study • Action research 8. Overall evaluation • Sound in all respects • Generally sound, with some minor flaws • Seriously flawed NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 23Summary • Conducting a comprehensive critique will be an ongoing process throughout the thesis project. • Though time-consuming, it is an essential step that should not be hurried. • Your goal is to know everything published so far on your research problems and to know which sources satisfy appropriate criteria. • You need to update your knowledge when a new or interesting topic is found from your retrievals. NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 24Lab 4 – Task 4.2 • Evaluate the retrieved sources – Select one research article from your literature collection – Read through the article carefully – Evaluate the article according to the aspects listed in the lecture notes for practice – Repeat this process for all the retrieve sources (you should do this for your literature review and thesis writing) NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 25Citation & Reference NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 26Citation • A citation is a specific source that you mention in the body of your paper. • The format of the citation may change depending on the style you use (e.g. APA) and the way that you weave the citation into your writing. • The basic elements of the citation that you need to include are: – The author(s) – The year of publication NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 27Reference • References form a list of the sources you have cited. • The references come at the end of your paper. • Every source listed in your references should be accessible by others who read your work. NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 28Practice More • Practice with EndNote and MS Word to insert more citations and references. • You are free to use other reference manager software or tool. • Prepare yourself for literature review writing next week. NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 39Literature Review Writing NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 40Literature Review NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 41 Be aware of the existing research work in the field. Indicate the issues/topics that you will focus on in your review. To show that you can be judicious in your selection
of issues to focus on and take an approach of critical inquiry Title/Cover page Abstract Table of Content Introduction & Background Purpose & Aims of the Study Statement of Significance & Contribution to Knowledge Literature Review Research Design (Methodology & Conceptual Framework) Budget & Timeline Proposed Thesis Structure Appendix (Glossary, index, etc.) Reference ListLiterature Review • The review of the literature presents to the reader the knowledge base upon which your study is built. • The literature review acknowledges its indebtedness to the past and shows clear linkages between – what was known in the past about the topic and – what was discovered in the present research. NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 42Before You Start the Writing • You need to update the comprehensive critique of the literature to make sure that – Your review is as current as you can make it – You have the most recent sources – You have re-read all the usable sources that you retrieved – You are ready to develop a final outline NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 43Major Components of a Literature Review • Four patterns frequently used for literature review • Your choice depends on your own preferences and the requirements of the committee. NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 44 Pattern 1 • The search process • The theoretical literature • The empirical research Pattern 2 • The search process • The empirical research Pattern 3 • The theoretical literature • The empirical research Pattern 4 • The empirical researchBody Organization of the Literature Review • You can organize the main body of the literature review by one of the following orders: – Topical order • Organize by main topics or issues • Emphasize the relationship of the issues to the main “problem” – Chronological order • Organize the literature by the dates the research was published – Problem-cause-solution order • Organize the review so that it moves from the problem to the solution – General-to-specific order (funnel approach) • Examine broad-based research first and then focus on specific studies that relate to the topic – Specific-to-general order • Try to make discussion on specific research studies so conclusions can be drawn NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 46Use Levels of Headings • Levels of headings can help to reflect the outline and make clear to the reader how it is organized. NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 47 The literature review chapter in a thesis, which may not called direct as “Literature Review”. 3 levels of headings are used in this sample.Use Levels of Headings • You should use levels of headings for all chapters in your thesis or all sections in your research proposal. • In most of the thesis, four levels should be sufficient for clarity without getting too complex. – The title of the chapter/section* is considered as Level 1 – The main divisions of the chapter/section as Level 2 – The subdivisions as Level 3 – The sub-subdivisions as Level 4 (do not go further) * Note: chapter for thesis, section for research proposal NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 48Start Your Writing NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 49Write the First Section of the Review • Provide an overview – Begin the first section with a brief overview. – The overview helps the reader understand how that section is organized and what its main divisions are. • Generalize – Write the main developmental paragraphs of that section. – Begin the developmental paragraphs with one or two sentences that generalize what the studies show. – Have an obligation to the reader to make coherent sense of the literature, instead of simply describing it. NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 53Write the First Section of the Review • Specify – Provide the specific evidence, citing and discussing each study relating to that generalization. – How much space you devote to each study depends upon its importance. • A major study should be treated at length, requiring one to four manuscript pages. • A study of moderate significance for your own research can be treated in several paragraphs. • A less important study might simply be noted as one of several sources or be discussed briefly in one paragraph. NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 54Write the Remaining Sections Including a Summary • Use the same pattern of providing an overview, generalizing and specifying when writing the remainder of the sections. • Conclude the chapter with a summary, probably a page or two in length, which reviews the content of the chapter and brings together the key conclusions of all the empirical research. NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 55Specific Reminders • Specific suggestions: – Vary the way you refer to studies – Paraphrase, do not quote. – Be sure each section is organized clearly and gives the reader verbal signals that indicate organization. – Use headings that reveal the organizational pattern. NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 56Evaluate and Revise • When you have finished writing the chapter, put it aside for a while. • You always need to revise your chapter, using technological aids as spell checkers, a thesaurus, and style checkers. NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 57Lab 4 – Task 4.3 • Plan your literature review writing – Discuss your literature review draft with your supervisor – Prepare your literature review according to the suggestions from your supervisor – Draft your literature review NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 58Evaluation Criteria • Is the review – Comprehensive, including all major works relating to your topic? – In depth, providing the reader depth of knowledge about the prior research? – Current, including works published recently? – Selective, discriminating between major and less important studies? – Unbiased, without the writer skewing the prior research to suit his or her point of view? – Clearly organized, so that the reader can easily follow the plan and flow of the chapter? – Coherent, making sense of the studies, not simply describing them? – Effectively written, with a scholarly style? NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 59Readings • Chapter 8 & 15 in Textbook Randy L. Joyner, William Rouse and Allan A. Glatthorn (2013) Writing the Winning Thesis or Dissertation: A Step-by-Step Guide, Corwin Press • EndNote Guide available in Week 5 NIT6130 – Introduction to Research, 2016 60

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