I need an analysis of the information provided… Mayer, R.E. (2008). Applying the science of learning: Evidence-based principles for the design of multimedia instruction. American Psychologist, (63) 8, 760-769. ==== In Mayer’s article, he applies cognitive psychology and applied research in the establishment of multimedia principles. His article supports a cognitivist perspective throughout where he explores a learner’s mental processes and cognition that he describes as the basis for the science behind learning. As a result, Mayer provides verification and guidelines for effective multimedia instruction, directly informed by both the science of learning and the science of instruction. Mayer’s article begins with defining how people learn. His explanation is simple, as he speaks of learning as a change in the learner’s knowledge that comes from experience. Learning depends on three areas experienced in cognitive processing during learning. These include the selection of the incoming material, the organization of incoming information into logical representations, and the integration of incoming material with prior knowledge from the long-term memory (Mayer, 2008, p. 761). He defines multimedia learning as learning from words (printed or spoken) and pictures (static or dynamic). He explains how the brain has dual processing channels that handle both visual and verbal material. Each of these channels can only process a limited amount and for deep learning to occur depends on the ability of the learner’s selection, organization, and integration process. Next, Mayer defines the science of instruction and how it works. Mayer (2008) describes that the act of instruction occurs when a learner engages in appropriate cognitive processing while not overloading the processing channels. In the development of Mayer’s multimedia principles, he conducted dozens of experiments that were grounded in cognitive theory to provide empirical evidence for 10 multimedia principles identifying that the keys to instruction must reduce extraneous processing that does not support the instructional goal, manage essential processing based on the complexity of the material, and foster generative processing that aims to makes sense of the incoming material (p. 762). These three categories surfaced directly from the results of these experiments. In studying extraneous processing, Mayer (2008) founded five principles that are related to reducing cognitive overload, resulting in improved learning. 1) Coherence Principle: decrease extraneous material; 2) Signaling Principle: highlight key material; 3) Redundancy Principle: Avoid on-screen text with narrated animation; 4) Spatial Contiguity Principle: show printed words next with correlating graphics; 5) Temporal Contiguity: match narration and animation timing (p. 763). In studying essential processing, Mayer (2008) founded three principles that are related to eliminating cognitive overload, resulting in more meaningful learning. 1) Segmenting Principle: present content in learner-paced segments; 2) Pre-training Principle: provide pre-training of main concepts; 3) Modality Principle: use words as spoken rather than printed (p. 765). In studying the fostering of generative processing, Mayer (2008) founded two principles that are directly related to providing the cognitive capacity for generative learning. 1) Multimedia Principle: present words and pictures together; 2) Personalization Principle: use words conversationally (p. 766). In conclusion, throughout the article, Mayer repeats with his premise that conducting basic research on applied issues is essential. In other words, his goal is to establish evidence-based principles by merging theory with practice. He concludes the article by expressing that when researchers continue to take an approach in which theoretical and practical goals are blended, strong instructional principles will derive that are evidence-based and authentic.