COIT20275(HT2, 2017) SYSTEMS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Assignment: 1 Conceptual design phase of CCTV camera implementation in congested rural and urban areas Prepared by: Tonmoy Deb Apu Student Number: 12043755 Date :25th August, 2017 Contents Abstract: 3 Introduction: 3 Process Definition and need definitions and identification: 5 Advanced system Planning and Architecture: 5 Technical Performance Measure (TPM): 7 System Specification : 8 Conceptual Phase: 8 Strategy Considerations and Rules: 9 CCTV Cameras in Applications: 9 The locality of the areas Described: 9 Expertise of CCTV Camera: 9 Conceptual design of CCTV cameras for urban areas: 10 Conceptual design of CCTV cameras for Rural areas: 12 System maintenance and support: 13 Recommendations: 13 Conclusions: 14 References: 14 Table of figures: Figure 1 EDP diagram. 4 Figure 2EXPERT MONITORING 9 Figure 3 Conceptual Design for Urban area 10 Figure 4 CCTV camera installation design 10 Figure 5 Video CCTV camera in place design. 11 Figure 6 Conceptual design of cctv cameras for rural areas 12 Abstract: Design phase in a system of engineering plays a very big role especially when it comes to implementation. Conceptual design phase being a part of the phase it is very important although it may have some effects if not considered wise. Conceptual design applies mostly in engineering industries to help in developing samples of the expected product. System engineering can be considered as a very comprehensive and necessary procedure that can be used to formulate simple and complex systems (burywood, 2007). Transportation systems such as space shuttle are amongst the complex systems engineered by SE. In this context, the idea to be brought up is the need definition and conceptual design in theapplication and great details. My major area will be Western Australia and kangaroo Island. The idea being putting on theground, aerial and onsite CCTV cameras especially on roads leading those rural areas where it will need a conceptual design on how to implement this type of work. This will enable easy monitoring of the country as a whole and avoid keeping other areas like marginalized and hence since we have one of the best reserves where kangaroo exist, which also acts as a part of thecountry source of income from Kangaroo island as people travels from far to come see these creatures. Security of the country should be monitored and controlled in all corners of the country and Australia being on an island it might be prone to unknown and expected hazards from all of its corners. Introduction: Nowadays engineering has become a major course all over the world and great numbers of students have enrolled in engineering faculties where they must learn engineer processes meant for designs as part of the course. This processes in design can be applied in themake of new or even products in existences where they can be redesigned to a more desirable product that meets the need of the consumer. The design processes are gathered in a topic named Engineering Design processes which work for hand in hand wing SE in all corners at any given schedule or duration. The proper functioning of a system will be achieved from formulation stage not after it has been implemented. The expected or anticipated output before and after to be put in focus during the early stages of theformulation(International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE), (2011).), hence system life cycle engineering becomes the main focus and in which has for major cycles named as: The System life cycle that is majored in identifying the need which extends through to conceptual and preliminary designs, followed by the design for detail and how to develop and so on. The second phase of the cycle is the product life cycle and this where we major in as the conceptual design phase belongs here as a part of the acquisition phase. See the diagram below In designing, the conceptual should focus in overall configuration and compatibility of the system. The processes in engineering may differ according to the engineering processes to be put in to place. The SmartArt shown below explains a sample of an EDP which have a cycle from the start to the end. Figure 1 EDP diagram. From figure 1 when designing one have to come up with an idea at first then after all the designs such as conceptual designs have been put in to place you then start implementing the designthat resulted from the conceptual after implementation one have to test if the system works according to the requirements. Process Definition and need definitions and identification: In engineering systems, everything is initiated by first identifying what is the want or the desire of a specific area with or environment that lacks or have some deficiencies in task completions or outputs. An example is where a firm is not achieving or meeting its objectives and goals set.In process definition, one needs to identify the problem itself and then define the need for specific system capability and that will be responsive to the earlier problem in existence. After one identifies the problem that needs to be solved so that the firm can meet its goals and achieve its objectives, then a need analysis will need to be performed. In the case of CCTV camera installation to be put in to place into both urban and rural areas will have to ask ourselves, what the need analysis should include? The system of CCTV camera to be installed will have the main function of offering security through camera systems. Some of the CCTV camera functions is to provide surveillance to the city and in rural areas according to the case study. The CCTV camera will also be used in monitoring all activities taking place at different time intervals in the areas where they are installed. What needs to be accomplished to ensure that the issues of security are alleviated as from the stated deficiency is to install the CCTV cameras in aerial views especially in urban areas and in rural areas. What also needs to be accomplished is that the areas the CCTV cameras to be installed should all be installed with power and enough security and sites set for monitoring the activities as they appear by a CCTV camera expert. Advanced system Planning and Architecture: The advanced system planning follows after identifying the need. The program management plan which assists in preparing the system engineering management plan is developed and figured as below From the diagram above after identifying the needs definition one have to do the system design and feasibility study by identifying the approaches to be used for system level design. The various approaches to be evaluated during the feasibility studies are performances, how effective, maintenance, the sustaining support and the life cycle. There may exist many possible alternatives but they must be narrowed down to very specifics and within the schedule required. In the same, the system operational requirements should include things like the anticipated time that the system will be in operational use, Anticipated usage of the system, the effectiveness and environmental factors. Technical Performance Measure (TPM): These are aquantitative value that is estimated or predicted or even measured but its aim is to describe the system performance. TPM includes the quantitate factors such as the logistics, time for information processing, therate of facility utilization. Technical performance Quantitative Requirement (â€œMetricâ€) Current â€œBenchmarkâ€ (Completing Systems) Relative Importance (Customer Desires) Process time 35 days (Maximum) 50 days (CCTV Cameras SECTION A) 20 Velocity 300mph (average) 350mph (Section B) 22 Availability(Operational) 99.2 (Minimum) 98.5 (section C) 18 Size(Feet) 3 feet long 2 feet wide 1 feet high (maximum) N/A 20 Human Factors Less than 2% error rate per year. 18% per year (Section B) 6 Weight Pounds 100 pounds (maximum) 3 miles Section C 7 Maintainability 500 miles (Minimum) 525 Miles (section C) 7 100 System Specification : In the conceptual design phase, the main and major objectives are to define the specific design to requirements
for the system as an entity. All results from TPM and all feasibility analysis and all the others are combined and integrated into a system specification. Reviewing the conceptual design below Conceptual Phase: Engineering has taken over everything nowadays as all appliances we use are all manufactured and must have passed through engineering to be what they are. Engineering in making of airplanes, electric trains and even move to space where people can walk freely with still the help of engineering even in where there is no gravity. This makes engineering a very vital topic in the current as everything we use it engineer-oriented. From logical design which we tabulate without seeing we extends it to conceptual design where we engage requirements to be accomplished and how they can be operated at all levels in form designs such as drawings with actual estimations(National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 2007). This case study about CCTV cameras will have to consider the exact requirements in kangaroo island and western Australia and come up with a clear CCTV camera system that will operate in all areas without a fail to the system or to the country as a whole when monitoring and security are considered. The implementation of the CCTV camera will be considered in the below-discussed phases which elaborate more on the design of conceptual. Strategy Considerations and Rules: CCTV Cameras in Applications: Cases of feeling insecure in such congested areas in urban areas such as Sydney during events may be one of the major reason to why we have to implement such systems. In rural areas such as western Australia and kangaroo island lack of enough coverage in those areas may also be a reason to why this system must be implemented in all areas of the country. CCTV cameras is a technology where camerais put in strategic positions which donâ€™t need a person to come and monitor them and hence it will reduce thecost of employing many security guards to do the monitoring work especially the rural areas. Incidences of theft to no trace due to lack of full coverage of the incidences because of lack of enough CCTV cameras in those areas will be reduced to almost zero. The CCTV cameras act as an additional security to the country(Winkler, 2013). Since Australia is tapped with electricity everywhere implementation of this wonâ€™t be a problem. Also, use of satellites to links with the aerial cameras will also be another advantage to the country as the incidences that maybe not be clear are traced from the satellite. The conceptual design will focus on info exchange phase as far as the system is concerned. The locality of the areas Described: Sydney is one of the major cities in Australia and sometimes it is congested especially in case of major events. Some areas in Sydney donâ€™t have coverage of each and every area in the major city. The locality of Sydney is in a very strategic position and installing this CCTV camera will be very easy as there are other areas already installed in the areas and hence it will be like an extension (disruperk, 2010). The areas that need more CCTV cameras are in all areas that monitor every part of the city. This helps in easy viewing of the city as it captures each and every incident The other locality is in rural in which most areas are not implemented with the CCTV camera and hence all roadways, sideways and aerial will all need to be implemented in these remote areas. Expertise of CCTV Camera: Technology has been the day to day business as in all areas the technology dictates the work of the day. CCTV camera also uses technology as what happening in the stated areas must be monitored somewhere by an expert who is skilled in that field of control and monitoring of CCTV cameras. Aerial cameras rotate at an angle of 360 degrees which will help in viewing in all areas within the time set at any given time in all cases. Depending on the location of the expert nothing can go wrong as with use of technology all can be viewed and elaborated using his own expertise to all case Figure 2EXPERT MONITORING Conceptual design of CCTV cameras for urban areas: The idea behind the case study is additional of CCTV cameras in urban areas for more viewing in all areas in the town. In rural areas is implementing the CCTV cameras in the first time. The conceptual design in urban areas aims at providing information and using the gathered information to monitor all the situations happening in real time(JJ, 2014). The following diagrams below shows some of the conceptual designs that need to be put in place in Western Australia. Figure 3 Conceptual Design for Urban area Figure 4 CCTV camera installation design Figure 5 Video CCTV camera in place design. The aerial views of camera rotating will really need to be put into implementation highly as the concentration of people in this areas will need the hidden aerial CCTV cameras to enable easy use of viewing (ZUNKJ, 2007). For verifying remote incidences this will be performed by CCTV as seen in the figures above. Conceptual design of CCTV cameras for Rural areas: Installation of CCTV cameras in rural areas is always aligned with so many problems one being the cost of buying these gadgets and secondly the cost of installation and lastly the willingness of the government to install these gadgets if they understand. Due to theexistence of large lands which are unoccupied in these rural areas, it is hence easy to choose and define the best area to install the CCTV cameras with almost no interruption after installation. Due to making the conceptual design in rural areas scattering of homes gives a good room for installation without space issues(de Jong, 2012). The figures are rural conceptual designs of CCTV cameras. Figure 6 Conceptual design of CCTV cameras for rural areas System maintenance and support: Many systems nowadays are not performing as intended.Also, they are not cost-effective in terms of their operation and support. Researchers showed that the problem often stems from the lack of support and maintenance facility of the system ( Blanchard, B.S, 2009). Maintenance and support system consists of levels of maintenance, repair policies, organizational responsibilities, and maintenance support elements. For this CCTV implementation in rural and urban areas system needs to have organizational maintenance or depot/ supplier maintenance. No intermediate maintenance system is needed for the system. For minor servicing ,operational checkout and replacement of components can be done by system operation personnel. The system needs a depot facility because a lot of equipment are going to use for this system. Sometimes we can use the used equipment and also it helps to fix up the system within ashort span of time when the equipments and spare parts are available in the depot. Organizational responsibility for the maintenance of system can be done by also thethird party. Sometimes it saves money and time. Recommendations: In the current cities, the CCTV cameras in existence donâ€™t cover up everything as they are not installed in most places especially in concentrated areas and hence theimplementation of CCTV cameras especially aerial ones in urban areas will reduce the problems of theft or those small incidences not easily detected by the already CCTV cameras in place. Also, the integration of CCTV cameras with the technology in place to help in monitoring CCTV cameras in different positions even in remote areas especially in urban. Use of satellites in linking them with the CCTV cameras that are to be installed to enable more clear and real time happening of events. The network that is of high quality should be put in to place for easy capture of data, video, and data and hence easy transmission to the expert monitoring the cameras. Lastly is to ensure that enough security is implemented for ensuring such installed CCTV cameras are always safe and that they are not manipulated. Conclusions: Conceptual design as seen above really plays one of the biggest roles in project implementation when we consider other phases of the cycle in the project. Any mistake made in t
he conceptual design will be carried in all other phases and this highly affects the budget, the output and much more the efforts that were put in place(Damson, 2011). It is the physical design implementation that clearly outlines what the actual and real implementation will appear like. To understand more on conceptual design phase one must have all the details about what to be put in to place. The drawings bring in the context that is required as the output. As seen in the study case of implementing CCTV cameras in both rural and urban areas conceptual design is a major phase in system engineering especially in cases where it is concentrated as it is complex. References: Anderson, D., 2009. Making Engineering Design Decisions,.Louisiana Tech University, Volume 5, pp. 24-58. burywood, 2007. Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis, and Manufacturing.. Whither Design Space?, Volume Volume 20, pp. 71-79. Damson, J. (. 2., 2011. Design Decisions Making in system Engineering. pp. 45-47. de Jong, R. S. B.-T. O. C. C. D. E. H. R., 2012. [Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy IV],. MOST: 4-metre multi-object spectroscopic telescope,. disruperk, 2010. Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing. Explicit design space?, Aug, Volume 15, pp. 67-109. Hartmann, T. F. M. H. J., 2008. viewpoint. [Online] Available at: http://www.aecbytes.com/viewpoint/2007/issue_33.html. [Accessed July 2017]. Haymaker, J. C. J., 2007. Coordinating goals, preferences, options, and analyses for the Stanford Living Laboratory feasibility study. Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 4200/2006. International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE), [. S. E. H. -. A., (2011).. [INCOSE Systems Engineering Handbook. Guide for System Life Cycle Processes and Activities ], ,Volume Version 3.2.2 . JJ, h., 2014. viewpoint. [Online]. [Online] Kunz, J. G. B., 2007. stanford. [Online] Available at: http://cife.stanford.edu/VDCSurvey.pdf. [Accessed 29 july 2017]. Ma, Y. C. G. T. G., 2008. Paradigm Shift: Unified and Associative Feature-based Concurrent Engineering and Collaborative Engineering. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, Volume 10, pp. 008-128. McCuen, T. S. P., (2007. aecbytes. [Online] Available at: http://www.aecbytes.com/viewpoint/2007/issue_33.html. [Accessed 30 July 2017]. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 2007. NASA Systems Engineering Handbook]. NASA Headquarters. Washington, D.C. 20546, Volume 23, pp. 71-79. Wertz, J. R. a. L. W. J., 2008. Space Mission Analysis and Design. Volume 03. Winkler, R. H. D. M. B.-T. O. X. W. a. H. R. \., 2013. numerical model for the 4MOST instrument,”. [System Modeling I ], Proc. SPIE 9150, 9150, Volume 17, pp. 0-28. Blanchard, B.S., 2009. Maintenance and support: a critical element in the system life cycle. Systems Engineering and management for Sustainable Development-Volume II, p.12.